Leadership Essay: Holistic Leadership Development and Teaching Organization

 

 

 

Review of Leadership Theories with respect to

Holistic Leadership Development and Teaching Organization

 

 

 

 

Jeong Hwan Choi, MBA

 

 

 

Doctorate Student, Human Resource Education

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

351 Education, 1310 South Sixth Street

(217) 819 1040

 

jchoi52@uiuc.edu

 

Nov. 30, 2007


Executive Summary

 

There are lots of leadership theories to explain the leaders’ role, function, and effectiveness. Although it’s very hard to find out the universal principles of leadership, we must have an own point of view of leadership. In this sense, I propose BMBS (Body / Mind / Brain / Spirit) model and concept of teaching organization and review leadership theories with respect to holistic leadership development approach and teaching organization.

 

InTRODUCtion

Concept of Holistic Leadership Development

             Holistic leadership development is the integrative approach for developing Brain, Mind, Body, and Spirit. . Quatro, Waldman, and Galvin (2007) proposed a new leadership model, named ACES which represented four leadership domains; Analytical, Conceptual, Emotional, and Spiritual. They insisted that these four different leadership domains of leaders should be equally developed to engage subordinate either explicitly or implicitly. However the concept of holistic education was originated from Bloom’s taxonomy which is widely used in adult learning (Bloom, B. 1956, Krathwohl, D 1937, Simpson, E. 1972). In the Table 1, the comparison of the ACES leadership domain and revised Bloom’s Taxonomy are presented. In the ACES model, psychomotor factor are missing, while there is no spiritual factor in the bloom’s taxonomy. Probably these discrepancies come from the difficulty for segregation from holistic or integrative characteristics of leadership education.

             To overcome these discrepancies, I hope to propose BMBS leadership development model. The BMBS model is composed four factors: Brain, Mind, Body, and Spirit.


Table 1 Comparison of ACES Model and Bloom’s Taxonomy

ACES Leadership Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Analytical

Quantitative analysis

Logical reasoning

Decisiveness

Cognitive (Knowledge)

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation

Conceptual

Qualitative analysis

Creativity

Curiosity

Emotional

Persuasive communication

Empathic understanding

Self-monitoring

Affective (Attitude)

Receiving

Responding

Valuing

Organizing

Characterizing

 

 

Psychomotor (Skills)

Perception

Set

Guided response

Mechanism

Complex overt

Adaptation

Origination

Spiritual

Self-reflection

Integrity

Mediatative thinking

 

 

 

Figure 1 Conceptual Framework for BMBS Model

Table 2 Comparison of BMBS, ACES and Bloom’s Taxonomy

BMBS Model

ACES Leadership Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Domain

Function

Verb

Output

Domain

Domain

Brain

Data processing

Think

Knowing

Organizing

Analytical

Cognitive (Knowledge)

Conceptual

Mind

Decision making

Decide

Evaluating

Characterizing

Emotional

Affective (Attitude)

Body

Doing

Behave

Realizing

Implementing

 

Psychomotor (Skills)

Spirit

Interacting

Learn & Teach

Integrating

Synthesizing

Spiritual

 

 

The BMBS model is based on the functions of human activities. Brain acts as a processor: analyzing, calculating, questioning, and reasoning. Mind builds up decision. Once the external or internal stimuli processed in brain, mind take it and evaluates, sorts, characterizes, and decides something, then body realize the decision. Previous three functions are related with individuals. However, leadership is an active communication with followers, organizations, and other people. So, a certain media which can transfer or accept one’s idea (Brain), emotion (Mind), and behavior (Body) is required. Peter Drucker (1954, pp. 144 ~ 160) named the media as the spirit. He also said that the spirit should be practiced to insure the right spirit throughout the organization. I may say that spirit can be shaped by learning and teaching with interacting others.

             Leaders should have the high capabilities in four different domains of BMBS model. And I propose that four BMBS domains are mutually interlinked and it can be practiced and trained in a systematic way to achieve the wholeness of leadership. By using four domains proposed in this chapter will be used as metrics for evaluating leadership theories.

 

Teaching Organization

             Tichy (2002) insisted that winning organizations are teaching organization in his book of ‘Leadership Engine: How winning companies build leaders at every level.’ Comparing to the Peter Senge’s  (1999) learning organization, teaching organization is requesting for more active responsibility and strong commitment to leaders in developing other leaders. As presented previous chapter, if we can define the spirit is the media of transferring active communication between a leader and followers, learning and teaching are key processes of spirit domain. In particular, accepted that teaching is the best strategy for learning, teaching others and transform them into leaders is the most important actions in leadership development. In this sense, I hope to apply the teaching organization as a metric for leadership theory evaluation. I choose three metrics from Tichy’s teaching organization concepts. The first one is the current leader’s direct responsibility of teaching all level of future leaders. The second one is the energizing or motivating all level of future leaders. The Third one is the strong commitment in teaching others, and the final one is These three things are quite related with the “Spirit” of an organization. Organizational spirit can be practiced through teaching and learning in both individual and group, which can be the differentiated competitive advantages of organizations.

 

Assessment Tool for Leadership Theory Evaluation

             Integrating with BMBS model and concept of teaching organization, I suggest the assessment tool for leadership theory evaluation as Table 3. The tool is composed two main categories. Individually BMBS model is applied to explain the internalizing process of leadership, and externally teaching organization concepts are applied to measure the effectiveness of leadership theories. Moreover, the spirit will be evaluated with special care, because the spirit intermediate individuals and organization. 


 

Table 3 Assessment tool for Leadership Theory Evaluation

Leadership Approach & Theory:

Concept of the Theory:

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

 

 

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

 

 

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor?

 

 

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

 

 

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

 

 

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

 

 

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity?

 

 

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

 

 

 

 

Evaluation of leadership theories

             In this chapter, nine leadership approaches and theories, listed in List 1, which were presented and discussed through classes will be evaluated with according to the presented assessment tool.

List 1 Leadership Approach and Theories

1. Trait Approach

2. Skills Approach

3. Style Approach

4. Situational Approach

5. Contingency Theory

6. Path-Goal Theory

7. Leader-Member Exchange Theory

8. Transformational Leadership

9. Team Leadership

 

1. Trait Approach

Leadership Approach & Theory: Trait Approach

Concept of the Theory:

The trait approach has its root in leadership theory that suggested that certain people were born with special traits that made them great leaders. Because it was believed that leaders and non-leaders could be differentiated by a universal set of traits, through the 20th century researchers were challenged to identify the definitive traits of leaders

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Since the theory is focusing on innate ability of intelligence, development of leadership is not much applicable. But the theory is significantly concern about the ability of knowledge and it seems the fairly concern about developing knowledge of leaders.

Fair

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

The theory explains that leaders’ personalities are already set by nature, and it’s not be trained or changed. However, the theory is trying applying the development of emotions of leaders.

Fair

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

No psychomotor skills are addressed.

Poor

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

The theory is focusing on leaders’ innate traits but it is not addressing the relationship with others. However, it concerns with the ability of sociability of leaders

Fair

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Trait approach is stressing the individual ability or personality of leaders. So, it’s not easy to find and responsibility of developing others

Poor

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Even though Kirkpatric and Locke mentioned about motivation factors of leadership, the theory is not much concern about the developing the motivation skills

Poor

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Referring to the trait approach, integrity is one of the important traits for leaders

Fair

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

Due to limiting the point on leaders, the theory is not much applicable for developing leaders at every level

Poor

 

Comments

 

             Overall, the trait approach is concern about individual innate abilities or characteristics of leaders. So the application of the theory for BMBS model & Teaching organization is somewhat possible, but the application of it is quite limited.


2. Skills Approach

Leadership Approach & Theory: Skills Approach

Concept of the Theory:

The skills approach is a leader-centered perspective that emphasizes the competencies of leaders. It is best represented in the early work of Katz (1955) on the three-skill approaches [technical, human, conceptual] and the more recent work of Mumford and his colleagues (2000), who initiated the development of comprehensive skills model of leadership.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Focusing on general and crystallized cognitive ability.

Excellent

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not much concerning individual emotional skills but emphasize social judgment skills

Fair

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Not much psychomotor skills are addressed

Poor

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Addressed the environmental influences of leaders

Good

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Skills approach concern the relationship with followers but it is usually explained by leader’s skill

Good

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Motivation skills and career experiences are fairly addressed as one of social skills

Good

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Leaders’ integrity about subordinate is fairly addressed

Good

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

Skills approach is focusing on developing competencies of leader, and it is matched with the BMBS / Teaching organization application. But still it has some limitation especially in developing leaders in all level, because it is quite leader centric approach.

Good

 

Comments

 

             The skills approach is good to apply it to BMBS/Teaching organization model. But still the model has limits on developing leaders in all level, because it is quite leader centric not much concern about subordinates and followers.

 

 


3. Style Approach

Leadership Approach & Theory: Style Approach

Concept of the Theory:

The style approach is strikingly different from the trait approach and skills approach to leadership because the style approach focuses on what leaders do rather than who leaders are. It suggests that leaders engage in tow primary types of behaviors: task behaviors and relationship behaviors. How leaders combine these two types of behaviors to influence others is the central focus of the style approach.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not concerned about leaders cognitive ability development

Poor

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not concerning about developing emotions

Poor

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Very focused on the leaders’ behavior

Excellent

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

One from two axis of leadership grid is the concern for people. But it’s not much specified or crystallized one.

Fair

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Not much concerned about leader’s responsibility for developing others

Poor

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Not concerned about motivating others

Poor

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Not much concerned about developing authenticity of others

Poor

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

Style approach is quite focusing on leaders’ behavior not on developing traits or organization.

Poor

 

Comments

 

             Style approach is not fit for applying BMBS/Teaching organization. But the theory’s high concern of leadership behavior is applicable to develop leader’s psychomotor skills.


4. Situational Approach

Leadership Approach & Theory: Situational Approach

Concept of the Theory:

Situational leadership is a prescriptive approach to leadership that suggests how leaders can become effective in many different types of organizational settings involving a wide variety of organizational task. This approach provides a model that suggests to leaders how they should behave based on the demands of a particular situation.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not much concern about developing knowledge of leader.

Poor

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not much concern about developing emotional competencies of leader

Poor

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Focusing on matching leaders’ behavior onto different situation (Supportive behavior vs. Directive behavior)

Excellent

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Addressed improvement of relationship by changing leaders’ style, but it is not much concern about personal development of leader

Good

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Situational approach stressed on the developing subordinates.

Excellent

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Concerned about motivating followers, but its is not an active tasks for leaders but optimizing process to match up one’s style

Good

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Suggesting specific follower development methods

Excellent

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

Situational approach is focusing on developing organizations. And it is quite well describing the leadership role w.r.t. teaching organization concept. But The approach is not much detail in developing leaders’ knowledge and emotions.

Good

 

Comments

 

             Situational approach is quite well matched with the concept of teaching organization. Meanwhile this approach is not much concern about developing leader him/herself.


 5. Contingency Theory

Leadership Approach & Theory: Contingency Theory

Concept of the Theory:

Contingency theory represents a shift in leadership research from focusing on only the leader to looking at the leader in conjunction with the situation in which the leader works. It is a leader-match theory that emphasizes the importance of matching a leaders’ style with the demands of a situation.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not much concern about developing knowledge of leader.

Poor

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not much concern about developing emotional competencies of leader

Poor

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Focusing on matching leaders’ behavior onto different situation. But the model do not addressing self-development of leaders

Good

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Much concern about relationship and atmosphere of organization. In addition, the model specifies the subordinate characteristics and task characteristics. But this model is not much focused on developing leader’s own spirit

Good

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Even though the theory mentions about the responsibility, it do not explain the active role of leader for developing others.

Poor

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

The theory is recommending passive action of leaders to match him/her with followers’ situations.

Fair

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Through optimizing leadership style, they leader can get authenticity from subordinates, but it’s not an active action.

Fair

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

Contingent theory is not concern about the active role of leaders’ efforts to develop organization, but it suggests the passive process to match leaders themselves into certain situations.

Poor

 

Comments

 

             Although contingency theory is practically feasible, it is almost impossible to apply BMBS/Teaching organization model, because it do not address the possibility of changing leaders or organizations.


6. Path-Goal Theory

Leadership Approach & Theory: Path-Goal Theory

Concept of the Theory:

Path-goal theory was developed to explain how leaders motivate subordinates to be productive and satisfied with their work. It is a contingency approach to leadership because effectiveness depends on the fit between the leader’s behavior and the characteristics of subordinates and the task.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not much concern about developing knowledge of leader.

Poor

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not much concern about developing emotional competencies of leader

Poor

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Focusing on matching leaders’ behavior onto different situation. But the model do not addressing self-development of leaders

Good

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Much concern about relationship and atmosphere of organization. In addition, the model specifies the subordinate characteristics and task characteristics. But this model is not much focused on developing leader’s own spirit

Good

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Path-goal theory is focusing on the responsibility of developing subordinate by providing clear goal, paths. Also it stresses the leader’s role of removing obstacles, and supporting subordinate.

Excellent

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Focusing on motivating subordinates based on expectancy theory.

Excellent

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Suggesting specific methods for developing followers.

Excellent

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

The theory is quite fit for explaining the needs for developing leaders in all level..

Excellent

 

Comments

 

             Path-goal theory is quite good for applying Teaching organization concept. Because it explains the importance of responsibility of leaders in developing leaders in all level, and stresses the motivation factor. However, path-goal theory is not much concern about developing leader him/herself. The theory is applicable to teaching organization development.


7. Leader-Member Exchange Theory

Leadership Approach & Theory: Leader-Member Exchange Theory

Concept of the Theory:

LMX theory addresses leadership as a process centered on the interactions between leaders and followers. It makes the leader-member relationship the pivotal concept in the leadership process. By using the concept of Leader-Member dyads, LMX theory explains how leader should build up better relationship with his/her subordinate. Identifying the in-group and out-group is critical for leaders, and he/she has to build up leadership through providing better relationship with all subordinates.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not much concern about developing knowledge of leader.

Poor

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not much concern about developing emotional competencies of leader

Poor

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Behavior of leaders is quite important in this model. To build up a better relationship to enhance one’s leadership he/she should concern about his/her behavior. However, specific methods are not presented

Fair

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Much concern about relationship and atmosphere of organization. But the theory explains the dyad of relationship. Even though it is exists, ideally leader should be fair to every subordinate.

Good

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

LMX theory is focusing on the responsibility of making good relationship with subordinates. But the theory does not provide the practical methods how leader should do.

Good

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Focusing on motivating subordinates based on leadership dyad.

Good

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Pointing out the importance of relationship between leader and follower. However, it does not explain the mechanism of authenticity improvement

Good

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

The theory is focusing on making better relationship with subordinates in all level. But it is not an active process but passive one.

Fair

 

Comments

 

             LMX theory is fairly explaining the importance of relationship between leaders and subordinates. However, the theory is limited to explain how the leadership is improved. Then application of this theory for BMBS/Teaching organization is limited.


8. Transformational Leadership Theory

Leadership Approach & Theory: Transformational Leadership

Concept of the Theory:

Transformational leadership is concerned with the process of how certain leaders are able to inspire followers to accomplish great things. This approach stresses that leaders need to understand and adapt to the needs and motives of followers. Transformational leaders are recognized as change agents who are good role models, who can create and articulate a clear vision for an organization, who empower followers to meet higher standards, who act in ways that make other want to trust them, and who give meaning to organizational life.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Focusing on intellectual stimulation to followers to be creative and innovative and to challenge their own beliefs. However, the theory does not provide how leader him/herself develop their own cognitive level

Good

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Focusing on individualized consideration. But the theory do not explain the leaders own development of his/her emotional competencies

Fair

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Behavior of leaders is quite important in this theory. Leaders affect subordinate by charismatic behaviors.

Excellent

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Stressing inspirational motivation to setup a better team spirit through effective communication. Also it explains the importance of the level of expectation

Excellent

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Transformational theory is highly stresses the importance of leaders responsibility in developing followers.

Excellent

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Focusing on individualized consideration to motivate his/her subordinates

Excellent

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Focusing on the trust building for fostering collaboration with others

Excellent

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

The theory is quite matched with the concept of developing all level followers.

Excellent

 

Comments

 

             Although transformational leadership theory does not concern much about individual level, it is best matched with the concept of BMBS/Teaching organization. The theory explain importance of developing all level subordinates, and critical roles of leaders’ in motivating his/her followers.


9. Team Leadership Theory

Leadership Approach & Theory: Team Leadership Theory

Concept of the Theory:

The team leadership model provides a framework in which to study the systematic factors that contribute to a group’s outcomes or general effectiveness. Within this approach, the critical function of leadership is to help the group accomplish its goals by monitoring and diagnosing the group and taking the requisite action.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not much concern about intellectual development, but it provides a cognitive guide that helps leaders design and maintain effective teams. .

Good

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Focusing on diagnosing the problem of team, and providing specific approach to solve the problem.

Excellent

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Identifying the specific leadership behaviors with according to mental model of the situation.

Excellent

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Stressing mental model for selecting and implementing the appropriate behavior

Excellent

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Addressed the importance role of team leader, but not much stressed on training or development of his followers

Excellent

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Systematic approach for motivation, but it does not specifies the required action

Good

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Focusing on the developing team performance as well as team authenticity

Excellent

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

The theory is quite matched with the concept of developing all level followers.

Excellent

 

Comments

 

             Team Leadership Theory is good to explain the importance of developing all level individuals and organizations. However, the team leader’s role is not much stressed in this theory, many specific actions is provided. Overall, the theory is one of the best matched theories for BMBS/Teaching organization model.


RESULT / DISCUSSION

 

I have reviewed leadership theories by using BMBS/Teaching organization model in this paper. Each leadership theories have strengths and weaknesses with respect to BMBS/Teaching organization model. However, transformational leadership theory and team leadership theory are ranked in top two theories in my analysis. But these two theories are not perfectly matched with concept of my model. Meanwhile there are some other leadership theories which are very well matched with BMBS/Teaching organization model. For example skill’s approach is appropriate to brain domain, because it’s focusing on developing cognitive ability. Style approach is matched with body domain in BMBS model. Concept of changing leaders’ behavior in style approach is well supporting the concept of body domain, which is quite focusing on leader’s behavioral development. On the other hand, in BMBS/Teaching organization model, there are three domain levels: Individual, Intermediate, and Organization. Path-goal theory and situational theory is quite well matched with the level of organization. But the theories are limited in other levels.

             I agree with that that my model probably not perfect. However, it’s really important to have my own voice at leadership. Through the leadership development classes (HRE490, 2007), I learned the most important thing that there is no one exact solution in developing leadership. And having my own perspective which is based on my knowledge, experience, and intuition is more important than following others.

             As Tichy said, having one’s own story and telling it to others to teach them is the first step of becoming a leader.


REFERENCES

Anderson, L. W. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of bloom's taxonomy of educational objectivesLongman.

Bennis, W. (2003). ON BECOMING A LEADERSDa Capo Press.

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. handbook 1, cognitive domainDavid McKay.

Drucker, P. F. (1954). The practice of management. NY 10022: HarperCollins Publisher, Inc.

Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and practice (4th ed.). CA 91320: Sage publications, Inc.

Quatro, S. A., Waldman, D. A., & Galvin, B. M. (2007). Developing holistic leaders: Four domains for leadership development and practice. Human Resource Management Review, 17(4), 427-441.

Senge, P. M. (1992). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organizationCentury Business.

SIMPSON, E. J. (1966). THE CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES, PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN.

Tichy, N. M. (2005). THE LEADERSHIP ENGINE (Collins Business Essentials paperback edition published 2005 ed.). NY 10022: Harper Collins Publishers Inc.,.


APPENDIX

 

1. Trait Approach

 

Table 1. Pat’s criteria vs. Trait approach

 

Intelligence

Self-confidence

Determination

Integrity

Sociability

Interpersonal Skill

 

 

 

 

 

Confident

 

 

 

 

 

Poise & Initiative

 

 

 

 

Analytical & Technical Skills

 

 

 

 

 

Problem solving

 

 

 

 

 

Computer skills

 

 

 

 

Work ethics

 

 

 

 

 

Commitment

 

 

 

 

 

Willingness to do job

 

 

 

 

 

2. Skills Approach

Table 2. Trajectory of employees’ skills to Mumford skills approach model

 

Kelly

Danielle

Patrick

Competencies

 

 

 

 

Problem-Solving

Good

Poor: Lousy with numbers

Good

 

Social Judgment

Poor: Difficulty getting along with other employees

Good

Poor: Weak on people side

 

Knowledge

Good

Poor

Good

Individual Attributes

 

 

 

 

General Cognitive ability

Good

 

 

 

Crystallized cognitive ability

 

 

 

 

Motivation

Good

Good

 

 

Personality

Poor

Good

Good

Career Experiences

Kitchen manger

Front

Front & Kitchen

Environmental Influences

1.      Andy’s strong Ego

2.      Italian (Sicily) culture

3.      Human skills are highly required

 

3. Style Approach

 

Table 1. Style Questionnaire of Susan Park

Key: 1 = Never, 2 = Seldom, 3 = Occasionally, 4 = Often, 5 = Always

Questions

Task

Relationship

1

Tells group members what they are supposed to do

2

 

2

Acts friendly with members of the group

 

1

3

Sets standards of performance for group members

4

 

4

Helps others feel comfortable in the group

 

2

5

Makes suggestions about how to solve problems

4

 

6

Responds favorably to suggestions made by others

 

2

7

Makes his or her perspective clear to others

5

 

8

Treats others fairly

 

3

9

Develops a plan of action for the group

4

 

10

Behaves in a predictable manner toward group members

 

4

11

Defines role responsibilities for each group members

4

 

12

Communicates actively with group members

 

2

13

Clarifies his or her own role within the group

4

 

14

Shows concern for the well-being of others

 

2

15

Provides a plan for how the work is to be done

4

 

16

Shows flexibility in making decisions

 

3

17

Provides criteria for what is expected of the group

4

 

18

Discloses thoughts and feelings to group members

 

2

19

Encourages group members to do high-quality work

4

 

20

Helps group members get along

 

2

 

Total

39

24

Susan Park’s Leadership Style is Moderately high “Task” and Low “Relationship”

 

4. Situational Approach

According to the basic assumptions of situational leadership,

 

(Low) Commitment Level (High)

D1: Beth Edward

(New employee who are very excited but lack understanding of job requirements)

D4: Rick Nakano

(Seasoned worker with proven abilities and great devotion to a company)

D2: Steve Lynch

(Skeptical to his/her ability)

D3:

 

(Low)    Competency Level     (High)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 1 Development Level of Bruce Cannon’s Company Employees

 

 

5. Contingency Theory

Fig. 1  Tamara’s Leadership Requirement

Leader-Member relationship

Good

Poor

Task Structure

High Structure

Low Structure

High Structure

Low Structure

Position Power

Strong power

Weak Power

Strong power

Weak Power

Strong power

Weak Power

Strong power

Weak Power

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Preferred Leadership Style

Low LPCs

Middle LPCs

High LPCs

Low LPCs

 

 


 

6. Path-Goal Theory

Fig. 2  Daniel’s Leadership at The Copy Center

Subordinate Characteristics

Task Characteristics

Required Leadership

Daniel’s Behaviors

Goal/Motivation

Part-time worker

-   Struggling with their class schedule and part-time job schedule

 

Duplicating

-      Straight forward

-      Boring

-      Repetitive

Supportive Leadership

(Provides nurturance)

1)  Helpful with working out schedule conflict

2)  Help the staff make it tolerable

3)  Promotes a friendly work atmosphere

4)  Spend a lot of time conversing informally

5)  Making workers feel significant

6)  Involving staffs

1) Paralleling part-time job with full-time studying

2) Feel doing valuable tasks

Full-time worker

-   Independent

-   Self-assured

-   Self-motivated

-   Self-directed

 

Desktop Publishing

-      Complex

-      Requires creativity

-      Challenging

 

Participative Leadership

(Provides involvement)

1)  Give staffs a lot of space and leaves them alone

2)  Available when they need help

3)  Being resource person (Participate troubleshooting the problem)

4)  Spend less time than duplicating staff

 

1) Accomplish tasks in a creative way

2) Autonomous work environments

 

7. Leader-Member Exchange Theory

Table 1. Leader-Member Exchange Questionnaire

 

LMX 7 Questionnaire

(Carly Peters at Mils, Smith, & Peters Advertising Agency)

Jack

Terri

Julie

Sarah

Do you know where you stand with you leader? Do you usually know how satisfied your leader is with what you do?

5

2

1

3

How well does your leader understand your job problems and needs?

4

1

1

3

How well does your leader recognize your potential?

5

1

1

2

Regardless of how much formal authority he or she has built into his or her position, what are the chances that your leader would use his/her power to help you solve problems in your work?

4

2

2

3

Again, regardless of the amount of formal authority your leader has, what are the chances that he/she would “bail you out” at his or her expense?

5

1

2

4

I have enough confidence in my leader that I would defend and justify his her decision if he or she were not present to do so

5

1

1

4

How would you characterize your working relationship with your leader

5

2

1

4

Total Score

33

10

9

23

Five Point Scale: None (1) ~ Very High (5)

Criteria: Very high 30~35, High=25~29, Moderate=20~24, Low=15~19, Very Low=7-14

 

 

8. Transformational Leadership

Table 9.2 Leadership Factors

Transformational Leadership

Transactional Leadership

Laissez-Faire Leadership

Factor 1

Idealized influence Charisma

Factor 5

Contingent reward

Constructive Transactions

Factor7

Laissez-Faire

Nontransactional

Factor2

Inspirational Motivation

Factor 6

Management-by-Exception

Active and Passive corrective Transactions

 

Factor3

Intellectual Stimulation

 

 

Factor 4

Individualized consideration

 

 

 


 

9. Team Leadership

Fig. 1. Analysis of Characteristics of Jim’s Virtual Team

Characteristics of Team Excellence

Have

Don’t have

Details

Clear, elevating goal

 

Develop and implement technology innovations for all global business unit

Results-driven structure

 

No clear team structure

Competent team members

 

20 competent professionals

Unified commitment

 

Travel to business sites at least 2 weeks each month

Collaborative climate

 

No experience work together on any project

Standards of excellence

 

No clear performance standard

External support

 

The have only 1/2 secretary in NY

Principled leadership

 

Jim is trying but not effective

 

 



Leadership Theories

 

1. Trait Approach (특성 이론)

 

특성이론은 어떤 사람은 리더가 될만한 특별한 특성을 가지고 태어나서 리더가 된다는 이론이다. 리더는 보통사람과 특성에 따라 구별 있다고 믿어지는데, 이론은 20세기 이후 개별 특성이 제한적이라는 비판을 받게 된다.

 

The trait approach has its root in leadership theory that suggested that certain people were born with special traits that made them great leaders. Because it was believed that leaders and non-leaders could be differentiated by a universal set of traits, through the 20th century researchers were challenged to identify the definitive traits of leader

 

2. Skills Approach (능력 이론)

 

능력이론은 리더의 능력에 주안점을 두고 설명하는 이론이다. Katz 세가지 리더 능력 (기술적 능력, 사회적 능력, 개념화 능력) 대표적이며 최근 Mumford 그의 동료들이 더욱 발전 시켰다.

 

The skills approach is a leader-centered perspective that emphasizes the competencies of leaders. It is best represented in the early work of Katz (1955) on the three-skill approaches [technical, human, conceptual] and the more recent work of Mumford and his colleagues (2000), who initiated the development of comprehensive skills model of leadership.

 

3. Style Approach (스타일 이론)

 

스타일 이론은 위의 두가지 리더쉽 이론과 달리 리더 본인이 아닌, 리더의 행위에 주안점을 두고 있는 이론이다. 스타일 이론에서는 리더의 두가지 행위를 가지고 설명하는데, 첫째는 Task Behavior ( 중심적 행위), 둘째는 Relationship Behavior (관계 중심적 행위)이다. 리더는 일중심적이냐, 관계 중심적이냐에 따라 스타일이 다르며 추종자들에게 스타일에 따라 영향을 주므로 두가지 행위를 조절해야 한다. 

 

The style approach is strikingly different from the trait approach and skills approach to leadership because the style approach focuses on what leaders do rather than who leaders are. It suggests that leaders engage in two primary types of behaviors: task behaviors and relationship behaviors. How leaders combine these two types of behaviors to influence others is the central focus of the style approach.

 

4. Situational Approach (상황 이론)

 

상황 이론은 리더가 처한 개별 상황에 따라 리더의 행위가 달라진다는 이론이다.

 

Situational leadership is a prescriptive approach to leadership that suggests how leaders can become effective in many different types of organizational settings involving a wide variety of organizational task. This approach provides a model that suggests to leaders how they should behave based on the demands of a particular situation.

 

5. Contingency Theory (임시 이론)

 

임시 이론은 리더에 중점을 두었던 이론들과 달리, 상황에 따라 적합한 리더가 달라진다는 이론이다.

Contingency theory represents a shift in leadership research from focusing on only the leader to looking at the leader in conjunction with the situation in which the leader works. It is a leader-match theory that emphasizes the importance of matching a leaders’ style with the demands of a situation.

 

6. Path-Goal Theory

 

경로-목적 이론은 리더가 어떻게 추종자들에게 동기부여를 해서 그들이 보다 효율적이고 만족하게 하는지를 설명하기 위해 개발되었다. 경로-목적이론은 임시 이론과 비슷하게 추종자들의 행위와 특성 그리고 일에 따라 리더쉽이 변하는 것을 설명한다.

 

Path-goal theory was developed to explain how leaders motivate subordinates to be productive and satisfied with their work. It is a contingency approach to leadership because effectiveness depends on the fit between the leader’s behavior and the characteristics of subordinates and the task.

 

 

7. Leader-Member Exchange Theory

 

리더-멤버 상호교환 이론은 리더와 추종자간에 관계 프로세스 중점을 두고 있다. 이론은 리더와 멤버간에 관계가 중요한 역할을 한다는 가정하에 리더가 어떻게 하면 추종자들과 보다 나은 관계를 만들어 가느냐에 따라 보다 효율적인 리더쉽이 형성되느냐를 설명한다. 리더에게 In-group (내부 그룹) Out-group (외부 그룹) 나누는 것이 중요한 요인이며 추종자들에게 어떤 관계를 제공하느냐에 따라 리더쉽 차이가 생겨난다는 것을 설명한다.

 

LMX theory addresses leadership as a process centered on the interactions between leaders and followers. It makes the leader-member relationship the pivotal concept in the leadership process. By using the concept of Leader-Member dyads, LMX theory explains how leader should build up better relationship with his/her subordinate. Identifying the in-group and out-group is critical for leaders, and he/she has to build up leadership through providing better relationship with all subordinates.

 

8, Transformational Leadership Theory

 

전환 리더쉽 이론은 어떤 리더가 추종자들에게 강력한 동기부여를 통해 그들이 변화하여 보다 나은 일을 이루어 있도록 하는 것을 설명한다. 이론은 리더가 추종자들의 요구와 동기를 파악하고 반영하는 것에 중점을 두며, 리더 스스로 추종자들의 역할 모델이 되고, 비전을 제시하며, 추종자들에게 책임을 부여하여 리더를 믿도록 하면 조직생활에 의미를 찾도록 하는 것을 설명한다.

 

Transformational leadership is concerned with the process of how certain leaders are able to inspire followers to accomplish great things. This approach stresses that leaders need to understand and adapt to the needs and motives of followers. Transformational leaders are recognized as change agents who are good role models, who can create and articulate a clear vision for an organization, who empower followers to meet higher standards, who act in ways that make other want to trust them, and who give meaning to organizational life.

 

9. Team Leadership Theory

 

리더쉽 모델은 조직의 성과에 영향을 끼는 시스템적인 요인들을 설명한다. 리더쉽 이론은 팀의 목표를 이루기 위해 팀원들의 성과를 모니터링 하고 진단하여 적절한 대응을 하는 것이 리더의 중요한 역할이란 것을 설명한다.

 

The team leadership model provides a framework in which to study the systematic factors that contribute to a group’s outcomes or general effectiveness. Within this approach, the critical function of leadership is to help the group accomplish its goals by monitoring and diagnosing the group and taking the requisite action.

 

10. Psychodynamic Approach

 

정신분석학적 접근은 리더와 추종자 개인의 Personality (개인특성) 진단하는 것에 기반을 두고 있으며, 자아(Ego) 상태 분석 프로이트와 융의 심리학적 분석을 토대로 MBTI Personality 분석을 사용하여 리더쉽의 다른 점을 이해하고 현실에 적용하는 것을 설명한다.

 

The psychodynamic approach is based on assessments of the personalities of leaders and followers. It differs from approaches and models that begin by studying and summarizing the traits, behaviors, skills, or styles of leaders. Several ways of identifying personality characteristics are available, including the ego state model from transactional analysis and the personality types of Freude and Jung, as interpreted by Maccoby (2003) and the MBTI, respectively

 

11.  Women Leadership

Beginning in the 1970s researchers started investigating gender differences in leadership. Investigations into leadership style have revealed that women are somewhat more likely to use democratic and transformational styles than men. Research looking at leadership effectiveness indicates a slight disadvantage fro women in masculine domains, a slight effectiveness advantage for women in feminine domains, and a greater use by women of effective transformational and contingent reward behaviors.

 

12. Culture and Leadership

Since World War II there has been a dramatic increase in globalization throughout the world. Globalization has created a need for leaders with greater understanding of cultural differences and increased competencies in cross-cultural communication and practice. Culture is defined as the commonly shared beliefs, values, and norms of a group of people. Two factors that can inhibit cultural awareness are Ethnocentrisism and prejudice. Ethnocentrisism is the human tendency to place one’s own group at the center of one’s observations of others and the world. It is problematic for leaders because it prevents them from fully understanding the world of others. Similarly, prejudice consists of judgments about others based on fixed attitudes and unsubstantiated data. Prejudice has a negative impact because it is self-orented and inhibits leaders from seeing the many facets and qualities of others.

 

13. Leadership Ethics

Ethical theory provides a set of principles that guide leaders in making decisions about how to act and how to be morally decent. In the Western tradition, ethical theories typically are divided into two kinds: theories about conduct and theories about character. Theories about conduct emphasize the consequences of leader behavior (teleological approach) or the rules that govern their behavior (deontological approach). Virtue-based theories focus on the character of leaders, and they stress qualities such as courage, honesty, fairness, and fidelity.

 

14. Integrative (Holistic) Leadership Theory

 

 

Reference: Northouse, Peter G., Leadership Theory and Practice: theory and practice, 4th ed., Sage Publication, Inc. 2007, ISBN 1-4129-4161-X


Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요