예술인 인재개발 문제와 패러다임 전환! 

(Human Resource Development for Art Talent: Problems and Paradigm Shift!)

최근 다양한 기술의 급속한 발전, 특히 인공지능, 사물 인터넷, 빅데이터, 무선통신 분야, 스마트 팩토리 등의 출현으로 다양하고, 창의적이고, 복합적인 능력을 갖춘 새로운 인재개발에 대한 필요성이 늘어나고 있습니다. 

이에 발맞추어, 경제/경영/리더십/교육 분야에서는 1) Sensemaking 패러다임의 재발견, 2) Meta-skill 의 개발, 3) 창의력 제고, 4) 인문학/예술과 기술의 융합과 같은 인간 본연의 재능과 능력을 계발하고자 하는 다양한 시도를 하고 있습니다. 

예를들어, 안젤라 덕워스 (Angela Duckworth) 가 말하는 "그릿 (GRIT): IQ, 재능, 환경을 뛰어넘는 열정적 끈기의 힘" 의 네가지 역량;  https://www.ted.com/talks/angela_lee_duckworth_grit_the_power_of_passion_and_perseverance?language=ko 

G: 성장 지향 (Growth Orientation); 

R: 회복성 (Resiliency)

I: 내적 동기부여 (Intrinsic Motivation)

T: 끈기 (Tenacity)

이와 같은 인간이 가진 내적 능력을 키울 방법에 대한 연구와 노력을 하고 있는 것입니다. 

정규교육 프로그램을 통한 다양한 노력에도 불구하고 여전히 이러한 인간의 내적 잠재력을 끌어내기에는 여전히 부족한 점이 많습니다. 그래서 몇몇 학자와 인재개발 전문가 사이에선 "예술활동, 체육활동, 명상" 을 통한 인재개발에 대한 논의와 연구를 진행하고 있습니다. Sensemaking을 위한 마음챙김 명상 (Mindfulness mediation); 창의력과 메타스킬을 위한 미술/디자인 활동; 그릿 (GRIT) 개발을 위한 음악/악기/협주 활동 등이 점차 많은 관심을 받고 있습니다. 

하지만, 한국의 경우 이러한 세계적 경향 (Trend)와는 역행하는 국가직무능력표준(NCS)의 예술교육 적용, 예술대학 폐지, 엘리트 예술인들의 사회와의 괴리와 같은 문제들이 있다고 합니다.  

이에, SW 아트 컴퍼니의 성용원 대표; 법무법인 정진 박예지 변호사; 인재개발 분야 최정환 박사가 예술인 인재개발 문제점과 해결책에 대한 논의를 해봤습니다. 

(왼쪽부터, 최정환 박사, 법무법인 정진 박예지 변호사, SW 아트 컴퍼니 성용원 대표)

이를 발판으로 21세기 새로운 인재육성을 위한 "예술인 인재개발 (HRD for Art Talent)"에 대한 많은 토론과 건설적 대안제시가 되어가길 바랍니다.  

2018년 8월 

토론자 일동



예술인 인재개발 1부:

예술대학에 예술인재육성을 한다는 목적으로 무조건적인 국가직무능력표준 (NCS)을 적용하는 것은 적절한지, 또한 현장에서 어떤 일이 벌어지고 있는지 이야기 해보았습니다.


예술인 인재개발 2부:

기능적 예술인을 넘어 창업가 정신 (Entrepreneurship) 과 독립성을 갖춘 진정한 프로페셔널 (Professional)로 예술인이 성장하는 방법에 대해 토의합니다. 




History of Document

2018. 8월 21일: Initial Launching 

2018. 8월 20일: 오디오와 자료를 편집하여 유투브와 팟캐스트에 등록 

2018. 8월 19일: 최정환, 성용원, 박예지 홍대앞 단팟스튜디오에서  토론 오디오 녹음


END OF DOCUMENT


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앗쌀하게 정리한 인재개발 (Concise of HRD)

천연자원이 별로없는 우리나라에서는 인재만이 유일한 자원이라는 말이 있습니다. 하지만, 정작 "어떻게" 또는 "왜" 인재개발 해야할 지에 대한 이해와 관심이 부족합니다. 

최근 한국의 기업체, 사회, 대학에서 인재개발 (Human Resource Development, HRD) 분야에 대한 필요성이 뚜렷이 부각되고  그에따라 사람들의 관심이 지속적으로 증가하고 있는바, 인재개발 (HRD) 분야에 대한 기본적인 정의, 역사, 철학적 배경, 이론, 실제, 활용에 대한 쉽고 간결한 안내를 위해 "앗쌀하게 정리한 HRD (Concise of HRD)" 를 만들어 배포합니다. 

최정환 박사 & 유선주 박사

2018년 8월 

최정환 박사와 유선주 박사가 박사학위 과정을 통해 습득한 HRD 분야의 전문지식을 바탕으로, 인재개발 (HRD)에 대한 이해하기 쉬운 입문자료로서의 역할을 하기 위해 해당 컨텐츠를 저작자표시-비영리-동일조건변경허락 (CCL, By-NC-SA: 저작자와 출처 등을 표시하면 저작물의 변경, 2차적 저작물의 작성을 포함한 자유이용을 허락합니다. 

단 영리적 이용은 허용되지 않고 2차적 저작물에는 원저작물에 적용된 라이선스와 동일한 라이선스를 적용) 이라는 조건으로 일반에 공개합니다.  만약 이 조건을 위반시 불법적 컨텐츠 사용에 대한 책임은 컨텐츠 사용자에게 있음을 알립니다.  

 

본 컨텐츠를 보신 후 재밌고 유익하셨다면 해당 컨텐츠의 지속적 업데이트와 개선을 위해, 소액 기부 (10만원 이하 또는 USD $100 이하) 를 부탁드립니다. 

계좌: 카카오 뱅크:  3333-03-8762306

예금주: Jeonghwan Choi (최정환)


* 강의자료는 추후 출판사와의 계약을 통해 e-Book 형태로 판매될 예정입니다. 






"앗쌀하게 정리한 인재개발 (Concise of HRD)" 은 크게 4부로 구성되어 있습니다. 

1. Part 1: What is the HRD (HRD 란 무엇인가)?

2. Part 2: HRD Theories (HRD 이론들)

3. Part 3: HRD Practices (HRD 실제와 활용)

4. Part 4: Future Challenges of HRD (HRD의 현안과 미래)


자세한 구성은 아래와 같습니다. 

Part 1: What is the HRD (HRD 란 무엇인가)?

인재개발 (Human Resource Development)의 정의

인재개발 (HRD)란 “인간이 가진 잠재력을 끄집어내고, 일과 관련된 능력을 개발하여 개인, 조직, 공동체, 국가, 나아가 전 인류에게 이익이 되도록 하는 프로세스이다.  이를 위해 여러단계의 이해관계자들이 교육훈련 (T&D); 조직개발 (OD); 경력개발 (CD); 성과향상 (PI); 조직학습 (OL); 리더십 개발 (LD) 등의 노력을 통해 개인과 조직에 영향을 끼쳐 공동의 목표를 효율적으로 달성하게 한다." 

HRD is “a process of developing work‐based expertise and unleashing human capabilities for  the benefits of an individual, organization, community, nation, or, ultimately, the whole of  humanity whereby multi‐level stakeholders collectively influence people and organization to  achieve common goals (efficiently) through training & development, organization  development, career development, performance improvement, organizational learning,  leadership development etc (Choi and Yoo, 2011). “


Part 1.1: History and Definition of HRD (HRD의 역사와 정의)

Part 1.2. Paradigm War: Performance vs. Learning (패러다임 전쟁: 성과냐 학습이냐?)

  • 인재개발 (HRD)의 정의는?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oad-BrPdExw

  • 성과냐 학습이냐? 인재개발 패러다임 전쟁 

  • 조직의 목표를 우선해서 사람을 희생할 때 어떤 일이 벌어지는가?  (한국 사례):  https://youtu.be/oad-BrPdExw?t=1253

  • NOKIA의 몰락으로부터 핀란드 경제 어떻게 부활했나? (Angry Bird - 앵그리버드 사례): 


Part 2: HRD Theories (HRD 이론들)


Part 3: HRD Practices (HRD 실제와 활용):  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CeaiApBMsEY&t=760s

  • 인재 (Talent), 살 것인가 (Buy); 개발 (Develop) 할 것인가? 

  • 어떻게 개인을 개발할 것인가? 

  • 어떻게 조직을 개발할 것인가?

  • 어떻게 경력을 개발할 것인가?  


Part 4: Future Challenges of HRD (HRD의 현안과 미래)

Part 4.1: 4차 산업혁명과 인재개발 (HRD):  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xYBgAmfGpXQ

  • 4차 산업혁명이란 도대체 무엇인가? 

  • 새로운 시대에 인재개발 (HRD) 계속 필요한가?  



Part4.2. 글로벌 인재개발, 기업윤리와 기업의 사회적 공헌과 인재개발 (HRD)



Part 4.3: 인공지능, 창업교육, 남북 통일과 인재개발 (HRD)




앗쌀하게 정리한 인재개발 (HRD) 한꺼번에 듣기 (Total 162 분)

(유투브 플레이리스트)


(팟빵, 팟캐스트로 듣기) 

http://www.podbbang.com/ch/17557


인재개발 (Human Resource Development)의 정의

인재개발 (HRD)란 “인간이 가진 잠재력을 끄집어내고, 일과 관련된 능력을 개발하여 개인, 조직, 공동체, 국가, 나아가 전 인류에게 이익이 되도록 하는 프로세스이다.  이를 위해 여러단계의 이해관계자들이 교육훈련 (T&D); 조직개발 (OD); 경력개발 (CD); 성과향상 (PI); 조직학습 (OL); 리더십 개발 (LD) 등의 노력을 통해 개인과 조직에 영향을 끼쳐 공동의 목표를 효율적으로 달성하게 한다."

HRD is “a process of developing work‐based expertise and unleashing human capabilities for  the benefits of an individual, organization, community, nation, or, ultimately, the whole of  humanity whereby multi‐level stakeholders collectively influence people and organization to  achieve common goals (efficiently) through training & development, organization  development, career development, performance improvement, organizational learning,  leadership development etc (Choi and Yoo, 2011). “









앗쌀하게 정리한 인재개발 (HRD) 나눠듣기 


Part 0: Introduction of Authors (저자 소개)


Part 1: What is the HRD (HRD 란 무엇인가)?


Part 1.1: History and Definition of HRD (HRD의 역사와 정의)

  • 인재개발 (HRD) 언제, 어디로부터 시작되었나?

  • 인재개발 (HRD)  경영학 분야인가 교육학 분야인가? 

  • ATD (Association of Talent Development) 와 AHRD (Academy of HRD)란 무엇인가?

  • 인재개발 (HRD)의 정의는? 



Part 1.2. Paradigm War: Performance vs. Learning (패러다임 전쟁: 성과냐 학습이냐?)

  • 조직의 목표를 우선해서 사람을 희생할 때 어떤 일이 벌어지는가?  (한국 사례)

  • NOKIA의 몰락으로부터 핀란드 경제 어떻게 부활했나? (Angry Bird - 앵그리버드 사례)

  • 인재개발 (HRD) 전문가는 왜 전략적 파트너가 되지 못하는가? 



Part 2: HRD Theories (HRD 이론들)

  • 인재개발 (HRD)에서 말하는 학습 (Learning)이란 무엇인가? 

  • 국가 직무능력 표준 (National Competency Standards), 누굴 위한 것인가? 

  • 인재개발 (HRD) 는 왜 윤리/도덕을 말하는가?  




Part 3: HRD Practices (HRD 실제와 활용)

  • 인재 (Talent), 살 것인가 (Buy); 개발 (Develop) 할 것인가? 

  • 어떻게 개인을 개발할 것인가? 

  • 어떻게 조직을 개발할 것인가?

  • 어떻게 경력을 개발할 것인가?  



Part 4: Future Challenges of HRD (HRD의 현안과 미래)

Part 4.1: 4차 산업혁명과 인재개발 (HRD)

  • 4차 산업혁명이란 도대체 무엇인가?

  • 새로운 시대에 인재개발 (HRD) 계속 필요한가?  






Part4.2. 글로벌 인재개발, 기업윤리와 기업의 사회적 공헌과 인재개발 (HRD)

  • 한국 지엠사태 해결을 위한 인재개발

  • Top management의 윤리적 행동과 인재개발

  • LG, 매일유업, Gravity payment 로 부터 배우는 기업의 사회적 공헌 

  • 자기 목소리를 내게하는 Advocacy Training

  • Education Technology 분야에 대한 생각 






Part 4.3: 인공지능, 창업교육, 남북 통일과 인재개발 (HRD)







History of this Contents: 

2018. 08.03: Added 팟빵, 팟캐스트  

2018. 08.02: Initial Launching. 

2018. 08.01: Design Freeze (2nd)

2018. 07.31: Extra record 

2018. 07.30: Donation part added

2018. 07.29: Design and contents freeze

2018. 07.28: Youtube Channel creation & Vidoe upload

2018. 07. 24: Recording the contents

2018. 07. 23: Initial creation of the contents



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Is the Psychological Safety a matter in the Manufacturing industry? 

(An Empirical Study of large Korean Auto Part Manufacturing industry, n = 331)


One sentence summary: 

While the Psychological safety is highly correlated with performance in the ICT industry, the construct has a limited influence on job performance in the manufacturing industry. 


Definition of Psychological Safety: 

Psychological safety: is defined as the “individuals’ perceptions about the consequence of interpersonal risks in their work environment” (Edmondson, 2004, p. 239). Empirical studies supported the idea that employees who perceive high psychological safety commonly end up with higher self-directed behavior that drives better creativity and performance (Hülsheger, Anderson, & Salgado, 2009; Kim, 2007).


Measurement of Psychological Safety: 

Psychological safety was measured with seven items that were introduced by Edmondson (1999). A sample item for team psychological safety is “It is safe to take a risk in this unit”. The reliability of the psychological safety was reported as a measure of Cronbach’s alpha = .82 (Edmondson, 1999). Another empirical study in the U.S. that used the psychological safety measure also showed strong reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = .82) (Kim, 2007). Subordinates and supervisors got the same instrument to measure psychological safety because the instrument assesses the personal perception of a team environment.

For this study, the researcher used a Korean version of the team psychological safety measure that was developed and validated by Zhang (2011). The reliability of this Korean version was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.74) (Zhang, 2011).


Participants (n=331)

The researcher recruited six large Korean automotive parts manufacturing companies through his personal network and snowball sampling techniques. 489 surveys out of 679 distributed surveys (73.0% response rate) were collected. Collected surveys from subordinates and supervisors from the six organizations were matched and screened prior to data analyses. After matching and screening data, a total of 331 (49.4%) surveys were selected for further quantitative data analysis. The selected dataset was composed of 43 surveys from supervisors and 288 surveys from subordinates.


Psychological Safety Data Validation

psychological safety measurement was assessed. CFA results of psychological safety indicated that the model was poorly fit with the measurement model. Three items (1, 6, 7) had poor factor loadings that were less than .50.

After constraining items 3 and 5 of psychological safety, the CFA results indicated that the collected data had a generally good model fit with the proposed measurement model. However, one item (sr3) was less than the factor loading criteria and was removed from the final list of items.


Correlating Psychological Safety with a few constructs

*Remark: This result comes from the study of Dr. Jeonghwan Choi's dissertation (2014) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 

The effects of the autonomous work environment and positive psychological capital on self-directed employee behavior: evidence from Korea

Choi, Jeong-Hwan

https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/50613


References: 

Edmondson, A. C. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative science quarterly, 44(2), 350-383.

Edmondson, A. C. (2004). Psychological safety, trust, and learning in organizations: A group- level lens. In R. M. Kramer & K. S. Cook (Eds.), Trust and distrust in organizations: Dilemmas and approaches (pp. 239-272): Russell Sage Foundation.

Hülsheger, Ute R., Anderson, Neil, & Salgado, Jesus F. (2009). Team-level predictors of innovation at work: A comprehensive meta-analysis spanning three decades of research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(5), 1128-1145. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.34.10.932

Kim, D. M. (2007). Predicting psychological safety and its outcome in the workplace. (Master), San Jose State University.

Zhang, L.I. (2011). The Effects of Transformational Leaership on Subordinate's psychologicla Safety and Innovation Behavior. (Master), Honam University, Gwangju.



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PLS-SEM Guideline and Compliance Summary


A study of Diffusion of Legal Software Use in a Global Campus: Action Research at a Global Campus in China. 


by Jeonghwan (Jerry) Choi, Aug. 2017


Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM)

PLS-SEM method gets a special attention from business and social science researchers for its robustness in psychometric model analysis. This critical advantage makes the PLS-SEM as an alternative technique for SEM and it has become a key research method in recent years (J.F. Hair & Hult, 2016). For example, PLS-SEM gives a more robust structural equation model convergence over CB-SEM in many situations especially when a research model has many indicators, paths, and relationships among key variables and constructs (Chin, 2010; J.F. Hair & Hult, 2016; Henseler et al., 2014). For this benefit of PLS-SEM, it gets popular in management disciplines such as marketing management, strategic management, human resources management, and particularly management information system field of studies (J.F. Hair & Hult, 2016; J.F. Hair, Ringle, & Sarstedt, 2011; Williams et al., 2015).

Considering the rules of thumb for selecting CB-SEM or PLS-SEM (J.F. Hair et al., 2011), we judged that our study was appropriate for applying the PLS-SEM technique because this study’s main goal was to explore new knowledge and to extend an existing structural theory of the complex UTAUT. Prior to conducting the PLS-SEM, we summarized prerequisite or necessary conditions and recommendations through synthesizing a few foundational literature  (Chin, 2010; J.F. Hair & Hult, 2016; Latan & Ramli, 2013; Richter, Sinkovics, Ringle, & Schlaegel, 2016). By using our data, we validated these seven categories of PLS-SEM guidelines:

·      Data and sampling characteristics

·      PLS-SEM algorithm

·      Outer model evaluation: reflective (mode A)

·      Out model evaluation: formative (mode B)

·      Inner model evaluation: recursive model

·      Model fit

·      Multi-group analysis

Results of validation of PLS-SEM guideline and compliance are described in the following Table.

  

Overall, our data and research model showed good compliances to the proposed PLS-SEM guidelines. It should be noted that we use the Smart PLS [ SmartPLS (v. 3.2.6).  Ringle, Wende, and Becker, 2015. "SmartPLS 3." Boenningstedt: SmartPLS GmbH, http://www.smartpls.com] as the PLS-SEM analysis tool.




Table

PLS-SEM guideline and compliance 

Characteristics

Guideline

Recommendation

Compliance

Data and sampling characteristics

Sample size

Ten times rule: the minimum sample size should be equal to the larger of 10x largest number of 1) formative indicator and structural paths directed at a particular latent construct (Wong, 2013)

 

Alternatively, Cohen’s sample size recommendation of statistical power and effect sizes takes into accounts. Cohen’s sample size recommendation (In this study, 5% significance level, 0.10 minimum R2, and maximum number of arrows pointing at a construct (5) = 205

·  10x formative indicator (N/A)

·  10x structural paths directed a a latent construct (10 x 5 = 50)

 

·  Cohen’s sample size recommendation = 205

Samples size 

n = 215 > 205

Holdout

30% of original sample (Hair Jr & Hult, 2016)

> 30%

215/218 = 98.6%

Missing data

Less than 5% of missing or screening out data

< 5%

3 / 218 data were screened out = 1.38%

Distribution

Robust when applied to highly skewed data, but skewness and − kurtosis should be reported (Richter, Sinkovics, Ringle, & Schlaegel, 2016)

 

 

PLS-SEM Algorithm

Weighting scheme

In general, the path weighting scheme is strongly recommended because it provides the highest R2 value for endogenous latent variable (Vinzi, Chin, Henseler, & Wang, 2010)

path weighting

path weighting

Data metric

The standardized value setting

Mean 0, Var 1

Mean 0, Var 1

Total maximum iteration

The standard maximum iteration is 300

300

300

Abort criterion

The recommended number is 1.0E-5

1.0E-5

1.0E-7

Starting value

Initial outer weight can be set as 1.0

1.0

1.0

Algorithm to handle missing data

Missing value treatment options are mean replacement, EM (expectation-maximization algorithm), and nearest neighbor (Hair, Ringle, & Sarstedt, 2013)

Mean replacement

Mean replacement

Bootstrap subsample size

The number of bootstrap samples should be high but must be at least equal to the number of valid observations. As a rule, 5,000 bootstrap samples is recommended (Hair Jr & Hult, 2016, p. 132)

2000 - 4000

5000

Bootstrap sign change

No sigh change option is recommendable because it results in the most conservative outcome (Hair Jr & Hult, 2016, p. 135)

No sign change

No sign change

Significance level 

Generally, 5% significance level is widely used in social science field of study

5%, Two-tailed

5%, Two-tailed

Predictive relevance

In the process of blindfolding, omission distance (D) can be set between 5 and 10 (Hair Jr & Hult, 2016, p. 179)

£ D £ 10

D = 7

Software feature

SmartPLS (v. 3.2.6).  Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., and Becker, J.-M. 2015. "SmartPLS 3." Boenningstedt: SmartPLS GmbH, http://www.smartpls.com

-

Outer model evaluation: Reflective (mode A)

Indicator reliability

Recommended > 0.6 for exploratory research and > 0.7 for confirmatory research (Chin, 2010)

> 0.7

All indicators (factor loadings) are higher than 0.7 [0.737 ~ 0.939] 

Internal consistency reliability

The cut-off value for composite reliability is > 0.6 for exploratory research and > 0.7 for confirmatory research. The Cronbach’s alpha is not suggested for distinguishing 

> 0.7

All composite reliabilities are higher than 0.7 [0.904 ~ 0.952]

Convergent validity

The Average Variance Extracted (AVE) is > 0.5

AVE > 0.5

All AVE is higher than 0.5 [0.662 ~ 0.869]

Discriminant validity

Fornell and Larcker (1981) criterion: Each construct’s AVE should be higher than its squared correlation with any other construct (Fornell & Larcker, 1981)

Square root AVE > Correlation

All square root AVE is larger than any other correlations with other constructs

 

Cross-loading: Each indicator should load highest on the construct it is intended to measure (Chin, 2010)

Highest loading on the construct

Each indicator loaded highest on the intended construct

 

Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio (HTMT) should under 0.85 for each outer model indicators: (Henseler, Hubona, & Ray, 2016)

HTMT ratio < 0.85

All HTMT ratio is under 0.85 [0.358 ~ 0.824]  except ‘Effort expectation and Facilitation’ [0.852] 

Item removal

If some item has been dropped to achieve a model fit, give additional information

No removed item

Outer model evaluation: Formative

 

According to Confirmatory Tetrad Analysis (CTA), all constructs in the model are not formative constructs in 1% level of significance (Hair Jr & Hult, 2016, pp. 46-47)

 

 

Collinearity

The cut-off value for VIF should be smaller than 0.5. A stabilized estimation is suggested as ranging 2.5 ~ 3.3 (Hair et al., 2013)

VIF < 0.5

Most of outer VIF values are under 0.5 [1.000 ~ 4.014]. However, the VIF values of UP1 (6.070) and UP2 (6.425) are higher than the criterion.    

Construct removal

If a construct has been dropped due to collinearity, the problem should be reported. 

 

No removed construct

Inner model evaluation: Recursive model

Path estimates

Reporting

1) Path coefficient

2) significance and confidence interval from bootstrapping

Bootstrapping is applied for the significant of the path coefficient with two-tails of 5% = 1.96

Bootstrapping is applied for the significant of the path coefficient with two-tails of 5% = 1.96  

R2  

(Adjusted R2)

R2 acceptable level is context-dependent. (Hair Jr & Hult, 2016; Latan & Ramli, 2013)

0.25: Weak

0.50: Moderate

0.75: Strong

R(Adj- R2) of Behavioral intention: 0.584 (0.578)

 

Rof Use Behavior 0.180 (0.172)

Effect size f2

Cohen’s statistical power analysis of effect size (Cohen, 1992)

0.02: Weak

0.15: Moderate

0.35: Strong

PE: 0.169

EE: 0.053

SI: 0.044

BI: 0.040

FA: 0.016

BI: 0.040

Predictive relevance

The cross validated redundancy as a measure of Q2 is recommended because it includes the key element of the path model, the structural model, to predict eliminated data points (Chin, 2010; Hair Jr & Hult, 2016, pp. 183-184)

Q2 > 0

Behavioral intention Q2 = 0.471

Use behavior Q2 = 0.151

Model fit

Standardized Root Mean Square Residual

SRMR

< .08

.059

Squared Euclidean Distance

d_ULS

< .95

.803

Geodesic Distance

d_G

< .95

.777

Incremental fit measure

NFI  

> 0.9

0.821

rms Theta

 

 

0.177

 

 

 

 

Multi-Group Analysis

Bootstrapping for MGA

The number of bootstrap samples for Multi Group Analysis should be high but must be at least equal to the number of valid observations. As a rule, 5,000 bootstrap samples is recommended (Hair Jr & Hult, 2016, p. 132)

2000 - 4000

5000

Path coefficient difference between groups

PLS-MGA (Henseler’s MGA) with 5% of significance level. 

t-value > 1.96

p-value < .05 or > .95

The path between Facilitation -> Use behavior has a marginal difference (p = .055 

 

 

 

 

Note: It is important to note that these model fit assessment criteria often not be useful for PLS SEM and must be used with caution. These criteria are in their very early stage of research and not fully understood. However, these fit statistics give researchers to estimate the quality of the model when it is a reflective model (Hair Jr & Hult, 2016). In more detail, please see this Note of Caution (https://www.smartpls.com/documentation/functionalities/model-fit)





References

Chin, W. W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. Handbook of partial least squares, 655-690.

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological bulletin, 112(1), 155.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 39-50.

Hair, J. F., & Hult, G. T. M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): Sage Publications.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance. Long Range Planning, 46, 1-12. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2013.01.001

Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., . . . Calantone, R. J. (2014). Common beliefs and reality about PLS: Comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 182-209.

Henseler, J., Hubona, G., & Ray, P. A. (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: updated guidelines. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 116(1), 2-20.

Latan, H., & Ramli, N. A. (2013). The Results of Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling Analyses (PLS-SEM). doi:10.2139/ssrn.2364191

Richter, N. F., Sinkovics, R. R., Ringle, C. M., & Schlaegel, C. (2016). A critical look at the use of SEM in international business research. International Marketing Review, 33(3), 376-404.

Vinzi, V. E., Chin, W. W., Henseler, J., & Wang, H. (2010). Handbook of partial least squares: Concepts, methods and applications: Springer Science & Business Media.

Williams, M. D., Rana, N. P., & Dwivedi, Y. K. (2015). The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT): A Literature Review. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 28(3), 443-488.

Wong, K. K.-K. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) techniques using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24(1), 1-32.




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Rankings of Management, Business Journal (2016, May 27)


http://www.scimagojr.com/journalrank.php?area=1400&category=0&country=US&year=2014&order=sjr&min=0&min_type=cd




Rank

Title SJR

1

Academy of Management Annals 13.23

2

Academy of Management Review 11.91

3

Academy of Management Journal 9.398

4

Organization Science 8.098

6

Journal of Management 7.232

9

Journal of Business Venturing 5.561

11

Organizational Research Methods 4.612

14

Journal of Conflict Resolution 4.263

15

Journal of Consumer Research 3.98

18

Leadership Quarterly 3.433

19

Management Science 3.393

20

Academy of Management Perspectives 3.205

21

Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship 3.06

22

Business Ethics Quarterly 2.956

25

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 2.8

28

Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal 2.437

29

Journal of Human Resources 2.393

33

Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 2.086

36

Review of International Organizations 1.932

39

Journal of Vocational Behavior 1.894

41

Family Business Review 1.783

42

Journal of World Business 1.709

46

Research in Organizational Behavior 1.637

47

California Management Review 1.616

50

Group and Organization Management 1.537

52

Asia Pacific Journal of Management 1.471

54

Academy of Management Learning and Education 1.451

56

Journal of Business and Psychology 1.439

59

International Journal of Industrial Organization 1.355

60

Journal of Management Inquiry 1.343

61

Journal of International Management 1.318

67

Journal of Construction Engineering and Management - ASCE 1.199

69

Journal of Business Research 1.183

70

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management 1.155

79

Journal of Management in Engineering - ASCE 1.04

81

Work and Occupations 1.028

82

Human Resource Management 1.028

84

IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 0.972

85

European Management Review 0.963

97

MIT Sloan Management Review 0.822

102

Interfaces 0.783

103

Accounting and Business Research 0.754

104

Leisure Studies 0.736

105

Project Management Journal 0.724

106

Psychology and Marketing 0.711

107

Accounting History Review 0.709

108

Journal of Personnel Psychology 0.699

109

Tourism Management Perspectives 0.693

110

School Leadership and Management 0.693

111

Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 0.688

112

Human Resource Development Quarterly 0.681

113

Journal of Leisure Research 0.679

114

International Journal of Stress Management 0.67

115

Journal of Pension Economics and Finance 0.661

116

Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 0.645

117

Economics of Innovation and New Technology 0.634

118

International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 0.614

119

Cartography and Geographic Information Science 0.61

120

Journal of Management Accounting Research 0.598

121

Behavioral Research in Accounting 0.592

122

Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics 0.588

123

Journal of Sport Management 0.58

124

Harvard Business Review 0.577

125

Career Development for Exceptional Individuals 0.576

126

Journal of Management and Governance 0.568

127

Human Resource Development Review 0.564

128

Journal of Macromarketing 0.558

133

International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, Proceedings 0.528

136

Career Development Quarterly 0.509

139

Journal of Change Management 0.5

141

Innovation Policy and the Economy 0.497

143

Journal of Career Development 0.476

146

Research on Managing Groups and Teams 0.455

149

Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice 0.449

159

Journal of Management Education 0.413

160

Journal of Managerial Issues 0.413

162

Advances in Developing Human Resources 0.398

167

International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals 0.377

176

SPE Economics and Management 0.334

179

Advances in International Management 0.323

180

IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 0.32

184

Advances in Strategic Management 0.297

188

Coaching 0.285

189

Research in Organizational Change and Development 0.284

191

Asia Pacific Business Review 0.275

201

International Studies of Management and Organization 0.247

202

International Journal of Knowledge Management 0.24

203

Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 0.239

206

Advances in Global Leadership 0.233

209

Leadership and Management in Engineering 0.217

223

Culture and Organization 0.192

227

McKinsey Quarterly 0.188

233

Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal 0.169

237

Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict 0.159

239

Organisation Management Journal 0.157

242

Research in Ethical Issues in Organizations 0.154

243

Academy of Strategic Management Journal 0.154

245

Journal of Applied Business Research 0.152

251

International Journal of Business 0.143

257

Research Journal of Business Management 0.135

258

Global Business and Organizational Excellence 0.133

261

Synthesis Lectures on Technology, Management and Entrepreneurship 0.127

264

Organization Development Journal 0.123

265

IEEE Potentials 0.122

270

Journal of Entrepreneurship Education 0.117

284

T and D 0.109

287

China Business Review 0.107

291

International Journal of Entrepreneurship 0.107

298

Management Education 0.102

300

Advances in the Study of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Economic Growth 0.102

301

International Journal of Interdisciplinary Organizational Studies 0.102

302

International Journal of Educational Organization and Leadership 0.102

305

Change Management 0.101

309

International Journal of Organizational Diversity 0.101

312

Fortune 0.101

320

International Journal of Business Research 0.1

322

IEEE Engineering Management Review 0.1




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Award winning research on Leadership & Management. 

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Women in Entrepreneurship Education within U.S. Higher Education

Jeonghwan Choi
Ph.D. student, Human Resource Education
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
351 Education Building, 1310 S. 6th Street, Champaign, IL 61820
Tel. (217) 819 1040
Fax. (217) 244 5632
E-mail: jchoi52@illiniois.edu

[Copyright: Unpublished Article, Class of 2011 Spring, EPS590: Women in Higher Education, Prof. Dr. Bernice McNaire Barnett, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Jeonghwan (Philip) Choi is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Human Resource Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is also a co-founder of Local Exchange Trade System in Champaign-Urbana (LETS C-U) project which aims to develop community economy in Champaign County, Illinois, U.S.A. His research interests include: (1) community economy development through entrepreneurship education; (2) evaluating entrepreneurship education programs in colleges and universities, (3) entrepreneurship education for minority and underserved people; and (4) influence of educational policies to economic development.

E-mail: jchoi52@illinois.edu


Women in Entrepreneurship Education within U.S. Higher Education

Jeonghwan (Philip) Choi

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on examining gender gap in entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities. Based on Fisher (1993)’s finding - there is no gender gap in education within entrepreneurs, four hypotheses are formulated and tested with entrepreneurship degrees and certificates awarding data from Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. Results show that women get less entrepreneurship degrees and certificates than men during 1996-2008, while women are outnumbered in business education. In addition, majority women enrolled in associate colleges while men enroll in doctoral and research universities. The author discusses these gender differences with regard to theories of schooling and society.

[word count: 100]

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, women, gender difference, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), theories of schooling and society

Entrepreneurship is a dynamic process of creation and implementation of new ideas and creative solutions (Kuratko, 2004), and entrepreneurship education is the activity of teaching, developing, and transferring knowledge, skills, abilities, and mindsets for entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship education, particularly in post-secondary education, is an ongoing process that requires a myriad talents, skills and knowledge leading to unique pedagogies capable of stimulating and imparting knowledge simultaneously (Solomon, 2007). Entrepreneurship education has been one of the most rapidly emerging academic disciplines in U.S. colleges and universities since 1950s (Greene & Rice, 2007; Solomon, 2007). It has grown enormously with respect to the number of colleges and universities offering programs and courses in the past fifteen years (1990-2005) (Solomon, 2007). Academic publications for entrepreneurship research (Katz, 2003; Kuratko, 2005; Vesper & Gartner, 1999) , and number of faculty (Finkle, 2007) for entrepreneurship teaching dramatically increased in this period as well. However, little attention has been paid to women who enroll and complete entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities, even though women entrepreneurs are an important growing force in the United States economy, both in terms of the number of participants and the gross revenues and employment they represent (Gatewood, Shaver, & Gartner, 1995).

INTRODUCTION

Women are significant population in the entrepreneurial world (Kuratko, 2004, p. 677). Over the past two decades, the number of women entrepreneurs, who started a business with more than fifty percent ownership of the business, has dramatically grown. For example, the number of businesses owned by women entrepreneurs has increased more than double between 1987 and 1999 in the U.S. (Gundry & Welsch, 2001). However, many challenges still exists for women entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs commonly have tensions between work and home role; experience difficulties in getting outside financing; have lack of entrepreneurial knowledge and skills; limit themselves in a bounded are of business - service industry (Kuratko, 2004). But today, women entrepreneurs prepare themselves for starting their own businesses with more formal training and learning both in practical business settings and educational institutions (Cadieux, Lorrain, & Hugron, 2002).

In general, entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities enhances entrepreneurial opportunity perception of participants (Levie & Autio, 2008). Especially for women, entrepreneurship education in MBA programs significantly improves entrepreneurial self-efficacy (Wilson, Kickul, Marlino, Barbosa, & Griffiths, 2009). Thus, providing access to entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities is important to fueling in the pipeline of aspiring future women entrepreneurs.

But, to the author’s knowledge, there has been no scholarly research examining state-of-arts of entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities in the perspective of gender difference. In addition, there are little studies on entrepreneurship education underpinning sociology theories of higher education though entrepreneurship education researches on social preoccupations take the largest portion (45 articles out of 113) in academic literature of entrepreneurship education in higher education (Béchard & Grégoire, 2005).

The purpose of study is to examining gender differences in entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities from 1996 to 2006 with focusing in degrees and certificates awarding. In addition, the author explores the gender differences in entrepreneurship education with social theories of higher education.

FEMINIST THEORIES TOWARD WOMEN IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION

Research on gender differences in entrepreneurial characteristics and performance have received and continues to receive a considerable amount of attention, but relevance and relatedness of feminist theories for women entrepreneurs are still underdeveloped and examined (Fischer, Reuber, & Dyke, 1993). In this section, the author presents general overview of feminist theories in order to outline gender differences in entrepreneurship education. In addition, the author propose four hypotheses of this study by reviewing Fisher(1993)’s study on women entrepreneurs with focusing on gender difference of education.

Overview of Feminists Theories. “Feminists challenge traditional race-class-sexuality-power arrangement which favor men over women, white over non-white, adults over children, able-bodiedness over non-able-bodiedness, residents over non-residents, and the employed over the non-employed” (Elliot & Mandell, 1995). Feminist theories vary in nature, content, and consequence as other set of theories in academic disciplines, yet the term of ‘feminist’ has not achieved a consensus of common definition though it is widely used in social science (Elliot & Mandell, 1995). Despite definitional differences and difficulties, feminist theories generally share four major interests (Jaggar & Rothenberg, 1984):

· Interest in gendered nature of social and institutional relations.

· Interest in gender inequities and contradictions in social life.

· Interest in historical and sociocultural production and reconstitution of gender relation.

· Interest in political advocacy of social change.

Those interests in various subjects of feminists can be grouped with several categories by broader philosophical and political perspectives. Elliot and Mandell (1995) groups feminism theories in six different categories: Liberal feminism; socialist feminism; radical feminism; anti-racist feminism; psychoanalytic feminism; postmodernist feminism. Meanwhile, Fischer (1993) adopts liberal feminism and social feminism as her theoretical frames to study women entrepreneurs in business field. In this section, the author presents general concept of liberal feminism and social feminism theory and examines the relevance of it with women entrepreneurs. In this study, the author applies Fischer’s categorization for the purpose of focusing on entrepreneurship education and women by including socialist, radical, and racist feminism as in a category of social feminism. Psychoanalytic feminism and postmodernist feminism are not included since those theories are thought to be derived from the social feminism in a broader perspective.

First, liberal feminism assume that the inequality of women stems from unequal rights and learned reluctance to exercise such rights though women are equally capable of rationality and thus are as fully human as men (Elliot & Mandell, 1995; Fischer, et al., 1993). But, the inequities of women entrepreneurs in terms of financing funding, representation, and market presence are almost diminished in business fields since 1990s as Kuratko (2004) says.

Second, social feminism views the gender difference or discrimination is socially constructed (Fischer, et al., 1993). Socialist feminists, for example, argue that women’s oppression is formulated and structured by social, political, ideological, and economic categories while liberal feminists focus on increasing opportunities and public consciousness of women (Elliot & Mandell, 1995). For example, all wives, regardless of their paid labor commitments, are responsible for household management, childcare, the emotional nurturing of dependants, and the general well-being. These unpaid and underappreciated socio-economic domestic structures oppress women as a domestic slavery which should be abolished to guarantee women’s freedom and right. However, women’s domestic responsibilities cannot explain the origin and reproduction of gender difference in the labor market, especially in starting a new business. Knowledge, skills, and competency development for being an entrepreneur is highly dependent on one’s historical traces of occupation and education rather than the limits placed on women’s time and energy (Elliot & Mandell, 1995).

Fischer’s Findings. With regard to education, Fischer (1993) hypothesizes that women have less entrepreneurially relevant formal education than men, and their firms will therefore be less successful because women are systematically less likely to have access to education that would help them in running their own businesses. However, the study’s results indicate that there are few significant gender differences in education except the production education at the level of .05 percent. The irrelevance of formal education onto entrepreneurial performances of Fischer’s study is compatible with other studies (Birley, Moss, & Saunders, 1987; Kalleberg & Leicht, 1991). However, those formal educations investigated by Fischer, Birley, and Kalleberg are general education or business related educations rather than entrepreneurship targeted education. We cannot assume that general education encourages ‘entrepreneurship’ for women. Especially, business education – such as MBA programs in the U.S. – commonly discourage ‘entrepreneurship’ for its controlling and administration orientation (Mintzberg, 2004). Thus we need to examine gender differences of entrepreneurship education in formal education settings – colleges and universities.

Research Questions and Hypotheses. Studies on entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities have flourished in the past decade (Greene & Rice, 2007; Katz, 2003, 2008; Kuratko, 2005; Pena, 2010; Solomon, 2007; Vesper & Gartner, 1997). Yet, gender differences at entrepreneurship education in higher education institutions are not addressed before. This study aims to exam eth gender difference in entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities with three research questions.

· To what extent have women, compared to men, enroll and complete entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities?

o Number of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates by gender

o Proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificate by gender

o Levels of entrepreneurship degrees and certificate by gender

· Do gender differences exist in entrepreneurship?

· Are those gender differences, if any, distinguishable from business and non-business education?

According to previous research on women entrepreneurship and education (Birley, et al., 1987; Fischer, et al., 1993; Kalleberg & Leicht, 1991), there is not gender difference between women and men entrepreneurs. Underpinning those findings and increase number of women entrepreneurs in the U.S. (Kuratko, 2004), four hypotheses are formulated in order to examine gender differences of entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities.

· H1: The number of women in entrepreneurship education increases.

· H2: The proportion of women to men in entrepreneurship education is even.

· H3: The proportion of women to men in entrepreneurship education is not different from business education or general education.

· H4: The level of education is not different by gender.

First, the author hypothesizes that the number of women in entrepreneurship education increases since we’re experiencing rapid growth of women entrepreneurs in the U.S. society (Kuratko, 2004). Second, the number of women and men students at the entrepreneurship education in the U.S. colleges and universities are not different if there is not gender difference. Third, if we can tell there is a gender difference in entrepreneurship education, the proportion of women to men of entrepreneurship education should be discernable from the proportion of women to men in business education and general education. Finally, if there is no gender difference in entrepreneurship education, we may observe the level of education degrees and certificate between women and men are not distinguishable. With these hypotheses, this study examines the gender difference in entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities from 1996 to 2008 academic years.

RESEARCH METHOD

Based on the issues of concern identified in the review of related literature, a quantitative research design is employed as a primary research method. In this study, descriptive statistics are presented to examine the maturity stage of entrepreneurship education in academic discipline growth model with Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) data of academic degrees and certificates awarding in U.S. colleges and universities during 1996-2008. Inferential statistics -the t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), post-hoc analysis - are used to test proposed hypotheses, and to draw conclusions.

Academic Degrees and Certificates. As stated before, previous research on entrepreneurship education indicated that the number of entrepreneurship courses(Katz, 2003), endowment and chairs (Katz, 1991, 1994), programs (Solomon, 2007; Solomon, Duffy, & Tarabishy, 2002), academic associations (Plaschka & Welsch, 1990), and journals and articles (Dos Santos, Holsapple, & Ye, 2010; Katz, 2003) rapidly increased in the past fifteen years (1990-2005). But investigation into academic degree and certificate awarding in entrepreneurship education has not yet been conducted to test the gender difference of the discipline.

Investigating academic degree and certificate awarding in U.S. colleges and universities enables us to examine the gender difference of the discipline with a significant advantage. It enables us to capture most reliable national wide study. The IPEDS database of the National Center for Education Science (NCES) is the most representative and reliable educational information to examine change of degree and certificate awarding from U.S. colleges and universities (McBroom, 2008). The Higher Education Act in 1992 mandated the completion of IPEDS surveys for all U.S. colleges and universities accepting federal student financial aid. In 1993, NCES began collecting information such as institutional characteristics, degree completion, twelve month enrollment, human resources, financial aid, and graduation rates etc. The data collected is available to the public through their website: http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/datacenter/Default.aspx (National Center for Education, 2010).

Data Mining and Screening. The IPEDS in National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) specializes in descriptive research to produce statistical information on the aspects of education that interest policymakers and educators (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2007). Institutional characteristics and completion of degrees and certificates data are mined from IPEDS because this study focuses primarily on examining the gender difference of entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities.

The 1996 through 2008 academic years are analyzed – this period represents the data available at the time of this study which included data that was substantially similar over time. The data were screened by several criteria: and aggregated with certain criteria to address research questions and test hypothesis for this study.

Only colleges and universities in the fifty United States and the District of Columbia are included. (U.S. territories are included in the IPEDS data, but are excluded from this analysis.) In each year of data used, for-profit, non-degree granting, inactive, non-accredited and less than two-year institutions are not included. Although for-profit four-year colleges and universities have rapidly emerged in recent years in the United States (Breneman, 2005), they were not as prevalent in the earlier years covered by this data, and they may be less influenced by the educational policies and models of interest herein. These institutions deserve a separate focus.

To categorize academic degrees and certificates awarded in entrepreneurship, business, and non-business fields, the IPEDS classification of instructional program (CIP) codes, providing a taxonomic scheme, were used. Our focus is Entrepreneurial and Small Business Operations (CIP 52.07), which incorporates Entrepreneurship/Entrepreneurial Studies (52.0701); Franchising and Franchise Operations (52.0702); Small Business Administration Management (52.0703); and Other Entrepreneurial and Small Business Operations (52.0799) - the labels used for the 2010 CIP classification. This study uses the term “entrepreneurship” which refers to entrepreneurship and small business management. (Note: The CIP codes have undergone some revision, but using this broader definition allowed comparisons over time. In 2002 and prior years, CIP 52.07 focused on small businesses including franchising, and entrepreneurship was placed in another section of the classification, related to marketing. Both small business and entrepreneurship were included in this analysis for all years. Changes in CIP codes are accessible to http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/ )

The IPEDS data report degrees, from associate degrees through doctoral degrees, and academic certificates from less than one year through post-master’s level. In using these categories, we identified what ‘entrepreneurship and small business degrees’ represents and what might be considered an undercount of entrepreneurship education, in part because of the exclusion of minors. Also not included are those degrees which an institution may market as entrepreneurship majors, but which are listed on a transcript, and reported to the IPEDS, as business administration or similar degrees. However, the inclusion for analysis of only those degrees represented on transcripts and reported to IPEDS as entrepreneurship is not seen by the authors as a limitation of the study, but rather a demonstration of the legitimacy and stage of academic growth of the field, as conceived by the academic discipline growth model.

Institutional characteristics used in this analysis have been provided by the U.S. Department of Education (e.g., level and sector of colleges and universities), based on their definitions. IPEDS also provides the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, the traditional framework developed by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education and now published by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (Carnegie Commission on Higher, 2010). This classification identifies institutions by such categories as doctoral/research universities, master’s colleges and universities, baccalaureate colleges, and associate’s colleges. More detailed framework and definitions of institutional categories are available at the Carnegie Foundation website (http://classifications.carnegiefoundation.org/summary/basic.php).

Quantitative Analysis. In this study, parametric and/or non-parametric t-test, ANOVA, and post-hoc analysis were applied to test the proposed hypotheses. Prior to conducting inferential analyses, normality condition of data is examined with Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk method. Nonparametric analysis such as Mann-Whitney U test for independent two samples and Kruskal-Wallis test for three or more independent samples which do not rely on an assumption of normality, then, applied to test hypothesis (Myers & Well, 2003).

Homogeneity condition of data is evaluated applying the Levene's test method before conducting the hypothesis test. If the homogeneity condition is significantly violated, we apply robust ANOVA method, the Welch and Brown-Forsythe methods, which do not assume equal variance of data in groups to test mean differences between or among groups (UCLA: Academic Technology Services). Dunnett T3 and Games-Howell post-hoc analysis techniques were applied to identify which means were different from the others if the data did not meet the homogeneity condition (Myers & Well, 2003).

Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) TM software was used for testing the hypotheses of this study because the software provided various statistical techniques for non-normal, non-homogeneous, and non-parametric data analysis (Gall, et al., 2007), which are frequently encountered in the educational study or social science research.

RESULTS AND FINDINGS

Figure 1 shows the comparison of women and men with respect to entrepreneurship degree and certificate awarding from U.S. colleges and universities. It indicates that the number of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates awarded to women and men are both increased during 1996 to 2008 academic years with a similar pattern. Therefore, the first hypothesis -the number of women in entrepreneurship education increases – is supported from the data.

Figure 1. Number of entrepreneurship degrees and certificated awarded to Women and Men.

Note: 1999 and 2002 data are not included. The 1999 data is not available from IPEDS, and 2002 data has a significant data validity problem: the number of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates is 17,321- an extraordinary deviation from the overall pattern.

Gender_Figure1_Degree_Number

Figure 2 indicates proportion changes of academic degrees and certificates awarded to women and men in entrepreneurship, business, and non-business education. As depicted in the figure, the proportion of women to men in entrepreneurship education is not even, and the proportion of women business [M = 44.399%, SD =2.936%] is much lower than men [M = 55.601%, SD =2.936%]. Therefore, the second hypothesis is not supported.

Figure 2. Proportion of academic degrees and certificates awarded to women and men in entrepreneurship, business, and non-business.

Gender_Figure2_Degree_Proportion

Parametric ANOVA and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test are both applied because non-business dataset significantly violate the normality assumption [Kolmogorov-Smirnov (11, 0.340), p=.001; Shapiro-Wilk (11, 0.798), p = .009]. ANOVA results indicate that there is at least one different mean among mean proportions of entrepreneurship, business, and non-business [F (2, 30) = 107.524, p = .000]. In addition, Kruskal-Wallis test results also indicate that there is at least one mean difference [K-W (2): Chi-square = 28471, p = .000]. Post-hoc test results confirm that the proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates awarded to women [M = 44.399%, SD =2.936%] is significantly lower than business [M = 51.837%, SD =0.915%] and non-business degrees and certificates [M = 60.410%, SD =3.201%]. Taken into all results in consideration, the third hypotheses of the proportion of women to men in entrepreneurship education is not different from business education or general education is not supported.

Figure 3 and Table 1 show that the proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificate awarded to women and men by degree level. More than half women get less than two year certificates [M = 54.370%, SD =3.301%] while majority men get associate degree [M = 44.5490%, SD =2.679%] or undergraduate degree [M = 23.072%, SD =2.713]. Interestingly, more women get graduate degree [M = 2.279%, SD =1.017%] than men [M = 1.180%, SD =0.573%].

Figure 4 and Table 2 show that the proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates awarded to women and men by institutional types. Results in Figure 4 and Table 2 also indicates that women enroll and complete entrepreneurship education at associate colleges [M = 51.263%, SD =5.765%] than men [M = 28.994%, SD =4.166%]. More than half of men enroll and complete entrepreneurship education in doctoral/research universities [M = 44.193%, SD =7.959%] and master universities [M = 11.962%, SD =3.888%]. In short, the fourth hypothesis – the level of education is not different by gender – is not supported.

Figure 3. Proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificate awarded to women and men by degree level.

Note1: Graduate degree (Doctors, Master, Post-master); Undergraduate degree (Bachelors, Post-baccalaureate); Associate degree (Associate, 2-4 years); < 2 years certificate (less than 2 year and less than 1 year)

Gender_Figure3_Proportion_Level

Table 1

Comparisons of Mean Proportion of Entrepreneurship Degrees/certificates Awarded to Women and Mean by Degree Level for 1996~2008 Academic years

Degrees/certificates Level

Category

Mean (%)

S.D. (%)

t

p

Graduate Degree

Women

2.279

1.017

3.120

.005

Men

1.180

0.573

Undergraduate Degree

Women

16.147

4.281

-4.532

.000

Men

23.072

2.713

Associate Degree

Women

27.205

2.642

-15.287

.000

Men

44.549

2.679

< 2 years Certificate

Women

54.370

3.301

20.545

.000

Men

31.198

1.759

Note: Graduate degree (doctors, master, post-master); undergraduate degree (Bachelors, post-baccalaureate); associate degree (associate, 2-4 years); < 2 year certificate (less than 2 year and less than one year).

Figure 4. Proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates awarded to women and men by institution type.

Note: Academic degrees and certificates from special colleges are not included since there is limited information to categorize them into specific type of colleges and universities.

Gender_Figure4_Proportion_Type

Table 2

Comparisons of Mean Proportion of Entrepreneurship Degrees/certificates Awarded to Women and Men by Institutional Types for 1996~2008 Academic years

Degrees/certificates Level

Category

Mean (%)

S.D. (%)

t

p

Doctoral/Research University

Women

24.587

5.296

-6.802

.000

Men

44.193

7.959

Master University

Women

9.139

3.454

-1.800

.087

Men

11.962

3.888

Baccalaureate College

Women

8.247

3.440

1.438

.166

Men

6.475

2.210

Associate College

Women

51.263

5.765

10.384

.000

Men

28.994

4.166

Note1: Types of college and university follows the Carnegie Classification..

Note2: Academic degrees and certificates from special colleges are not included since there is limited information to categorize them into specific type of colleges and universities.

DISCUSSIONS

As can be seen, the results of this study support that there are significant gender differences in entrepreneurship education over past decade though the awarding number of entrepreneurship degrees and certificate both for women and for men has continually increased from 1996 to 2008 in U.S. colleges and universities. These results are contradictory to previous research on women entrepreneurs in business field (Birley, et al., 1987; Fischer, et al., 1993; Kalleberg & Leicht, 1991). How to interpret this gap? The author presents four propositions based on findings of this study and theories of schooling and society in order to guide us to understanding gender differences in entrepreneurship education.

Hurn (1985) categorizes many theories of schooling and society into two domains: functional paradigm and conflict paradigm. The functional paradigm sees schools as teaching the kind of cognitive skills and norms essential for the performance of most adult roles in a society increasingly dependent on ‘knowledge’ for economic growth with sorting and selecting talented people. Within the functional paradigm, human capital theorists see education as an investment that will pay off in the future in the form of increased earning by increasing an individual’s human capital, knowledge, and expertise (Hurn, 1985). This investment on developing human capital at education and training is assessed using return on investment (ROI) or cost-benefit analysis (Kuchinke, 2003; Swanson & Holton, 2001). From the results of this study, the number of women who get awarded entrepreneurship degrees and certificates in U.S. colleges and universities has increased. Therefore, women enroll and complete entrepreneurship education in order to gain entrepreneurial knowledge, skills, and expertise for their future business creation.

Proposition 1: Women enroll and complete entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities to gain entrepreneurial knowledge, skills, and expertise for their future business creation.

But lower proportion of women in entrepreneurship education indicates that women less value the entrepreneurship education. In addition, the high proportion of women’s in associate colleges and less than two year certificates show that they expect lower pay-off from the education.

Proposition 2: Women value the entrepreneurship education less than men since they expect lower pay-off from the education.

In the functional paradigm, there is an assumption that those who do well in college should, other things being equal, obtain better jobs and make more money than those who did less well (Hurn, 1985). Yet the link between schooling and jobs is not empirically supported (Jencks et al., 1973).

Conflict paradigm sees schools as serving the interest of elites, as reinforcing existing inequalities and as producing attitudes that foster acceptance of this status quo. Conflict theorists argue that unnecessary educational credentials determine access to desirable jobs in a society (Hurn, 1985). John Meyer (1977; 2007), an institutional theorist in conflict paradigm, stress individuals or institutions’ dependence on wider environmental meanings, definition, rules, and models. Result of lower proportion of women in entrepreneurship and higher proportion in business and non-business education shows that institutionalized value of business education is much higher than entrepreneurship education. In addition, women’s higher enrollment in baser degrees and certificates program than men in entrepreneurship education confirms that women are highly influenced by social environment when they choose an academic discipline.

Proposition 3: Women are reluctant to choosing entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities since they got influenced by reluctant social environments toward women entrepreneurs.

Finally, Collins (1979)’s notion of ‘largely unnecessary educational credentials determine access to desire job’ can be partly supported by the results of women’s higher enrollment and completion of entrepreneurship education in practical knowledge oriented educational institutions such as associate college and less than two year certificate programs.

Proposition 4: Women avoid unnecessary educational credentials to access to desirable job, but they choose educational institutions and program where they can get useful skills for business creation.

Gender inequality at work and job searching is very well-known (Jacobs, 1995; Jacobs & Gerson, 2004; Lesnick, 2005; Robeyns, 2001; Tomaskovic-Devey, 1993). In consequence of this inequality, women tend to start small businesses in searching for ‘equal or higher’ financial rewards instead of searching a desirable job (Birley, 1989; Fielden & Davidson, 2006).

CONLCUSION

More and more women get entrepreneurship degrees and certificates in U.S. colleges and universities in order to gain entrepreneurial knowledge, skills, and expertise for their future business creation. However, this study found out that there are significant gender differences in entrepreneurship education. While women are outnumbered in business and general education, women are still minorities in entrepreneurship education. Women participates less prestigious higher education institutions (e.g. associate colleges and less than two year certificates programs) than men to get entrepreneurship education. These gender differences are caused by 1) women’s lower expectation of pay-off from entrepreneurship education than men, 2) reluctant social environments toward women entrepreneurs, and 3) avoiding unnecessary educational credentials.

Educational leaders and policy makers should aware the gender difference in entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities. They also need to understand underlying assumptions and unconscious gender discriminations in entrepreneurship education. Gender sensitive curriculum design and implementation in colleges and universities are desirable to nurture future women entrepreneurs. In addition, providing more practical and hand-on entrepreneurial experiences for women in entrepreneurship education are required in order to fill the women entrepreneur pipeline which will flourish our economy in future.

For the future research, the author suggests an investigating the influencing social environment to women when they choose entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities.

A notable limitation of this study is missing data. IPEDS data was gathered from 1996 to 2008 academic year, but 1999 and 2002 data were not included. The 1999 data was not available at IPEDS and the 2002 data significantly outlying from other data. Therefore, 2002 data was purposefully excluded for hypothesis testing analysis. In addition there were several minor code changes during those periods, which varied the numbers of degrees/certificates in different levels and institution types. These data fluctuations might limit the power of hypothesis testing for growth rates of entrepreneurship education.

REFERENCES

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Birley, S. (1989). Female entrepreneurs: are they really any different? Journal of Small Business Management, 27(1).

Birley, S., Moss, C., & Saunders, P. (1987). Do women entrepreneurs require different training. American Journal of Small Business, 12(1), 27-35.

Breneman, D. W. (2005). Entrepreneurship in higher education. New Directions for Higher Education, 2005(129), 3-9.

Cadieux, L., Lorrain, J., & Hugron, P. (2002). Succession in women-owned family businesses: A case study. Family Business Review, 15(1), 17.

Carnegie Commission on Higher, E. (2010). [The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education]. Web Page.

Collins, R. (1979). The credential society: An historical sociology of education and stratification: Academic Press New York.

Dos Santos, B. L., Holsapple, C. W., & Ye, Q. (2010). The Intellectual Influence of Entrepreneurship Journals: A Network Analysis. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, July(Journal Article), 1-20.

Elliot, P., & Mandell, N. (1995). Feminist theories. In N. Mandell (Ed.), Feminist Issues: Race, Class, and Sexuality (pp. 356): Prentice-Hall Canada.

Fielden, S. L., & Davidson, M. (2006). International handbook of women and small business entrepreneurship: Edward Elgar Pub.

Finkle, T. A. (2007). Trends in the market for entrepreneurship faculty from 1989-2005. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 10(Journal Article), 1-24.

Fischer, E. M., Reuber, A. R., & Dyke, L. S. (1993). A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(2), 151-168.

Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2007). Educational Research: An Introduction (Vol. 8th). Boston: Longman Publishers.

Gatewood, E. J., Shaver, K. G., & Gartner, W. B. (1995). A longitudinal study of cognitive factors influencing start-up behaviors and success at venture creation. Journal of Business Venturing, 10(5), 371-391.

Greene, P. G., & Rice, M. P. (2007). Entrepreneurship education: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Gundry, L. K., & Welsch, H. P. (2001). The ambitious entrepreneur High growth strategies of women-owned enterprises. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(5), 453-470.

Hurn, C. J. (1985). Theories of Schooling and Scoeity: The Functional and Conflict Paradigms The limits and possibilities of schooling (3rd ed., pp. 42-70). Newton, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Jacobs, J. A. (1995). Gender Inequality at Work: Sage Publications, Inc., 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320 (paperback: ISBN-0-8039-5697-5; cloth: ISBN-0-8039-5696-7).

Jacobs, J. A., & Gerson, K. (2004). The time divide: Work, family, and gender inequality: Harvard Univ Pr.

Jaggar, A. M., & Rothenberg, P. S. (1984). Feminist frameworks: Alternative theoretical accounts of the relations between women and men: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Jencks, C., Smith, M., Acland, H., Bane, M. J., Cohen, D., Gintis, H., et al. (1973). Inequality: A reassessment of the effect of family and school in America. NY: Basic Books.

Kalleberg, A. L., & Leicht, K. T. (1991). Gender and organizational performance: Determinants of small business survival and success. The Academy of Management Journal, 34(1), 136-161.

Katz, J. A. (1991). Endowed Positions: Entrepreneurship and Related Fields. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 15(3), 53-67.

Katz, J. A. (1994). Growth of endowments, chairs, and programs in entrepreneurship on the college campus. The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship Education, 1(Journal Article), 127-149.

Katz, J. A. (2003). The chronology and intellectual trajectory of American entrepreneurship education: 1876–1999. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(2), 283-300.

Katz, J. A. (2008). Fully Mature but Not Fully Legitimate: A Different Perspective on the State of Entrepreneurship Education. Journal of Small Business Management, 46(4), 550-566.

Kuchinke, K. P. (2003). Contingent HRD: Toward a theory of variation and differentiation in formal human resource development. Human Resource Development Review, 2(3), 294.

Kuratko, D. F. (2004). Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, and Practice (6th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Kuratko, D. F. (2005). The emergence of entrepreneurship education: Development, trends, and challenges. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5), 577-597.

Lesnick, A. (2005). On the job: performing gender and inequality at work, home, and school. Journal of Education & Work, 18(2), 187-200.

Levie, J., & Autio, E. (2008). A theoretical grounding and test of the GEM model. Small Business Economics, 31(3), 235-263.

McBroom, D. (2008). Explorations in leadership education: The role of leadership education in higher education outcomes. Ed.D., University of Montana, United States -- Montana. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1685895481&Fmt=7&clientId=36305&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Meyer, J. W. (1977). The effects of education as an institution. The American Journal of Sociology, 83(1), 55-77.

Meyer, J. W., Ramirez, F. O., Frank, D. J., & Schofer, E. (2007). 7 Higher Education as an Institution. Sociology of higher education: Contributions and their contexts, 187.

Mintzberg, H. (2004). Managers, not MBAs: A hard look at the soft practice of managing and management development: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Myers, J. L., & Well, A. (2003). Research design and statistical analysis: Lawrence Erlbaum.

National Center for Education, S. (2010). [Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System]. Web Page.

Pena, V. (2010). A Survey of Entrepreneurship Education Initiatives (Vol. NS D-4091). Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, DC: Science and Technology Policy Institute.

Plaschka, G. R., & Welsch, H. P. (1990). Emerging Structures in Entrepreneurship Education: Curricular Designs and Strategies. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 14(3), 55-71.

Robeyns, I. (2001). Sen's capability approach and gender inequality: selecting relevant capabilities. Feminist economics, 9(2), 61-92.

Solomon, G. T. (2007). An examination of entrepreneurship education in the United States. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14(2).

Solomon, G. T., Duffy, S., & Tarabishy, A. (2002). The state of entrepreneurship education in the United States: A nationwide survey and analysis. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 1-22.

Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F. (2001). Foundations of Human Resource Development: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Tomaskovic-Devey, D. (1993). Gender & racial inequality at work: The sources and consequences of job segregation: Cornell University Press.

UCLA: Academic Technology Services, S. C. G.). [What statistical analysis should I use?]. Web Page.

Vesper, K. H., & Gartner, W. B. (1997). Measuring progress in entrepreneurship education. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(5), 403-421.

Vesper, K. H., & Gartner, W. B. (1999). University entrepreneurship programs. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.

Wilson, F., Kickul, J., Marlino, D., Barbosa, S. D., & Griffiths, M. D. (2009). An Analysis Of The Role Of Gender And Self-Efficacy In Developing Female Entrepreneurial Interest And Behavior. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship (JDE), 14(02), 105-119.

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This lesson plan is for developing creativity and for managing stress at science and engineering workplaces.

Based on Kouksundo (Korean self-discipline practice), I designed a workshop.

All materials are copyrighted. 2007 Integral Leadership Center, Jeonghwan Choi

 

Checklist for Training Package

1

Background

1.1

Needs Assessment Document

1.2

Design Document

1.3

Story Board

2

Administration/Planning

2.1

Goal Statement and Performance Objectives

2.2

Instructor Background/Qualification

2.3

A list of questions to guide the needs assessment process

2.4

Lesson Outline and Training Times

2.5

Media Master List

2.6

Handout Master List

2.7

Workshop Agenda

2.8

Post-Course Evaluation Form

2.9

Other Workshop Supplies

2.10

Delivery Preparation Checklist (think about this in terms of 2-6 months, two weeks, one week, and one day before training as well as day of)

2.11

Reference for all materials used in training manual (APA format)

3.

Media Master

This section includes all of the masters for all media used during the workshop. If a PowerPoint presentation will be used, simply include a printout (6 per page) of the slides. Be sure slides are appropriately referenced to the lesson plan and ordered in the way they would be used during the workshop. Include mock-ups of any flipcharts, blackboard, etc. that should be developed.

4.

Handout Masters / Students Materials

 

This section includes all of the masters for all handouts used during the workshop. Be sure the handouts are appropriately referenced to the lesson plan and ordered in the way they would be used during the workshop. Suggestions for student materials include learner direction, agenda, problem statement, goal statement, terminal objectives, text, activity guide sheets or worksheets, handouts, overhead masters, inventories, self-assessment, tests, definition of terms, and references

5.

Lesson Plans

5.1

All lesson plans for 6-8 hours worth of instruction

5.2

Any content (i.e. instructor’s notes, reading materials, etc.) information needed to deliver instruction

Checklist for Instructional System Design

1

Need Assessment Document

   

1.1

Problem Statement

   

Brief narrative describing the background or history of the performance

   

Description of potential learners

   

Description of the current and desired state of performance

   

Symptoms and probable root causes of performance gap

   

Description of type of problem the performance gap represents

   

1.2

Need Assessment

   

A list of questions to guide the needs assessment process

   

Description of from whom the data will be collected

   

Description of data collection methods to be used

   

     

2

Design Document

   

Work setting is described in enough detail to understand the constraints, resources and culture of the development, delivery, and application environments

   

Learner analysis includes description of learner-related characteristics

   

Contents analysis is complete and relevant to instructional purpose

   

Goal statement is clear, appropriate to the level of instruction, and identifies an instructional need

   

Terminal/Concluding objectives are clearly stated, are grammatically consistent/parallel, and can be achieved and measured through instruction

   

Terminal/Concluding objectives serve as a basis for achieving the workshop goal

   

Enabling/During objectives identify component skills or knowledge needed to achieve terminal/concluding objectives

   

Enabling/During objectives are clearly stated, are grammatically consistent/parallel and serve as a basis for learning activities

   

Storyboard outlines major sections and instructional events of the training program

   

     

3

Administration/Planning Section

   

Goal statement and performance objectives are listed

   

Instructor background/qualification is described

   

Learner background/qualification is described

   

Overview of the lesson outline and training times is included

   

A list of media master is included

   

A list of the handouts is included

   

Media and handout masters/files are included

   

Workshop agenda is included

   

Other workshop supplies are identified

   

Delivery preparation checklist identifies things to do 2-6 months, 2 weeks, 1 week, and one day before training as well as the day of training

   

A post-course reaction evaluation is developed to elicit useful information from the learners and serves as the basis for continuous improvement

   

Reference are provided in APA format

   

     

4

Development Document

   

All lesson plans outline a sequence of instructional strategies and is referenced to performance objectives

   

A variety of instructional strategies is used to address trainees’ various learning styles

   

Instructional support materials (transparency master, handout masters, and related materials are included as required for each lesson

   

Time estimates for each instructional strategy are estimated in the lesson plan

   

Equipment to support instruction is included in the lesson plan

   

Methods to facilitate practice include directions on how to set up and debrief the activity

   

During and after performance assessments are appropriate for the instruction and objectives

   

Instructional design program has sufficient information to be used by another instructor with a similar background to the developer

   

Information in learner’s material is easy to use and clearly presented

   

Information in learner’s materials serves as a job aid back in the application environment

   

     

5

Overall organization and writing style is consistent and well-structured

   

Organization is proper and consistent

   

Writing style is proper and consistent

   

     

Section I: Background

Stress Management Skill Up for Scientists & Engineers

1. Problem Statement

1. 1 Background and History of the Performance Problem

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KIST (Korean Institute of Science & Technology) is the oldest and top-ranked national funded research institute in Korea. The institute has 1,700 staff including 422 core researchers[1]. In 2007, one research division manager died of sudden heart attack which is believed come from excessive stress. In addition, four general researchers quitted their job. Dr. Kum, the president of KIST, hopes to know the root cause of low retention rate of this year, and he also hopes to make a strategy for keeping invaluable human resources as long as it possible.

When Dr. Kum consulted this problem with Healthcare department manger[2], he heard that many researchers are revealed on the highly stressful job environments since 2004, the year of changing project funding system. PBS (Project Based funding System) is a newly adopted managerial cost controlling system in Science & Engineering field: Researchers are 100% funded by Head Quarter, based on their performance. Only project performances and qualified reports are two criteria for funding.

The Healthcare department manager said that furious competition and ton’s of reporting works drive scientists and engineers getting tired. In addition, cutting the budget of healthcare programs induced 60% off of regular counseling and healthcare training. She continued that if KIST cannot provide the proper stress management program as well as amendment of PBS, many researchers will leave in near future.

Since the PBS system is a national wide policy, the president can not change it. Then he decides providing stress management skill-up program for Scientists & Engineers in optional bases by supplying on-line education. However, all researchers (including 9 division managers and 33 research project managers) should complete the 4 hour stress management workshop, but Core researchers can participate the program voluntarily.

1.2 Description of Potential Learners

1. 9 Division project managers

2. 33 Research project managers

1.3 Description of Current and Desired State of Performance

Current

- Unaware of importance of stress management

- Possess a low level of stress management skills

- Unfamiliar with dealing mental & physical stress

- Skeptical to taking counseling or training

Desired State of Performance

- Understanding the importance of stress management

- Effectively managing mentally and physically stressed subordinates

- Having abilities to manage stress in various situations

- Coaching their subordinates to take counseling and mental training with ease

1.4 Symptoms and Probable Root Causes of Performance Gap

1.4.1 Knowledge

- Potential learners do not know the importance of stress management

- Potential learners are not familiar with dealing mental stress

- Potential learners are not familiar with dealing physical stress

- Potential learners do not have enough knowledge about relationship with health and performance

- Potential learners do not know how they can coach to get help from healthcare department

1.4.2 Skills

- Potential learners are not practicing mental training for dealing with psychological stress

- Potential learners are not practicing physical training for reducing stress

- Potential learners do not take any counseling from healthcare department

1.4.3 Motivation / Attitudes

- Potential learners feel that they do not need improving their stress management skills

- Potential learners are reluctant for taking counseling with healthcare professionals

- Potential learners may have previous negative experiences that prevent them taking mental & physical training

- Potential learners do not want to agree to their subordinates have health problem

- Potential learners do not want to spend time to train their subordinates

- Potential learners are skeptical to the effectiveness of the stress management skill-up program

1.4.4 Environment

- Potential learners are exposed to the highly competitive environment (PBS)

- KIST has limited budget/resources for healthcare activities

- Many research labs are running in 24hrs/7days process work environment, researchers cannot leave labs during the process is ongoing

1.5 Description of Type of Problem the Performance Gap Represents

Even though root causes can be founded in four different categories, the biggest two problematic factors are Motivation and Environment. But the performance gap represents a motivation/attitude problem from the beginning.

Concerning to motivation factor, although the healthcare manager of KIST provides the knowledge of stress management techniques through internal networking system, many Scientists and Engineers are reluctant to take counseling or training for improving stress management capability because of negative reinforcement from managers.

Moreover the reluctant attitude of project managers is the most challenging one for Scientists & Engineers to participate stress management counseling or training. Although project managers are also exposed in stressful work environments, they have to focus on utilizing their human resources to achieve assigned goals. They are seriously worrying about absenting key researchers from experiments and researches regularly.

In sum, the performance gap stem from motivation/attitude best represents the root cause because KIST provides general knowledge of stress preventing and learning environment for improving stress management skills. But may research project managers do not understand the importance of stress management and their lack of knowledge lessen the motivation of practicing stress management program.

This workshop focuses on improving potential learners’ knowledge which addressing knowing importance of stress management for Scientists & Engineers, practicing Creativity performance enhancing program (C-PEP) and recognizing the procedure of stress management counseling in KIST.

2. Need Assessment

Needs Assessment Questions

(What do you want to know about your performance problem?)

Data Sources

(From whom or what will you collect these data?)

Methods

(What methods will you use to collect the needs assessment information?)

How Scientists & Engineers manage their stress?

- Scientists & Engineers in KIST

- Journals of Healthcare for Scientists & Engineers

- National Scientists & Engineers Association

- Newspaper, Magazine, and Special articles

- Literature review of S&E workforce health care research

- Analysis of Websites

- Survey analysis

- Interview with Scientists & Engineers in KIST

Why Scientists & Engineers cannot practice stress management skills? (What is the most serious barrier?)

- Healthcare manager at KIST

- Counselor at Healthcare department

- Scientists & Engineers in KIST

- Patients who visited counselor

- Project Managers of R&D department

- Key informant Interview (Patients)

- Focused Group Interview (Healthcare manager, , Counselors)

- Interview with Project Managers

- Survey analysis of Scientists & Engineers

What are the most wanted stress management practice?

- Scientists & Engineers in KIST

- Project Managers

- Trainees at physical education program

- Physical or Mental Trainers in KIST

- Professionals of stress management

- Nominal Group Technique (incumbent trainees)

- Survey analysis of Scientists & Engineers

- Interview with Project Managers

- Focused Group interview (Professionals of stress management,

What are the desired outcomes of stress management?

- President of KIST

- Project Managers at R&D department

- Scientists & Engineers

- Healthcare manager

- Counselor

- Interview with President

- Interview with Project Managers

- Focused Group Interview with Healthcare manager and /Counselor

- Survey analysis of Scientists & Engineers

3. Design Document

3.1 Learner Analysis

Demographic

(Age, gender, race)

1) 9 Division project managers

A. Average age: 53 years old

B. All male

2) 33 Research project managers

A. Average age: 47 years old

B. 97% male

C. All have Ph. D. degree of related field.

Physiological

(Heart condition, lung capacity, general physical condition)

3. One division manager has a diabetic problem, and another has high blood pressure problem

4. 25% of Research project managers are overweight

5. 65% of project managers reports ‘over-stressed’

6. During the workshop special care is required for who may have a physical or psychological disorder.

Experience

(Length of service, time on job, similar experience)

1. Division project managers average work experience: 18 years

2. Research project managers average work experience: 11 years

Although the length of experience may vary, not many participants have experienced taking systematic stress management course.

Learning Style

Potential learners have very strong analytical skills, and they are mostly practical. They prefer hand-on activities, practicing the new knowledge and skill, and learning by doing.

Aptitude

(special talents or skills)

They have strong analytical skills and problem solving techniques in a scientific manner. But they are not good at understanding “soft skills” such as emotions, intangible knowledge, and psychological approach.

Knowledge

(Education, basic skills, specialized training)

Potential learners have enough knowledge about the importance of Key researchers, and they are required how to manage the key researchers’ stress to prevent the burn-out syndrome.

Attitude

(feelings about topics, training, job organization)

The workshop is mandatory for potential learners, and they may have lower motivation. Meanwhile core researchers’ expectation level about the program will be higher because they will be highly influenced by the potential learner behavior. It is important for trainer to understand there are two different groups which have different attitudes.

3.2 Setting Analysis

3.2.1 Development Environment

Resources

· There is an available network of professionals with experience in stress management, clinical counseling, meditation, physical education, and health care use when developing the course.

· The instructor has a certification of meditation coach, and 10 years experience of dealing stress management issues.

· The developers possess a general overarching desire to provide the real value for Scientists & Engineers

· The president of the institute strongly support the program

Constraints

· There is a lack of a physical location where all people involved in the development of the course are together.

· Some developers can participate contingently (Max. 2 hours/day, 2 weeks)

· Time is limited (2 weeks to deliver)

· Organization regulations:

o Limitations to S&E workforce profiles

o Limitations to have meeting or research them

o Limitations to facilities

Culture

· Those involved in the development of the course are passionate about stress management and helping scientists & engineers

· Developers have graduate degree about their field, and they have strong sense to catch the clients needs

· All developers have enough experiences in their profession, and they are tend to be constructive in a team

3.2.2 Delivery Environment

Resources

· Instructor has more than 3 years experience of teaching stress management, clinical counseling and physical, mental training

· Training materials (Video, Projector, and Document)

· Licensed video training program (“Meditation for Stress Management”)

· Internal networks (Wireless ADSL Internet connection)

· Facilities which are capable max. 50 people with full audio-visual equipments

Constraints

· The potential learners are very protective of their time and hard to find a time slot for delivering the workshop.

· During the workshop, two participants may not participate in physical training session

· The facility is not enough to conduct physical training session, so contents should be customized to fit in a limited space

Culture

· This is a voluntary course for core scientists & engineers, many participants have a desire to improve their skills, knowledge and attitude about stress management.

· This is a mandatory course for divisional project managers and research project managers, they are skeptical to the course. In addition, they worry about absenting from their normal works

· Because all participants are scientists & engineers they tend to have strong interests about scientific and analytic communications

· Because of the desire to have potential learners assimilate a practical experience with stress management, the course will be designed to be ‘learning by doing’ and hands-on.

3.2.3 Application Environment

Resources

· Healthcare department will setup a webpage for providing “Stress management” on-line program in KIST Intranet

· ‘Stress management practice’ will be broadcasted on regular time (30 min.) through KIST Intranet

· On-line counseling will be provided in the website, all private issues will be confidentially treated and scientists & engineers can ask any questions anonymously

· Reference guides and tools to refer back to as a refresher when the skills and knowledge are needed will be provided

· Scientists & Engineers who hope to take regular stress management program will be guided by healthcare department

Constraints

· Although the participants will have new knowledge and skills to employ, there is still a risk of a regression in attitude. There is no guarantee of taking on-line stress management program and practicing it

· On-the-job pressures that do not let Scientists & Engineers’ apply what they learned in the workshop

· Same ‘stress management practice’ will be perceived as an boredom sooner or later

Culture

· Because participants are all returning to their own laboratory and businesses, their situations may vary greatly. Especially Bio-tech, Chemical, and Process Engineering related managers and workforces are not easy to take off their regular 24 hours/7days work environment. So, special auditing or supporting is required.

· If participants can feel the value of the program, they can share the material and the program with other Scientists & Engineers in the nation which can make a big impact to the culture of their workplace

· Colleagues, subordinates, family and other peer group members may have an influence on the learners. There may be pressure to participate, perform stress management program in regular bases

3.3 Job/Task and Content Analysis

Job Categories

Tasks

Contents

World Leading Scientists & Engineers

Understanding the mega-trends of science & engineering field

Introduction

· Understanding the change of the world

· What is the key “Driver” of 4th Wave?

· Understanding contemporary issues of the world

· Why the science & engineering are important?

· What are the core components of innovation?

Understanding the innovation mechanism

Cases of Creativity

· Archimedes of Syracuse

· Sir Isaac Newton

· Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz

· Alert Einsten

Mechanism of Creativity

· The Flow (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi)

· Intuition from rest

· Sharpen the Saw?

Being an Innovator

Keeping & Improving Creative Competencies

Stress & Healthcare

· What is Health?

· Key components of healthcare

· Where disease comes from?

· Find your inner voice

Stress & Meditation

· What is meditation?

· Science of Mind & Meditation

· Effectiveness of meditation

· Practices of meditation

Stress Management through Meditation

· History of mind control

· Categories of mind control

· Mechanism of mind control

o Psychological training

o Physical training

o Integrative practice

· Strategic Scientists & Engineers?

o Strategic thinking

o Creative leadership

o The Breathing

Stress management

Practicing the C-PEP

Practice of Meditation for Stress Management

· Components of mind control practice

· Principles of mind control

· C-PEP (Creativity Performance Enhancing Program) for Scientists & Engineers

Facilitating & sharing C-PEP

Summary & Suggestion

· Creativity is the mother of innovation

· Scientists & Engineers are key talents for innovation

· The flow (concentration) & stress management can promote creativity

· Mind control can help stress management

· Find your inner voice and create a new mental DNA

Apply the stress management coach

Procedure of coaching

· How to evaluate stress level

· How to use healthcare program

· How to take on-line stress management program

· How to get help

o Visit professionals

o On-line Q&A

4. Storyboard outlines of Stress Management Program for KIST Scientists & Engineers

Introduction

· Understanding the change of the world

· What is the key “Driver” of 4th Wave?

· Understanding contemporary issues of the world

· Why the science & engineering are important?

· What is the core competency for innovation?

Experiences of Creativity

· Archimedes of Syracuse

· Sir Isaac Newton

· Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz

· Albert Einstein

Mechanism of Creativity

· The Flow (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi)

· Intuition from rest

· Sharpen the Saw?

Stress & Healthcare

· What is Health?

· Key components of healthcare

· Where disease comes from?

· Find your inner voice

Video (“The Mind, session 5: Comfortable mind”)

· What is mind control?

· Science of Mind & Meditation

· Effectiveness of mind control

· Practices of mind control

Mind control & Stress Management

· History of mind control

· Categories of mind control

· Mechanism of mind control

o Psychological training

o Physical training

o Integrative practice

· Strategic Scientists & Engineers?

o Strategic thinking

o Creative leadership

o The breathing

Practice of Mind Control & Stress Management

· Components of mind control practice

· Principles of mind control

· C-PEP (Creativity Performance Enhancing Program) for Scientists & Engineers

Summary & Suggestion

· Creativity is the mother of innovation

· Scientists & Engineers are key talents for innovation

· The flow (concentration) & stress management can promote creativity

· Mind control can help stress management

· Find your inner voice and create a new mental DNA

Procedure of stress management coaching

· How to evaluate stress level

· How to use healthcare program

· How to take on-line stress management program

· How to get help

o How to make a feedback

o Visit professionals

o On-line Q&A

Section II: Administration / Planning

Goal Statement and Performance objectives

The goal of this training program is to teach participants to understand the importance of stress management skills, to practice the customized stress management program(C-PEP) regularly, and to take counseling without hesitation.

Terminal Goals

(After completing the workshop, participants will be able to…)

Level

Enabling Goals

(During the workshop, participants will…)

Level

Identify the mega-trend of science & engineering field

II

· Discuss the next key driver of 4th wave

· Recognize contemporary challenges to scientists & engineers

· Describe three major components of innovation

II

II

II

Describe the creativity and it’s components

II

· Discuss the cases of creative scientists

· Identify two factors of creativity

· Define the flow, and the intuition

II

II

I

Recognize the importance of stress management

II

· Define the mind control

· Tell the relationship between stress and healthcare

· Discuss scientific evidence of mind control (Meditation)

· Review the history and the category of mind control (Meditation)

· Explain the importance of breathing

I

II

II

II

II

Practice the stress management program

III

· Define C-PEP

· Memorize structure of the C-PEP

· Recall the sequence of the C-PEP

· Recognize the principles of mind control

· Explain effects of each posture

· Demonstrate the C-PEP

I

I

I

II

II

III

Recall the stress management and

C-PEP

I

· Recognize the change of healthcare concept

· Memorize the importance of stress management

· Order the C-PEP

I

I

I

Apply the stress management coaching

III

· Name the responsible department and professionals

· Describe the procedures of counseling

· Apply the counseling process on KIST Intranet

I

I

III

Instructor Background / Qualification

Instructors

Background

Qualification

Jeong-Hwan Choi, MBA

- Current: Doctoral Student at HRE of UIUC

- Contact: jchoi52@uiuc.edu

- Professional:

n Senior Business Strategy Consultant (EON group, Korea, Dow Chemical & Vita 34, Germany)

n Project Manager & Research (BOSCH)

- Education:

n MBAs (Germany, Korea)

n ME (Mechanical Engineering)

- Co-developer of C-PEP

- 2 years Experience in Business Strategy Consulting (Specialized in high-tech business growth strategy)

- 5 years Experience in Project Management & Research at Automotive Industry

- Certificated instructor of Meditation

- Have specialty in developing “Creativity” for scientists & engineers

Gum Nam (Black Belt)

- Current: Instructor of Mental training at KIST

- Contact: namgeum@hanmail.net

- Professional:

n Mental Trainer in KIST (since 2001)

n Mental Trainer in Korean Tax Bureau (since 2000)

n Manager of Instructor Development Program at Kouksundo

- Education:

n Certification Program of Mental Trainer (2002)

n Instructor development Program of Mental Trainers (2001~2003)

n XXX College at Civil Engineering

- Co-developer of C-PEP

- 12 years mental training (Kouksundo Meditation)

- Have specialty in developing Creativity for Scientists & Engineers

- Certificated instructor of Meditation (Black belt)

Geum-Ok Lee, MD

- Current: Healthcare manager at KIST

- Professional:

n 12 years health care experiences at KIST

n MD at Public Healthcare Sites (1992~1993)

- Education:

n XXX medical school (1991)

- Certificated Medical Doctor

- Conducted many managerial projects of health care improvement for Scientists & engineers

Learner Background / Qualification

Demographic

(Age, gender, race)

1) 9 Division project managers

D. Average age: 53 years old

E. All male

2) 33 Research project managers

F. Average age: 47 years old

G. 97% male

H. All have Ph. D. degree of related field.

Physiological

(Heart condition, lung capacity, general physical condition)

1) One division manager has a diabetic problem, and another has high blood pressure problem

2) 25% of Research project managers are overweight

3) 65% of project managers reports ‘over-stressed’

4) During the workshop special care is required for who may have a physical or psychological disorder.

Experience

(Length of service, time on job, similar experience)

1) Division project managers average work experience: 18 years

2) Research project managers average work experience: 11 years

Although the length of experience may vary, not many participants have experienced taking systematic stress management course.

Learning Style

Potential learners have very strong analytical skills, and they are mostly practical. They prefer hand-on activities, practicing the new knowledge and skill, and learning by doing.

Aptitude & Qualification

(special talents or skills)

Potential learners have strong analytical skills and problem solving techniques in a scientific manner. But they are not good at understanding “soft skills” such as emotions, intangible knowledge, and psychological approach. However, they are required having a non-special geriatric diseases such as high blood-pressure or metal disorder.

Knowledge

(Education, basic skills, specialized training)

Potential learners have enough knowledge about the importance of Key researchers, and they are required how to manage the key researchers’ stress to prevent the burn-out syndrome.

Attitude

(feelings about topics, training, job organization)

The workshop is mandatory for potential learners, and they may have lower motivation. Meanwhile core researchers’ expectation level about the program will be higher because they will be highly influenced by the potential learner behavior. It is important for trainer to understand there are two different groups which have different attitudes.

Lesson Outline and Training Times

Workshop Sessions

Lesson Outline

Training Time

Session 1

Identify mega-trends of science & technology field and describe the innovation mechanism

Introduction

· Understanding the change of the world

· What is the key “Driver” of 4th Wave?

· Understanding contemporary issues of the world

· Why the science & engineering are important?

· What is the core competency for innovation?

Experiences of Creativity

· Archimedes of Syracuse

· Sir Isaac Newton

· Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz

· Albert Einstein

Mechanism of Creativity

· The Flow (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi)

· Intuition from rest

· Sharpen the Saw?

Total: 2 hours 50 min.

Greeting: 20 min.

Introduction: 30 min.

Experiences of creativity & mechanism of creativity: 50 min.

Session 2

Recognize importance of stress management & practice/recall the stress management program

Stress & Healthcare

· What is Health?

· Key components of healthcare

· Where disease comes from?

· Find your inner voice

Video (“The Mind, session 5: Comfortable mind”)

· What is mind control?

· Science of Mind & Meditation

· Effectiveness of mind control

· Practices of mind control

Mind control & Stress Management

· History of mind control

· Categories of mind control

· Mechanism of mind control

o Psychological training

o Physical training

o Integrative practice

· Strategic Scientists & Engineers?

o Strategic thinking

o Creative leadership

o The breathing

Practice of Mind Control & Stress Management

· Components of mind control practice

· Principles of mind control

· C-PEP (Creativity Performance Enhancing Program) for Scientists & Engineers

Summary & Suggestion

· Creativity is the mother of innovation

· Scientists & Engineers are key talents for innovation

· The flow (concentration) & stress management can promote creativity

· Mind control can help stress management

· Find your inner voice and create a new mental DNA

Total: 3 hours 50 min.

Importance of stress management: 1 hour

Video watching: 30 min.

Principles of Mind control & Stress: 1 hour

Practicing C-PEP & Summary: 1 hour 10 min.

Session 3

Apply the stress management coaching program

Procedure of stress management coaching

· How to evaluate stress level

· How to use healthcare program

· How to take on-line stress management program

· How to get help

o How to make a feedback

o Visit professionals

o On-line Q&A

Total: 1 hour

Introduction of KIST Stress Management Program: 20 min.

Practicing the coaching program: 30 min.

Wrap-up Workshop: 10 min.

Media Master List

Workshop Sessions

Media

Description

Session 1

Identify mega-trends of science & technology field and describe the innovation mechanism

PPT #1

Powerpoint Slides

Introduction

Experiences of Creativity

Mechanism of Creativity

Session 2

Recognize importance of stress management & practice/recall the stress management program

PPT #2,

Video Clip (the Mind)

Powerpoint Slides

Stress & Healthcare

Mind control & Stress Management

Practice of Mind Control & Stress Management

Summary & Suggestion

Video (“The Mind, session 5: Comfortable mind”)

(Source: KBS)

Session 3

Apply the stress management coaching program

PPT #3

Powerpoint Slides

Procedure of stress management coaching


Handout Master List

Workshop Sessions

Handout

Description

Session 1

Identify mega-trends of science & technology field and describe the innovation mechanism

Draft of speech

KIST President Dr. Kum’s Speech

workshop outline

Outlines of the workshop

Handout #1-1

Group discussion (Team Resume)

Handout #1-2

Summary of World Economic Forum report

Handout #1-3

Handout for Group discussion of WEF & Session questions

Handout #1-4

Creativity experience sharing & Session questions

Handout #1-5

Evaluation Sheet for Session 1

Session 2

Recognize importance of stress management & practice/recall the stress management program

Handout #2-1

Individual diagnosis of stress & session questions

Handout #2-2

Group inquiry & Identification of breath style

Handout #2-3

Recalling C-PEP

Handout #2-4

Evaluation Sheet for Session 2

Session 3

Apply the stress management coaching program

Handout #3-1

Procedure of Stress management Program in KIST & Role playing evaluation

Handout #3-2

Evaluation Sheet for Session 3

Handout #3-3

Workshop Evaluation Sheet


Workshop Agenda

Sessions

Agenda

Details

Session1

Identify the mega-trend of science & engineering field

· Discuss the next key driver of 4th wave

· Recognize contemporary challenges to scientists & engineers

· Describe three major components of innovation

Describe the creativity and it’s components

· Discuss the cases of creative scientists

· Identify two factors of creativity

· Define the flow, and the intuition

Session2

Recognize the importance of stress management

· Define the mind control

· Tell the relationship between stress and healthcare

· Discuss scientific evidence of mind control (Meditation)

· Review the history and the category of mind control (Meditation)

· Explain the importance of breathing

Practice the stress management program

· Define C-PEP

· Memorize structure of the C-PEP

· Recall the sequence of the C-PEP

· Recognize the principles of mind control

· Explain effects of each posture

· Demonstrate the C-PEP

Recall the stress management and

C-PEP

· Recognize the change of healthcare concept

· Memorize the importance of stress management

· Order the C-PEP

Session3

Apply the stress management coaching

· Name the responsible department and professionals

· Describe the procedures of counseling

· Apply the counseling process on KIST Intranet


Post-Course Evaluation Form

This is the evaluation sheet for the workshop. Please indicate your opinion by scale or answer some open questions. Your opinion will be referred to improve instruction and feedback to instructors. You can identify yourself to get the results of this survey or to support future instruction design. Your kind help is very appreciative. (Grey: Mandatory)

Department:

 

Age:

 

Name:

 

ID number:

 
 

Questionnaire

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

Overall, the workshop was useful

1

2

3

4

2

Instructors prepared well and delivered valuable knowledge

1

2

3

4

3

The Workshop was well structured

1

2

3

4

4

The workshop was timely and appropriate at the contemporary issues

1

2

3

4

4

The workshop’s objectives were clear

1

2

3

4

5

Instructor delivered contents effectively

1

2

3

4

6

Time is enough to understand and practice

1

2

3

4

7

The presentation materials were proper to understand

1

2

3

4

8

The handouts were proper to enhance knowledge about topics

1

2

3

4

9

The attitude of instructors were proper

1

2

3

4

10

Instructor did not show any discrimination to participants

1

2

3

4

11

Instruction methods is proper and effective

1

2

3

4

12

Facilities for workshop were good and well-organized

1

2

3

4

13

Equipments for workshop were functioned well

1

2

3

4

14

Coordination were effective and smoothly conducted

1

2

3

4

15

Do you want to recommend this workshop to your colleagues?

1

2

3

4

16. What is the most valuable thing in this workshop, and why?

_______________________________________________________________________________________

17. If you have any suggestion to improve this workshop, please describe.

________________________________________________________________________________________

- Thank you for your participation -


Other workshop Supplies

CD for the workshop

1. Presentation Materials

2. Video Clip (the Mind, source: KBS 2006)

Presentation Equipments

1. Projector

2. Computer (Desk top or Notebook)

3. Pointer

4. Catering for Presenter

Facilities

1. Table & Chair

2. Stationary (Flip Chart, Papers, Marker, Pencil, Tape, Post-it)

3. Clock

4. Catering for Participants

5. Audio Visual System (Recording)

Delivery Preparation Checklist (think about his in terms of 2-6 months, two weeks, one week, and one day before training as well as day of)

Schematic Diagram of Delivery Preparation Process

clip_image003

Checklist for Delivery

1

Proposal Review

1.1

Contact to Responsible Person / Manager

1.2

Feasibility Study (Learner, Resources, Capabilities, Experiences, Strategies)

1.3

Recruit Instructors

1.4

Proposal review

1.3

Suggesting proposal

2

RFQ Review

2.1

Client Requests Reports

2.2

Need Assessment Report

2.3

Freeze Research Methods

2.4

Resource Analysis Report

2.5

Feasibility Study Report

3

Contract Review

3.1

Contract Review (Terms, Instructor, Payment, Contracts documents)

3.2

Development Document Review

3.3

Contents Review (Feedback from Clients)

3.4

Research or Survey to Potential Learners

4

Proto Review

4.1

Simulation Report

4.2

Freeze Contents

4.3

Lesson Plan Report (Announce to Clients)

5

Final Review

5.1

Check Facilities

5.2

Check Equipment

5.3

Final Review of Contents

6.

Post Review (Between 1 week)

6.1

Evaluation Report

6.2

Feedback from Clients

6.3

Contract Revision

References for all materials used in training manual (APA format)

Bibliography

References for Session 1

Bierly, P. E., Kessler, E. H., & Christensen, E. W. (2000). Organizational learning, knowledge, and wisdom. Journal of Organization Change Management, 13(6), 596-618.

Clemence, R. V. (Ed.). (1951). Essays. "the creative response in economic history (reprinted from journal of ecnomic history, nov. 1947, 149~159)", edited by richard V. clemence. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley Press.

Covey, S. R. (1989). The seven habits of highly effective people, Free Press.

Covey, S. R. (2004). The 8th habit: From effectiveness to greatness (29 Nov 2005 reprint ed.)Free Press.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1992). Flow: The psychology of happiness, Rider.

World Economic Forum. Annual report 2006/7. Retrieved Nov.08, 2007, from http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AnnualReport/2007/

References for Session 2

Bok, S. Rethinking the WHO definition of health. http://www.globalhealth.harvard.edu/hcpds/wpweb/Bok_wp1407_3.pdf

Davis, R. (2003, July 27). The science of meditation. Time,

Hassan, S. (2000). Releasing the bonds: Empowering people to think for themselvesAitan Publishing Company.

Kim, H. (2003). The tao of life. Saybrook University.

Ko, G. (1973). Kouksundo. Seoul, Korea: JongRo.

Lee, Y. (2006, Feb. 12). The Mind , [Motion Picture] Korean Broadcasting System (KBS).

Lim, K. (1998). The breathing story. Seoul, Korea: MyongSang.

Lim, S. (1986). History of ancient asia (han dan go ki). Seoul, Korea: Mindvision.com.

Ryu, G. (2005, July 02). Journey to fantasy. Message posted to http://www.dailyseop.com/section/article_view.aspx?at_id=29240#

WHO. Retrieved Nov. 25, 2007, from http://www.who.int/suggestions/faq/en/index.html

References (Lesson Plan 3)

Mindtools Website, Retrieved Nov. 25, 2007, from http://mindtools.com/stress/ps/StressPlan.htm

KIST Website, Retrieved Nov. 25, 2007, from http://www.kist.re.kr

Section V: Lesson Plans

Checklist of Evaluating Lesson Plans (5. 1)

Use this checklist to evaluate all of your lessons plans as you complete them. You may want to make multiple copies of this checklist

Lesson Plan Number/Title:

5.1 Identify mega-trends of science & technology field and describe the innovation mechanism

Does your lesson plan include

Description of Participants (optional)

Population addressed

Duration of lesson

2 hours 50 minutes

Topic to be covered/trained by lesson plan

Two Topics

Enabling objectives

Described

A list of all media needed to teach this lesson

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of all other materials needed to teach this lesson including participant materials

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of actual facilitation questions for all activities

Addressed at the end of each session

Does you lesson plan:

Reference all media where it is to be used?

See bibliography

Reference all other materials including participant materials where they are to be used?

See bibliography

Include enough detail so that someone with a similar background to yourself could teach the course with minimal preparation? (Keep in mind a cookbook or other procedural manual)

Describe processes as detail as it can be easily reproduced

Have you

Developed all media needed to teach this lesson?

See the PPT #1

Developed all other materials needed to teach this lesson (where appropriate) including participants materials?

See draft of speech, workshop outline, reference #1-1, #1-2, #1-3, #1-4, #1-5

5. 1 Lesson Plan for Session 1

Title: Identify mega-trends of science & technology field and describe the innovation mechanism

Population

Total 37, President, Divisional managers, Research project managers

1. President of KIST (Dr. Kum)

2. Potential learner group1: 9 Division project managers

3. Potential learner group2: 33 Research project managers

4. 6 managers are not available for their business trip/vacation

Duration of Lesson

2 hours 50 minutes

Trainer

Jeong-Hwan Choi, MBA

- Ph. D. Student at UIUC Human Resource Education

- Former EON group strategy consultant, BOSCH research Engineer (6+ years)

- Experienced developing innovation leaders in Europe and Korea

- Co-developer of C-PEP Program

Topics

· Mega-trends of science & technology

· Creativity and innovation mechanism

Enabling objectives

During this lesson, trainees will:

· Discuss the next key driver of 4th wave

· Recognize contemporary challenges to scientists & engineers

· Describe three major components of innovation

· Discuss the creative scientists’ experiences

· Identify two factors of creativity

· Define the flow, and the intuition

Time

Activity

09:00 ~ 09:20 AM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Greeting

1) Introduction (by President)

2) Ice Breaking

- Divide class into six groups

- Direct for making a group resume

- Decide name of each group and explain the rationale

1) Make a group (6 members)

2) Decide Group Name

3) Make a group resume

- What are the group’s characteristics?

- Background of group members?

- What the group want to learn?

Media, Material

A draft of speech, Workshop Outline, Name card, Marker, Reference #1-1

Facilitation Question

- What is the main objective of this workshop (from Dr. Kum’s speech)?

- What are the learners’ most wanting topic in this workshop?

09:20~09:50 AM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Mega-trends in Science & Engineering

1) Introduce agenda for the session and explain the key “Driver” of 4th wave

2) Explain the contemporary challenges for science & engineering field

3) Explain Contemporary Mega-Trends in Science & Engineering

4) Guide doing Group discussion by using WEF report

1) Realize agenda for this session

2) Tell the “Key Driver of 4th wave”

3) Group discussion: the 2007 WEF report

- Recognize current challenges in science and engineering field

- Indicate the contemporary solutions for making innovation

- Describe the limitation of knowledge

09:50~10:40 AM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Creativity & Mechanism of Creativity

1. Introduce Scientists’ experiences of generating Creative ideas

2. Ask group to list their experiences of generating creative ideas

3. Explain the mechanism of creative thinking

4. Explain the Seven habits & 8th habit

5. Guide groups to identifying possible alternatives for promoting creativity

1) List minimum One experience of “Creative thinking” with saying time, condition

2) Find out the similarity & difference of creative thinking generation with cases and other members

3) Describe three major components of innovation

4) Discuss the two factors of creativity (Agree or not, if not what other should be included)

5) Indicate possible alternatives for promoting creativity

Media, Material

PPT #1

Reference #1-2 (Summary of WEF report)

Reference #1-3

Reference #1-4

Facilitation Question

- What are the mega-trends in Science & Engineering field?

- What are the challenges to Scientists & Engineers?

- How world leading organizations are making innovations?

- What is the mechanism of innovation?

- What are the two main factors for creativity?

- How can participants apply your understandings in this session to motivate your subordinate’s creativity?

10:40~10:50AM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Session Evaluation

1) Prepare the evaluation sheet for the Session

2) Distribute the evaluation sheet

3) Give 5 minutes to complete evaluation sheet

4) Gather evaluation sheet

1) Take the evaluations sheet

2) Complete 6 scale questions for evaluating the session

3) Complete open end suggestion

4) Hand on the evaluation sheet

Media, Material

 

Reference #1-5 (Evaluation Sheet)

Facilitation Question

- What are the good / bad / need improvement subjects for this session?

10:50~11:00AM

Break

Checklist of Evaluating Lesson Plans (5. 2)

Use this checklist to evaluate all of your lessons plans as you complete them. You may want to make multiple copies of this checklist

Lesson Plan Number/Title:

5.2 Recognize importance of stress management & Practice/Recall the stress management program

Does your lesson plan include

Description of Participants (optional)

Population addressed

Duration of lesson

3 hours 50 minutes

Topic to be covered/trained by lesson plan

Two Topics

Enabling objectives

Described

A list of all media needed to teach this lesson

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of all other materials needed to teach this lesson including participant materials

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of actual facilitation questions for all activities

Addressed at the end of each session

Does you lesson plan:

Reference all media where it is to be used?

See bibliography

Reference all other materials including participant materials where they are to be used?

See bibliography

Include enough detail so that someone with a similar background to yourself could teach the course with minimal preparation? (Keep in mind a cookbook or other procedural manual)

Describe processes as detail as it can be easily reproduced

Have you

Developed all media needed to teach this lesson?

See the PPT #2, Video clip #1

Developed all other materials needed to teach this lesson (where appropriate) including participants materials?

See handout #2-1, #2-2, #2-3, #2-4

5.2 Lesson Plan for Session 2

Title: Recognize importance of stress management & Practice/Recall the stress management program

Population

Total 37, President, Divisional managers, Research project managers

5. President of KIST (Dr. Kum)

6. Potential learner group1: 9 Division project managers

7. Potential learner group2: 33 Research project managers

8. 6 managers are not available for their business trip/vacation

Duration of Lesson

3 hours 50 minutes

Trainer

Jeong-Hwan Choi, MBA

- Ph. D. Student at UIUC Human Resource Education

- Former EON group strategy consultant, BOSCH research Engineer (6+ years)

- Experienced developing innovation leaders in Europe and Korea

- Co-developer of C-PEP program

Gum Nam (Certified Black Belt of Kouksundo Meditation)

- Mental Trainer in KIST

- 12 years experience in Meditation

- Co-developer of C-PEP program

Topics

· Recognize importance of stress management

· Practice/Recall the stress management program (C-PEP)

Enabling objectives

During this lesson, trainees will:

· Define the mind control

· Tell the relationship between stress and healthcare

· Discuss scientific evidence of mind control (Meditation)

· Review the history and the category of mind control (Meditation)

· Explain the importance of breathing

· Define C-PEP

· Memorize structure of the C-PEP

· Recall the sequence of the C-PEP

· Recognize the principles of mind control

· Explain effects of each posture

· Demonstrate the C-PEP

· Recognize the change of healthcare concepts

· Memorize the importance of stress management

· Order the C-PEP

Time

Activity

11:00 ~ 12:00 AM

Trainer Activity (Choi)

Trainee Activity

Importance of Stress Management

1) Conduct the call up questions “How the stress affect to your life?”

2) Introduce “What stress undermines”

3) Explain the relationship between stress and health

4) Explain the definition of Mind Control

5) Explain the reason why the meditation is the best mind control practice

6) Guide doing group discussion “What are the pros/cons of meditation”

1) Answer the question “How the stress affect to my life” (List 3)

2) Tell the definition of mind control

3) Discuss the pros/cons of meditation with group members

4) Complete the handout # 2-1

01:00~02:30 PM

Trainer Activity (Choi)

Trainee Activity

Mind Control & Stress Management

5) Show the Video Clip (Scientific evidences of Meditation)

6) Guide doing group inquiry (gather and answer questions)

7) Explain the history of mind control

8) Explain the categories of mind control (meditation)

9) Guide doing “Identifying breadth status”

10) Describe the relationship between mind control and breathing

4) List more than three group questions about video clip

5) Follow the instruction of “Identifying breath status”

6) Tell the participants’ own breathing style

7) Complete the handout #2-2

Media, Material

PPT #2, Video Clip (the Mind)

Handout #2-1, #2-2

Facilitation Question

- Why stress management is important?

- What is the BITE model? (definition of mind control)

- How the mind control decrease stress ?

- What is the relationship between breath and mind control

02:30 ~ 3:40 AM

Trainer Activity (Nam)

Trainee Activity

Practicing/Recalling C-PEP (Creativity Performance Enhancing Program)

1) Introduce the C-PEP

2) Explain the principles of C-PEP

3) Demonstrate C-PEP and explain the effect of each posture

n Whole body stretching

n Pelvis stretching

n Ankle stretching

n Waist stretching

n Back stretching

n Side stretching

n Neck stretching

n Shoulder stretching

n Big breathing

n Meditation

4) Explain the changing of the concept of health

5) Review the C-PEP

n Importance of stress management

n Principles of C-PEP

n Order of C-PEP

1) Follow the instruction of trainer

2) Memorize the order of C-PEP and effects of each posture

3) Demonstrate C-PEP

4) Complete the handout #2-3

Media, Material

PPT #2

Handout #2-3

Facilitation Question

- Why the C-PEP is developed?

- What is the order of C-PEP and effects of each postures?

- What is the changing concept of health?

3:40~3:50PM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Session Evaluation

1) Prepare the evaluation sheet for the Session

2) Distribute the evaluation sheet

3) Give 5 minutes to complete evaluation sheet

4) Gather evaluation sheet

1) Take the evaluations sheet

2) Complete 6 scale questions for evaluating the session

3) Complete open end suggestion

4) Hand on the evaluation sheet

Media, Material

 

Handout #2-4 (Evaluation Sheet)

03:50~4:00 PM

Break

Checklist of Evaluating Lesson Plans (5.3)

Use this checklist to evaluate all of your lessons plans as you complete them. You may want to make multiple copies of this checklist

Lesson Plan Number/Title:

5.3 Apply the stress management coaching program

Does your lesson plan include

Description of Participants (optional)

Population addressed

Duration of lesson

1 hour

Topic to be covered/trained by lesson plan

Apply coaching program

Enabling objectives

Described

A list of all media needed to teach this lesson

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of all other materials needed to teach this lesson including participant materials

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of actual facilitation questions for all activities

Addressed at the end of each session

Does you lesson plan:

Reference all media where it is to be used?

See bibliography

Reference all other materials including participant materials where they are to be used?

See bibliography

Include enough detail so that someone with a similar background to yourself could teach the course with minimal preparation? (Keep in mind a cookbook or other procedural manual)

Describe processes as detail as it can be easily reproduced

Have you

Developed all media needed to teach this lesson?

See the PPT #3

Developed all other materials needed to teach this lesson (where appropriate) including participants materials?

See handout #3-1, #3-2, #3-3

5.3 Lesson Plan for Session 3

Title: Apply the stress management coaching program

Population

Total 37, President, Divisional managers, Research project managers

9. President of KIST (Dr. Kum)

10. Potential learner group1: 9 Division project managers

11. Potential learner group2: 33 Research project managers

12. 6 managers are not available for their business trip/vacation

Duration of Lesson

1 hour

Trainer

Geum-Ok Lee, MD

- Experienced 12 years at Healthcare Department

- Certificated Medical Doctor

Topics

· Apply the stress management coaching program

Enabling objectives

During this lesson, trainees will:

· Name the responsible department and professionals

· Discuss the procedures of coaching

· Apply the coaching process on KIST Intranet

Time

Activity

4:00 ~ 4:20 PM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Introduction of KIST Stress Management Coaching Program

1) Introduce the procedure of stress managing coaching program of KIST

2) Explain the stress evaluation method

3) Introduce the healthcare organization & professionals

4) Explain the professional stress management service of healthcare department

1) Answer the question “What is the procedure of stress management coaching program

2) Describe the stress evaluation tools

3) Memorize the health care professionals

4) Recall the available service from healthcare department

5) Complete the handout # 3-1

04:20~04:50 PM

Trainer Activity (Choi)

Trainee Activity

Practicing Coaching Process by Role Playing

1) Assign numbers to each group members (1~6)

2) Instruct the Role Play

3) Distribute cards which contain the role

4) Guide doing role play game

5) Guide completing evaluation sheet

6) Wrap up the role play

7) Ask what participants experienced

8) Recall the procedure of coaching & tools

1) Define numbers

2) Identify role

3) Consult with coach with the role

4) Evaluate the coaching

5) Listen/Identify/Give solutions to group members

6) Complete the handout #3-1 (evaluation of coaching)

7) Tell the experiences of role playing

Media, Material

PPT #3

Handout #3-1

Facilitation Question

- What is the procedure of stress management program?

- Who is the responsible person for stress management program in KIST?

- What can health department provide?

- How can apply coaching stress management program on the job?

4:50~5:00PM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Session Evaluation

1) Prepare the evaluation sheet for the Session

2) Distribute the evaluation sheet

3) Give 5 minutes to complete evaluation sheet

4) Gather evaluation sheet

1) Take the evaluations sheet

2) Complete 6 scale questions for evaluating the session

3) Complete open end suggestion

4) Hand on the evaluation sheet

Media, Material

 

Handout #2-4 (Evaluation Sheet)

05:00~05:10 PM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Wrap-up Workshop

1) Prepare the program evaluation sheet for the Workshop

2) Distribute the evaluation sheet

3) Give 10 minutes to complete evaluation sheet

4) Gather evaluation sheet

1) Take the evaluations sheet

2) Complete 6 scale questions for evaluating the session

3) Complete open end suggestion

4) Hand on the evaluation sheet

Media, Material

 

Handout #3 (Workshop Evaluation)

Draft of Speech

As a “research institute to represent the dreams and futures of science and technology in the 21st century,” KIST also works hard as a major contributor to the creation of a science and technology-oriented society.
Since its foundation in 1966, KIST has led the national growth and development of Korea as the home of Korea’s scientific and technological renaissance. Now making the utmost use of its accumulated capabilities and accomplishments, it is determined to take the leading role in making Korea “an advanced powerhouse of science and technology” and building “a science and technology-based society” in the 21st century. Part of its proud history involves its creation of a foundation for Korea’s growth in industry and economy and solidifying it further with its scientific and technological attainments.

Now KIST will also devote itself to discovering and addressing the national agenda in early stages in addition to leading the efforts to create the next generation's driving force for growth. It will mobilize all of its abilities and authorities to upgrade the entire elements of organizational operation and research activities to global standards in order to reinforce its roles of advising scientific and technological solutions to the national agenda and establish itself as a “research institute to represent the dreams and future of science and technology in the 21st century.”
However we are confronting the various challenges such as globalization competition, tremendous technical innovation, and diversification of research environment. The only one way to countermeasure these challenges is developing innovative scientists & engineers. But we have experienced that losing two outstanding researchers a few months ago, and I know many of key researchers are departing our institute for their unaffordable stress. We, managers, should responsible for this unexpected high turnover. In this workshop, we hope to learn advanced stress management skills but the more important learning objectives is aware ourselves. I hope this workshop can be a turning point of changing our minds and starting point of addressing our invaluable people’s wellness and happiness.

clip_image005 Finally I hope KIST can be a best workplace which generate world-leading technology but also provide the best research environment for all scientists and engineers in the world,. Let’s try together to achieve this wonderful vision.

Thank you.

President of KIST

Dongwha Kum, Ph. D.

Workshop Outline

Greeting

· Speech of President Kum

· Ice Breaking

Introduction

· Understanding the change of the world

· What is the key “Driver” of 4th Wave?

· Understanding contemporary Mega-trends in Science & Engineering

· Why the science & engineering are important?

· What is the core competency for innovation?

Creativity Experiences

· Archimedes of Syracuse

· Sir Isaac Newton

· Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz

· Albert Einstein

Mechanism of Creativity

· The Flow (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi)

· Intuition from rest

· Sharpen the Saw? (Seven habits & 8th habit, Steven Covey Ph.D.)

Stress & Healthcare

· What is Health?

· Key components of healthcare

· Where disease comes from?

· Find your inner voice

Video (“The Mind, session 5: Comfortable mind”)

· What is mind control?

· Science of Mind & Meditation

· Effectiveness of mind control

· Practices of mind control

Mind control & Stress Management

· History of mind control

· Categories of mind control

· Mechanism of mind control

o Psychological training

o Physical training

o Integrative practice

· Strategic Scientists & Engineers?

o Strategic thinking

o Creative leadership

o The breathing

Practice of Mind Control & Stress Management

· Components of mind control practice

· Principles of mind control

· C-PEP (Creativity Performance Enhancing Program) for Scientists & Engineers

Summary & Suggestion

· Creativity is the mother of innovation

· Scientists & Engineers are key talents for innovation

· The flow (concentration) & stress management can promote creativity

· Mind control can help stress management

· Find your inner voice and create a new mental DNA

Procedure of stress management coaching

· How to evaluate stress level

· How to use healthcare program

· How to take on-line stress management program

· How to get help

o How to make a feedback

o Visit professionals

o On-line Q&A

Handout #1-1

Group Discussion

1) Make a group (6 members)

2) Decide Group Name

3) Make a group resume

- What are the group’s characteristics?

- Background of group members?

- What the group want to learn?

Handout #1-3

Introduction

1. Agenda for this session

2. Tell the “Key Driver of 4th wave”

3. Group discussion: the 2007 WEF report

- Recognize current challenges in science and engineering field

- Indicate the contemporary solutions for making innovation

- Describe the limitation of knowledge

Handout #1-4

Cases of Creativity & Mechanism of Creativity

1. List minimum One experience of “Creative thinking” with saying time, condition

2. Find out the similarity & difference of creative thinking generation with cases and other members

3. Describe three major components of innovation

4. Discuss the two factors of creativity (Agree or not, if not what other should be included)

5. Indicate possible alternatives for promoting creativity

Handout #1-5

Evaluation of Session 1

Evaluation Subject

Very Bad

Poor

Good

Very Good

Trainer is well prepared for this session?

1

2

3

4

Subjects are valuable for the topics?

1

2

3

4

Training methods is effective?

1

2

3

4

Time is enough to understand presented topics?

1

2

3

4

Facilities are well organized?

1

2

3

4

Coordination is well provided?

1

2

3

4

Session materials are well prepared?

1

2

3

4

If you have any suggestion for improving this session, please describe

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Handout #2-1

Individual Questions

1) How stress affects my life? (List 3)

1.

2.

3.

2) What is the BITE Model?

3) How can you score below questions?

 

No 1

2

3

4

5 Yes

I have big stress on my job

         

I have clear and organized thinking ability

         

I have stable emotions

         

I have flexible & strong minds

         

I am enjoying total wellness

         

4) What are the Pros/Cons of Mediation Practice to practice it on your job?

Pros:

Cons:

Handout #2-2

1. Group inquiry (List more than three group question about the Video Clip: Scientific evidences of Meditation)

1)

2)

3)

2. Instruction of “Identifying breath status”

1) Close your eyes

2) Calm down for 30 seconds

3) Try to feel your own breathing

4) Sketch your breathing style

5) Tell the your own style

My breathing style is _______________________________________________________

3. What is the relationship between Breathing and Mind Control

Handout #2-3

Practicing & Recall C-PEP

1. What are the principles of C-PEP?

2. List the order of C-PEP and describe the effect of each posture

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)

11)

12)

3. How the concept of health is changing (Describe two added concepts)

1)

2)

Handout #2-4

Evaluation Subject

Very Bad

Poor

Good

Very Good

Trainer (Choi) is well prepared for this session?

1

2

3

4

Trainer (Nam) is well prepared for this session?

1

2

3

4

Subjects are valuable for the topics?

1

2

3

4

Training methods is effective?

1

2

3

4

Time is enough to understand presented topics?

1

2

3

4

Facilities are well organized?

1

2

3

4

Coordination is well provided?

1

2

3

4

Session materials are well prepared?

1

2

3

4

If you have any suggestion for improving this session, please describe

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Handout #3-1

1) Describe the procedure of Stress Management Program in KIST

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

2) Who can help me to conduct the stress management coaching program?

1)

2)

3) What professional programs are available at Healthcare department?

4) Evaluate the coaching performance? (Score 1 ~ 10 from bad to good)

 

Listening

Communication

Identifying

root cause

Solution

Total

#1

         

#2

         

#3

         

#4

         

#5

         

#6

         

4) What are the Pros/Cons of Mediation Practice to practice it on your job?

Handout #3-2

Evaluation Subject

Very Bad

Poor

Good

Very Good

Trainer is well prepared for this session?

1

2

3

4

Subjects are valuable for the topics?

1

2

3

4

Training methods is effective?

1

2

3

4

Time is enough to understand presented topics?

1

2

3

4

Facilities are well organized?

1

2

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If you have any suggestion for improving this session, please describe

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Handout#3-3

Post-Course Evaluation Form

This is the evaluation sheet for the workshop. Please indicate your opinion by scale or answer some open questions. Your opinion will be referred to improve instruction and feedback to instructors. You can identify yourself to get the results of this survey or to support future instruction design. Your kind help is very appreciative. (Grey: Mandatory)

Department:

 

Age:

 

Name:

 

ID number:

 
 

Questionnaire

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Agree

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Overall, the workshop was useful

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Instructors prepared well and delivered valuable knowledge

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Do you want to recommend this workshop to your colleagues?

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16. What is the most valuable thing in this workshop, and why?

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17. If you have any suggestion to improve this workshop, please describe.

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- Thank you for your participation -


[1] KIST Website: www.kist.re.kr

[2] Interview with HealthCare Department Manager at KIST on 06/20/2007

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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 Redefine Innovation: Foundation for Strategic Innovation Leadership Development

(Unpublished, but copyright to Jeonghwan Choi 2008)

Jeong Hwan Choi, MBA, Doctorate Student, Human Resource Education

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 351 Education, 1310 South Sixth Street, IL 61810

Abstract:

New Definition of Innovation?

Innovation is leader(s)’s strategic activities of 1) integrating and practicing people, 2) exploiting knowledge of science & technology , 3) creating and transforming new ideas, products, processes, services and mindsets to achieve economic values, sustainable competitive advantages as well as self-realization in a complex, non-linear and dynamic social system along with discontinuous time set.
 

Introduction

Innovation creates economic values, sustainable competitive advantages and growth (Kuczmarski, 2003; Lee, 2005; Romer, 1990). But the term “Innovation” is frequently accepted as a normative rhetoric or slogan without clear definition though it is widely used to explain many business activities. When the term emerged in early 20th century, it was much focused on economic functions (Lange, 1943; Schumpeter, 1934; Schumpeter, 1939). As the economic activities became diversified and complex, the definition of innovation expanded and now it is difficult grasp the exact meaning of it. Thus, a new and more rigorous definition of innovation is necessary to conduct academic and practical research for innovation.

Currently, many business leaders agree that innovation is one of the crucial activities to achieve business performance and strategy, but the companies’ approach to innovation is often informal and less confident in decision-making (McKinsey & Company, 2008). In one survey, many business leaders pointed out that the biggest challenge for innovation is “talent.”

Schumpeter (1947), the godfather of innovation, described the quality of personnel in innovation process to be a critical factor, which could determine its success or not.

Creative response - the frequency of its occurrence in a group, its intensity and success or failure - has obviously something, be that much or little, to do (a) with quality of personnel available in a society, (b) with relative quality of personnel, that is, with quality available to a particular field of activity relative to quality available, at the same time, to other, and (c) with individual decision, actions, and patterns of behavior.

Kanter (1983) stressed the importance of human resources in innovation as “Innovation, whether in products, market strategies, technological processes, or work practices are designed not by machines but by people.” Venture capitalists commonly decide their investment to a new venture company not because the company has a good business plan, but because that company is run by people with passion for realizing innovative ideas (Hender, 2004). Although the quality of human resources in innovation process is important, too little attention has been paid to developing human resources for innovation.

On the other hand, many researchers investigated the key role of strategic leadership in various innovation contexts and processes. In comparing innovative Telecommunication companies in the United States and Germany, Kuchinke (1999) found that leadership was important because it leads to a number of desired outcomes of innovation among individuals, groups, and organizational levels. Vera & Crossan (2004) suggested a conceptual model to describe how strategic leaders influenced learning systems believed to be the key element of knowledge generation for innovation, and Vicere (1992) proposed that strategic leadership could be developed in multi-staged innovation process, and the development of strategic leadership had reciprocal cycles. But these researches did not address the human factors such as identification of innovation makers, roles of innovation leaders in innovation process and the required competencies.

Therefore, this paper focuses on four key questions:

1. How can we define “Innovation?”

2. Who makes innovation and what are their roles in innovation?

3. What capabilities are required from innovation makers and how they can be developed in a strategic way?

In this explorative research, academic literature review was conducted as a research methodology to address these questions.

Literature Review

Purpose of Defining Innovation

Even though “Innovation” is widely used in general, there seems to be no universally accepted definitive statements that the meaning of innovation exists. Kuczmarski (2003) pointed out the problem of having no clear definition of innovation that “Perhaps innovation has been misunderstood and therefore its full potential not realized.… Now more than ever, companies need to be cultivating innovation within their organizations and implementing systems that will ensure its success and longevity. This begs the question, what is innovation really, and why are not more companies doing it?”

In order to define the term “innovation” in a rigorous way and possibly widely accepted in academy and practice, contemporary dictionaries and academic literatures are investigated with 5W+1H framework.

Framework. The conventional 5W+1H framework is commonly used to conceptualize a problem (Ha, Jung, & Oh, 2006; Lee, 2004). The frame will be applied to compare different definitions of innovation in six different categories. As shown in Table 1, categories for analyzing definitions of innovation are presented with key questions. The purpose of using the framework is to analyze various definitions in a systemic way and in multi-facet point of views.

Table 1.

Framework for Analyzing Innovation Definition

Categories

Key Questions

Person

Who makes innovation?

Object

What are the objectives of innovation?

Reason / Purpose

Why is innovation practiced?

Space / Domain

Where does innovation occur?

Time

When can innovation occur?

Action / Method

What activities can make innovation and which methods are used?

Definitions from Dictionaries. Table 2 shows analyses of various definitions from contemporary dictionaries in the suggested framework. In general, dictionaries define the innovation in a very simple way without person, reason, and time. According to contemporary dictionaries, the objects of innovation are, “something new: idea, method (process), device, invention” by means of “improving, using, introducing, and creating.” Only two dictionaries define the domain of innovation: one is technology domain (Britanica, 2008), and the other is mind (Webster Online, 2008).

By synthesizing proposed definitions from contemporary dictionaries, innovation can be defined as “activities to improve, use, introduce and create something new idea, method, process, device and invention in technology domain or in mind.”

However, according to the definitions, there are no clear definitions about person, time, and reason in innovation, which means it is hard to utilize it academic research or practice of business rigorously.

Table 2.

Definitions of Innovation in Dictionaries

Dictionary

Definition

Person

Object

Reason / Purpose

Space / Domain

Time

Action / Method

Britanica

In technology, an improvement to something already existing

Something already existing

Technology

Improve

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

(the use of) a new idea or method

New idea

New method

Use

Meriam-Webster Online

1. the introduction of something new

2. a new idea, method, or device

Something new

New idea

New method

New device

Introduce

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online

1.[countable] a new idea, method, or invention

2.[uncountable] the introduction of new ideas or methods:

New idea

New method

New invention

Introduce

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language:

1. The act of introducing something new.

2. Something newly introduced

Something new

Introduce

Webster's Online Dictionary

with Multilingual Thesaurus Translation

1. A creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentation.

2. The creation of something in the mind.

New device

New Process Something

In the mind

Create by studying and experimenting

Synthesized definition of innovation from contemporary dictionaries:

‘Innovation is creating, improving or introducing new ideas, new method or something new in technology or mind domain’

Remarks: All dictionaries are accessed by online and retrieved on April 01 2008.

Definitions from Literatures. Since the emergence of the term ‘innovation’ in Schumpeter’s prominent article of ‘Theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle (Schumpeter, 1934),’ many scholars, institutes, and practitioners have defined it in various way. Table 4 shows various definitions of innovation from literatures in chronological order.

When the terminology of innovation was introduced in the academic field, it was an economic one. Economists commonly defined innovation as: commercialization or industrialization activity to change ‘production function’ to increase discounted value of maximum effective profit. (Lange, 1943; Schumpeter, 1934; Schumpeter, 1939). And the concept of innovation was expanded to ‘entrepreneur’s function’ such as: ‘doing of new things or doing something that has already been done in a new way’ (Schumpeter, 1947).

During the 1950’s, Drucker (1954) applied management concepts to innovation study. Marketing, technology change, and knowledge were adopted to explain the innovation activities. He explained that the purposes of innovation were to attain marketing objective, to keep up with technology change and to gain knowledge & skills to satisfy market goal. Then, his definition of innovation was widely accepted in the business field.

Rogers (1962 pp. 206~207) definition: “An innovation is an idea perceived as new by the individual…Innovation might include, for example, social movement, clothing fads, the twist, compact cars, and the steel ax….Most, but not all, innovations discussed here are technological innovations.” He suggested four elements of diffusion of innovation: 1) the innovation, 2) its communication from one individual to another, 3) in a social system, and 4) over time and these were elevated by deviation. He also explained innovation makers as “the first individuals in a social system to adopt new ideas, who are necessarily deviant in their time of adoption.”

1980’s was an era of ‘In search of excellence’ (Peters & Waterman, 1982). Peters and Waterman suggested eight themes to achieve ‘excellence,’ especially they focused on the importance of innovation activities, of entrepreneurs, and productivity improvement through people. The importance of people or human resources in innovation was supported by Kanter and Drucker as well. .

Kanter (1983) stated the importance of people in innovation process as ‘Innovation - whether in products, market strategies, technological processes, or work practices, are designed not by machines but by people.’ On the other hand, Drucker (2002) pointed out the importance of ‘capability’ of entrepreneurs in innovation and he suggested that the concept of ‘innovation is an economic or social than a technical term’.

Meanwhile, some scholars focused on the role of science and technology in innovation process. Freeman (as cited in Tidd, Bessant, & Pavitt, 1997 p.66) researched importance of science and technology capability in innovation process, and he defined the innovation as “technical, design, manufacturing, management and commercial activities involved in the marketing of a new product or commercial use of a new process or equipment.” However, Rothwell and Gardiner (as cited in Tidd et al., 1997 p.66) claimed that commercialization of a major advance in the technological state of the art not only in innovation, but small scale changes in technological know-how was also an output of innovation. They expanded their innovation study into a national level, and it explored researches on the national policy of innovation, especially in Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) Science and Technology Policy Research. In sum, during the 1980’s, two major themes of innovation arose: one was people centric innovation and the other was science and technology centric innovation.

Since the 1990’s, competitive advantage is a keyword in the business field. Porter (1990) insisted that the competitive advantage could be achieved by innovation, and this concept of innovation was supported by many business strategists. Lee (1999) stated that innovation was the primary basis for competitive advantage and Tidd (1997) specified it as ‘entrepreneurs will seek to use technological innovation to get strategic advantage.’

In parallel with the competitive advantage, a concept of learning organization was presented by Senge (1992). He explained innovation as “Engineers say that a new idea has been ‘invented’ when it is proven to work in the laboratory. The idea becomes an ‘innovation’ only when it can be replicated reliably on a meaningful scale at practical costs. If the idea is sufficiently important it is called ‘basic innovation’ and it creates a new industry or transforms an existing industry.” Then he suggested five disciplines for learning organization for innovation: systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, building shared vision, and team learning.

A new theme in innovation also emerged during 1990’s. Mindset of people involved in innovation was addressed. Kuczmarski (2003) defined innovation as “a mindset of welcoming risks to gaining competitive advantage” by referring to the statement ‘motivated staff’ and ‘instinctive understanding of customer want’ should be combined with good ideas to achieve innovation.

Meanwhile, a longitudinal and integrative approach for innovation study started in 1983 at University of Minnesota, named as Minnesota Innovation Research Program (MIRP). Van de Ven & Angle (2000) suggested a framework to conduct innovation researches in an integrative way, and summarized MIRP observations as Table 3. They defined innovation as “Innovation requires more than the creative capacities to invent new ideas; it requires managerial skills and talents to transform good ideas into practice.” Then, they suggested interdisciplinary process model for innovation study (p. 3). The final research output of MIRP was published in 2000.

Table 3.

A Comparison of the conventional wisdom and MIRP observations

Literature Implicitly Assumes:

But We See This:

Idea

One invention, operational

Reinvention, proliferation, reimplementation, discarding, and termination

People

An entrepreneur with fixed set of full-time people over time

Many entrepreneurs, distracted, fluidly engaging and disengaging over time in a variety of organizational roles

Transactions

Fixed network of people/firms working out details of an idea

Expanding and contracting network of partisan stakeholders diverging and converging on ideas

Context

Environment provides opportunities and constraints on innovation process

Innovation process constrained by and creates multiple enacted environments

Outcomes

Final result orientation; a stable new order comes into being

Final result may be indeterminate; multiple in-process assessments and spinoffs; integration of new orders with old

Process

Simple, cumulative sequence of stages or phases

From simple to multiple progressions of divergent, parallel, and convergent paths, some of which are related and cumulative, others not

Hatcher & Guerdat (2008 p. 1) defines the innovation as

Innovation can be thought of as an embodiment or synthesis of knowledge within an original and valued new approach, practice, service, product, or even theory. Innovation can be a breakthrough that is immediate, revolutionary, or radical, resulting in something that is absolutely new, departing from what is or is. Or it can take a long time to accomplish, be it evolutionary and incremental in nature, improving and building on existing knowledge. In either case, innovation is all about change. Technology-based organizations view innovative advances through the number of patents or expenditure on R&D as ways to account for innovation.

As shown in definitions of Kuczmarski, Van de Van & Angel and Hatcher & Guerdat, recent definition of innovation becomes more complex and interdisciplinary terminology.

The chronological change of innovation definitions and schools of innovation study are summarized in Table 5. It shows that the definition of innovation has historical interconnections, and it has evolved in various ways.

Table 4.

Definitions of Innovation in Literatures

Literature (Year)

Definition

Person

Object

Reason / Purpose

Space / Domain

Time

Action / Method

Schumpeter (1934, p. xix)

Commercial or industrial application of something new - a new product, process, or method of production; a new market or source of supply; a new form of commercial, business, or financial organization

Something new

New product, process method of production

New market

New source of supply

New form

Commercialize

Industrialize

Schumpeter (1939)

We will simply define an innovation as the setting up of a new production function

New production function

Setup

Lange (1943)

Innovations are such changes in production function, i.e., in the schedules indicating the relation between the input of factors of production and the output of products, which make it possible for the firm to increase the discounted value of the maximum effective profit obtainable under given market condition

Production function

Increase discounted value of profit

Market

Change

Schumpeter (1947)

The entrepreneur and his function are not difficult to conceptualize: the defining characteristic is simply the doing of new things or the doing of things that are already being done in a new way (innovation)

Entrepreneur

New things or New way

Do

Drucker (1954)

1. New products or services that are needed to attain marketing objectives

2. New products or services that will be needed because of technological changes that may make present products obsolete

3. Product improvements needed both to attain market objectives and to anticipate expected technological changes

4. New processes and improvements in old processes needed to satisfy market goals

5. Innovations and improvements in all major areas of activity so as to keep up with the advances in knowledge and skill

New product or services

Activities

Attain marketing objectives

Keep up with technology change, and

Knowledge and skill

Satisfy market goal

Improve

Satisfy

Keep up with

Continued

Literature (Year)

Definition

Person

Object

Reason / Purpose

Space / Domain

Time

Action / Method

Rogers (1962)

An innovation is an idea perceived as new by the individual…Innovation might include, for example, social movement, clothing fads, the twist, compact cars, and the steel ax….Most, but not all, innovations discussed here are technological innovations.

Freeman C. (1982)

Industrial innovation includes the technical, design, manufacturing, management and commercial activities involved in the marketing of a new (or improved) product or the first commercial use of a new (or improved) process or equipment

New (improved) product,

New (improved) process

Activities (technical, design, manufacturing, management, commercial)

Marketing

Kanter (1984)

Innovations, whether in products, market strategies, technological processes, or work practices, are designed not by machines but by people

People (not machines)

Product, market strategies, technological processes, work practices

Design

Drucker (1985)

Innovation is the specific tool of entrepreneurs, the means by which they exploit change as an opportunity for a different business or service. It is capable of being presented as a discipline, capable of being learned, capable of being practiced. Innovation, then, is an economic or social rather than a technical term. Innovation is a practice not science or arts

Entrepreneur

Different business or service

Exploit

Change

Learn

Practice

Rothwell & Gardiner (1985)

Innovation does not necessarily imply the commercialization of only a major advance in the technological state of the art (a radical innovation) but it includes also the utilization of even small-scale changes in technological know-how (an improvement or incremental innovation)

Technological state of the art

Technological know-how

Commercialize

Utilize

Porter (1990)

Companies achieve competitive advantage through acts of innovation. They approach innovation in its broadest sense, including both new technologies and new ways of doing things

Companies

Activity

New technology

New way of doing things

Achieve competitive advantage

Act, Approach

Continued

Literature (Year)

Definition

Person

Object

Reason / Purpose

Space / Domain

Time

Action / Method

Senge (1992)

Engineers say that a new idea has been “invented” when it is proven to work in the laboratory. The idea becomes an “innovation” only when it can be replicated reliably on a meaningful scale at practical costs. If the idea is sufficiently important it is called a “basic innovation,” and it creates a new industry or transforms an existing industry.

(Engineer – invention)

New idea

New industry

Existing industry

Replicated on a meaning scale at practical cost

Create

Transform

Lee S. (1999)

Innovation is the successful development and commercialization of new product, services, or business system. In many industries, innovation is the primary basis for competitive advantage and the principal driving force of industry structural change

New product, New service, business system

Develop, commercialize

Van de Ven & Angle (2000), p.3

Innovation requires more than the creative capacities to invent new ideas; it requires managerial skills and talents to transform good ideas into practice

Good ideas into practice

transform

Armstrong et al (2001)

The creation, development and introduction of new products/services or product/service components, or a new procedure or process for doing things to benefit one or more of the stakeholders in the organization. The product, service, procedure, or process need not be completely novel, but it must be new to the organization itself

New product

New service

New procedure

New process

Benefit of stakeholders

Create, develop, introduce

Kuczmarski (2003)

Innovation is a mindset. Innovation is the art of welcoming risk. Innovation is a key to gaining competitive advantage

Mindset

Gaining competitive advantage

Welcoming risk

Hender (2004)

The product, service, procedure, or process need not be completely novel, but it must be new to the organization itself

Product, service, procedure, process

New to the organization itself

UK department of trade and industry (2004)

Innovation is the successful exploitation of new ideas

New idea

Exploit

Continued

Literature (Year)

Definition

Person

Object

Reason / Purpose

Space / Domain

Time

Action / Method

Tidd (2005, p 7)

Entrepreneurs will seek to use technological innovation (a new product/service or a new process for making it) to get strategic advantage For a while this may be the only example of the innovation so the entrepreneur can expect to make a lot of money – what Schumpeter calls ‘monopoly profits’

Entrepreneurs

New product

New service

New process

Get strategic advantage

Discontinuous, but imperative

Hatcher & Guerdat (2008)

Innovation can be though of as an embodiment or synthesis of knowledge within an original and valued new approach, practice, service, product, or even theory. Innovation can be a breakthrough that is immediate, revolutionary, or radical, resulting in something that is absolutely new, departing from what is or is. Or it can take a long time to accomplish, be evolutionary and incremental in nature, improving and building on existing knowledge. In either case, innovation is all about change. Technology-based organizations view innovative advances through the number of patents or expenditure on R&D as ways to account for innovation.

New approach, practice, service, product, or even theory.

Knowledge

Patent

Expenditure of R&D

Immediate, revolutionary, radical or take long time

Improve

Build

* Remarks: UK department of Trade and industry (2004), Freeman (1982), Rothwell & Gardiner (1985), Drucker (1985), Porter (1990), Branson (1998) are excerpted from the book of Tidd’s ‘Managing Innovation’ (2005, P. 66)

Table 5.

Chronological Change of Innovation Definition and Schools of Innovation Study

Period

1930~40s

1950s

1960s

1980s

1990s

2000~

Schools

Economics

Management

Socio-technical change

Excellence

Competitive advantage

Integrative approach

Chronological Changes

Key phrase

Innovation is to get economic gain

Innovation is a management practice by integrating people, technical change, and knowledge

Innovation is a socio-technical change

Innovation is to achieve excellence through people and science & technology

Innovation is strategic approach to guarantee competitive advantage by learning and knowledge management

Innovation is an integrative approach , including psychological factor

New definition of innovation

A new definition of innovation can help utilize the full potential of people or an organization in achieving successful innovation.

From the definition of contemporary dictionaries, innovation is summarized as: creating, improving or introducing new ideas, new method or something new in technology or mind domain. However, it seems quite limited to utilize or address the whole potential of people or an organization in innovation processes or activities.

On the other hand, from the definitions of academic literatures, innovation can be synthesized as purposeful human activities of creating, synthesizing, and changing ideas, products, processes and services to achieve economic incentive or competitive advantages. But, still, this definition is not vividly addressing the strategic utilization of potential resources such as people, science & technology, social system, knowledge, environment and mind power.

Based on the proposed frame work (5W+1H), elements of new definition is suggested as Table 6.

Table 6

Elements of New Definition of Innovation

Categories

Key Elements

Person

Innovation leaders (e.g. Entrepreneur, Intrapreneur, Extrapreneur, Change agent, Change masters)

Object

New idea, product, process, service, and mindset

Reason / Purpose

To achieve economic value, sustainable competitive advantage, self-realization

Space / Domain

In a complex, non-linear, dynamic social system

Time

Discontinuous (disruptive innovation)

Action / Method

By strategic integrating and practicing people, knowledge, and Science & Technology

Person. Innovation is practiced by dedicated innovation leaders such as entrepreneurs, intrapreneurs, extrapreneurs, change agents, or change masters (Hender, 2004; Kanter, 1983; Rogers, 1962). As Pinchot & Pellman (1999 p. 16) suggested, innovation could not happen unless someone took on the innovation leadership role. Even though many people participates in the innovation activity, there is at least one dedicated innovation leader who persists it at the end and it is a necessary condition to realize innovation. Therefore, we can say that innovation is made by innovation leader(s).

Object and Action / Method. Innovation is strategic activities of integrating and practicing people, knowledge and science & technology to exploiting, creating or transforming new ideas, products, processes, services and mindsets. As Kuczmarki insisted (2003) that “a truly innovative organization has developed a mindset that permeates every aspect of its business. That is because innovation is a pervasive attitude, a feeling, an emotional state, an ongoing commitment to newness. It is a set of values that represents a belief in seeing beyond the present and making that vision a reality.” Therefore, objects of innovation are not only tangible or intangible resources such as new ideas, products, processes or services but also the mindset.

Reason / Purpose. The purpose of innovation is gaining economic value, sustainable competitive advantage and self-realization of innovation leaders. According to Lee (2005 p. 210), many entrepreneurs started their business not only for tracing economic incentives but also for realizing the ‘self’ or achieving the dream. So, self-realization is one of the critical reasons of innovation.

Space (Domain) and Time. Innovation occurs in a complex, non-linear and dynamic social system along with discontinuous time set. In Van de Ven’s article, Foster (2008) he summarized the domain of innovation as “a complex, non-linear, dynamic process.”

Meanwhile, Hatcher & Guerdat (2008) presented the time of innovation as immediate, revolutionary, radical or takes long time, and it can be translated into “discontinuity” which is the major source of innovation(1997 pp. 18~40).

In sum, innovation can be newly defined as Innovation leader(s)’s strategic activities of integrating and practicing people, knowledge and science & technology of exploiting, creating or transforming new ideas, products, processes, servicse and mindsets to achieve economic values, sustainable competitive advantages as well as self-realization in a complex, non-linear and dynamic social system along with discontinuous time set.

Discussion

Role of HRD for Innovation

According to the new definition of innovation, developing innovation capability and innovation leaders are two crucial factors in achieving innovation success.

Hender (2004) categorized the types of innovation leader(s) into 1) Intrapreneur, 2) Entrepreneur, and 3) Extrapreneur. Intrapreneurs turn ideas into realities inside the organization. Entrepreneur develops the product or service into a money-making proposition. Extrapreneurs are leaders of venture process team or individual venture, who places externally-generated ideas into business. She also characterized seven imperative capabilities of innovation leaders: creating a climate for innovation; recruiting for innovation; team building; managing innovation teams; developing skills; and finding and working with supporters. Then we have to ask the question, “How can we develop innovation capabilities in people?

McLean & McLean (2001) defined human resource development (HRD) as: “HRD is any process or activity that, either initially or over the long-term, has the potential to develop adults, work-based knowledge, expertise, productivity, and satisfaction, whether for personal or group/team gain, or for the benefit of an organization, community, nation, or, ultimately, the whole of humanity.” McLean (2005) identified the importance of organization culture which can be developed or moderated by HRD to foster creativity and innovation performance. Foster (2008) stated, “The role of HRD in innovation includes developing human capacity and cultivating an organization environment conducive to innovation.” He then suggested HRD interventions to promote efficiency of innovation process based on Van de Ven’s MIRP innovation journey model.

Therefore, HRD can take a crucial role for innovation by developing innovation capabilities, innovation leader(s) in an organization, and cultivating new organizational culture that are conductive to innovation.

Systems Approach of HRD for Innovation

A systems approach of HRD can be applied to developing innovation capability and innovation leader(s).

According to Swanson (2001), “systems theory captures the complex and dynamic interactions of environments, organization, work process and group/individual variables operating at any point in time and over time.” Instead of defining systems theory, he described it in scope and meaning. The scope of systems theory is composed of four fields: general systems theory, cybernetics, chaos theory and complex adaptive systems. He also categorized the meaning into ontology: the nature of the world and systems; and an epistemology: a way to view the world; a unifying theory (R. A. Swanson & Holton, 2001 pp. 114~116). Swanson insisted that if HRD professionals or researchers agreed that they serve those in organizations, they should adopt the science of systems.

In addition, a systems approach can provide more rigorous and practical evaluation and measurement of HRD interventions for innovation (Wang, Dou, & Li, 2002). In comparison with the systems model, process model lacks empirical research to substantiate their validity, and have simple unitary progression of phases or stages of development over time (Van de Ven et al., 2000 pp. 108~113). As Cheng (1996) said a systems approach was appropriate to analyze non-linear and dynamic patterns of innovation, and it was effective to study a complex, nonlinear and dynamic HRD for innovation.

According to the proposed new definition of innovation and roles of HRD, innovation capability and innovation leaders should be developed by HRD professionals and researchers to help achieve innovation goals in a dynamic social system.

By the way, we have to ask how the system based HRD study can contribute to promoting innovation. A cross-section of the systems leg of the three-legged stool was proposed by Swanson & Holton (2001 pp. 117~118). The model was composed of: 1) information-knowledge or data about systems, 2) capabilities – the potential to act, and 3) direction-guidance for fields’ activities and development. They described systems theory for HRD as, “the primary goal of systems theory is to uncover information about systems.” The systems approach can provide HRD with capabilities - the potential to act as well as serve as a guiding force that offers direction for a discipline’s activities and future.

Therefore, systems approach HRD can be said to be capable of addressing the development of innovation capability and leadership as well as change organizational culture.

Innovation Capability Model

Lawson & Sampson (2001) defined innovation capability as “the ability to continuously transform knowledge and ideas into new products, processes and systems for the benefit of the firm and its stakeholders,” and they explained dynamic innovation capability as, “a higher-order integration capability, that is, the ability to mold and manage multiple capabilities. Organizations possessing this innovation capability have the ability to integrate key capabilities and resources of their firm to successfully stimulate innovation.”

They adopted the resource base view (RBV) approach of strategic management of innovation capability and explained it as “RBV assumes that performance differences across firms are due to differences arising from valuable, rent-generating, firm specific resources and capabilities that cannot be easily imitated or substituted.” By combining resource base view of strategic management and dynamic capability model, an integrated model of innovation capability was proposed as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Model of Innovation Capability

Although the model of innovation capability comes from the empirical case study of CISCO, it has some limitations with regards to HRD point of view.

First, the model did not explain the mechanism of learning for innovation in an organization. Authors proposed that learning occurs when an organization interact with customers and competitors. But learning for innovation does not only occur by communicating externally but also interacting internally. Internalization of learning is as important as external learning.

Second, the model did not specifically address the motivation and psychological factors in innovation process. Authors addressed the motivation with respect to extrinsic compensation approach. But intrinsic motivation or psychological compensation should be addressed to explain the motivation of innovation.

Third, authors did not explain the relationship between innovation capability and applying it into the real world. Innovation capability can not guarantee the success of innovation. Innovation leaders should be counted on the most critical factor of practicing or realizing innovation by integrating and utilizing innovation capabilities. In this sense, new innovation capability model which has strong bases of theoretical bases and empirical studies is required to address HRD for innovation.

According to expectancy theory (Vroom, 1964), performance can be described as the function of ability and motivation.

The relationship between ability and motivation is multiplication, which means both of them are necessary for performance.

Lewin (1951) proposed the field theory to explain the human behavior. According to Lewin’s model, human behavior can be described as a function of the person and the environment.

DeSimone et al (1998) described the trainability in HRD as function of motivation, ability and perceptions of the work environment.

However, socio-technical theory proposed the socio-technical system which have two fundamental premises: 1) organization/work unit is combined with social and technical system 2) socio-technical system is open in relation to its environment. (Cummings & Worley, 2004 pp. 340~341). The socio-technical system (or STS) is applied to improving organizational performances by integrating social context of people and technical work design. The importance of socialization is supported by Korte’s empirical research (2008). He described that “socialization is an important development strategy for organizations looking to increase the capacity of their work, improve their competitive advantage and develop future capabilities by bringing new talents into the organization in the form of current and potential expertise.”

In sum, innovation capability is a function of technical skills of people, motivation, social ability and perception of environment.

A new systems approach model of HRD for innovation, then, is proposed as Figure 2. As Drucker (2002) proposed, the inputs of innovation were three outside factors and four inside factors. In addition to the Drucker’s innovation source, initial innovation capability is included the model. A firm’s outputs are divided into four elements: economic performances, competitive advantage, self-realization, and reinforced innovation capability. Innovation leadership is also included the model to explain the transformation of innovation capability into real innovation. Feedback process is also crucial for innovation process to reinforce innovation capability.

Figure 2.

A Systems Approach Model of HRD for Innovation

Conclusions and further researches

This paper proposed 1) a new definition of innovation for HRD study, 2) roles of HRD for innovation, and 3) the construct of a systems approach model of HRD study for innovation.

The new definition of innovation addressed cultivating new opportunities for HRD professionals and researchers by providing multi facets of HRD study in innovation. Suggested HRD roles for innovation were anticipated that it would be useful to deepen the knowledge of HRD capability for studying innovation.

The proposed systems approach model of HRD for innovation requires further research in identifying and refining measures for different forms or degrees of innovation capability. For example, there may be different emphasis on elements required for innovation capability development versus innovation leadership development. This would provide a fuller picture of innovation within organizations and more specific strategies for developing human resources. The innovation capability construct has the potential to be developed to make a significant contribution in furthering the knowledge of human resource development of innovation.

Next step, the researcher will address 1) constructing a refined model, 2) developing hypotheses and instrument to evaluation validity and effectiveness of the model, and 3) conducting an empirical study to address strategic innovation leadership development.

Reference

Cheng, Y., & van de Ven,Andrew H. (1996). Learning the innovation journey: Order out of chaos? Organization Science, 7(6), 593-614.

Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2004). Organization development and change Thomson South-Western.

DeSimone, R. L., Werner, J. M., & Harris, D. M. (1998). Human resource development Dryden Press Fort Worth.

Drucker, P. F. (1954). The practice of management. NY 10022: HarperCollins Publisher, Inc.

Drucker, P. F. (2002). The discipline of innovation. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80(Issue 8), 95-101.

Foster, R. D. (2008). Role of HRD in the innovation journey.(Midwest Academy of Management), Retrieved from http://www.midwestacademy.org/Proceedings/2006/papers/paper28.pdf

Ha, T. S., Jung, J. H., & Oh, S. Y. (2006). Method to analyze user behavior in home environment. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 10(2), 110-121.

Hatcher, T., & Guerdat, K. (2008). Where is innovation in HRD research? Human Resource Development Quarterly, 19(1), 1.

Hender, J. (2004). Innovation leadership: Key roles in context., http://www.portfoliocomms.co.uk/userfiles/Innovation%20Leadership.pdf.

Kanter, R. M. (1983). The change masters: Innovations for productivity in the american corporation (1st ed.). NY: Simon and Schuster.

Korte, R. (2008). A case study of the socialization of newly hired engineers: How new engineers learn the social norms of an organization. Academy of Human Resource Development, Proceeding, 973.

Kuchinke, K. P. (1999). Leadership and culture: Work-related values and leadership styles among one company's U.S. and german telecommunication employees. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 10(2), 135.

Kuczmarski, T. D. (2003). What is innovation? and why aren’t companies doing more of it? Journal of Consumer Marketing, 20(6), 536-541.

Lange, O. (1943). A note on innovations. The Review of Economic Statistics, 25(1), 19-25.

Lawson, B., & Samson, D. (2001). Developing innovation capability in organisations: A dynamic capabilities approach. International Journal of Innovation Management, 5(3), 377.

Lee, S. J. (1999). Corporate strategy (9th ed.). Seoul, Korea: Sigma Insight Group.

Lee, S. J. (2004). Growth strategy: A conceptual framework KDI, School of Public Policy and Management.

Lee, S. J. (2005). Strategic leadership (1st ed.). Seoul, Korea: Sigma Insight Group.

Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers (D. cartwright, ed.). New York: Harpers,

McKinsey & Company. (2008). How companies approach innovation: A McKinsey global survey.(April 01), 04/01/2008. Retrieved from http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Strategy/Innovation/How_companies_approach_innovation_A_McKinsey_Global_Survey_2069

McLean, G., & McLean, L. (2001). If we can't define HRD in one country, how can we define it in another? Human Resource Development International, 4(3)

McLean, L. D. (2005). Organizational culture's influence on creativity and innovation: A review of the literature and implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(2), 226.

Peters, T. J., & Waterman, R. H. (1982). In search of excellence. New York, 1, 982.

Pinchot, G., & Pellman, R. (1999). Intrapreneuring in action: A handbook for business innovation Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. New York, 896

Rogers, E. M. (1962). Diffusion of innovations The Free Press of Glencoe.

Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous technological change. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), S71-102.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). Theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle. Half-Title: Harvard Economic Studies, (46)

Schumpeter, J. A. (1939). Business cycles: A theoretical, historical, and statistical analysis of the capitalist process McGraw-Hill.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1947). The creative response in economic history. The Journal of Economic History, 7(2), 149-159.

Senge, P. M. (1992). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization Century Business.

Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F. (2001). Foundations of human resource development Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Swanson, R. A. (2001). Human resource development and its underlying theory. Human Resource Development International, 4(3), 299.

Tidd, J., Bessant, J. R., & Pavitt, K. (1997). Managing innovation: Integrating technological, market and organizational change Wiley.

Van de Ven, A. H., Angle, H. L., & Poole, M. S. (2000). Research on the management of innovation: The minnesota studies Oxford University Press, USA.

Vera, D., & Crossan, M. (2004). Strategic leadership and organizational learning. Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 222-240.

Vicere, A. A. (1992). The strategic leadership imperative for executive development. Human Resource Planning, 15(1), 15-31.

Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation Wiley New York.

Wang, G. G., Dou, Z., & Li, N. (2002). A systems approach to measuring return on investment for HRD interventions. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13(2), 203-224.

Dictionaries (Online dictionaries, retrieved on April 01 2008):

Britanica: http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9367999

Meriam-Webster: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/innovation

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?dict=CALD&key=40920&ph=on

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English online http://www.ldoceonline.com/

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: http://www.bartleby.com/61/32/I0153200.html

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  1. Favicon of http://www.dissertations-writing.co.uk/research_methodology.htm BlogIcon Research Methodology 2011.10.03 20:35 신고  댓글주소  수정/삭제  댓글쓰기

    Your blog is really helps for my search and i really like it.. Thanks a lot..:)

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    You're welcome. I really appreciate your kind words. :)

http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6638.html



Most Popular Articles, Papers of the Decade

Executive Summary:

Celebrating our recent tenth anniversary, HBS Working Knowledge looks back to our most-read articles and working papers in the last decade.

HBS Working Knowledge readers want it all, judging by our all-time most popular articles. Here you'll find stories on everything from maintaining a professional image to writing a business plan, from how to market on social media to why music pirates may have actually helped the music industry.

Readers also benefitted when, in 2008, we began to publish HBS faculty working papers—often the first expressions of emerging ideas on the cutting edge of management research. The most popular paper looks at the dark side of goal-setting, with the provocative titleGoals Gone Wild. Other papers in this collection look at how to improve decision making, encouraging employees to speak up, and the difficulty of coordinating communication in a complex organization.

Enjoy!

Most Popular Articles 2000-2010

Creating a Positive Professional Image
Published: June 20, 2005
In today's diverse workplace, your actions and motives are constantly under scrutiny. Time to manage your own professional image before others do it for you. An interview with Laura Morgan Roberts.

Music Downloads: Pirates-or Customers?
Published: June 21, 2004
Professor Felix Oberholzer-Gee and co-author Koleman Strumpf floored the disbelieving music industry with their findings that illegal music downloads don't hurt CD sales. Oberholzer discusses what the industry should do next.

A Balanced Scorecard Approach to Measure Customer Profitability
Published: August 8, 2005
Happy customers are good, but profitable customers are much better. In this article, professor and Balanced Scorecard guru Robert S. Kaplan introduces BSC Customer Profitability Metrics. From Balanced Scorecard Report.

Marketing Your Way Through a Recession
Published: March 3, 2008
In a recession, consumers become value oriented, distributors are concerned about cash, and employees worry about their jobs. But a downturn is no time to stop spending on marketing. The key, says professor John Quelch, is to understand how the needs of your customers and partners change, and adapt your strategies to the new reality.

Understanding Users of Social Networks
Published: September 14, 2009
Many business leaders are mystified about how to reach potential customers on social networks such as Facebook. Professor Mikolaj Jan Piskorski provides a fresh look into the interpersonal dynamics of these sites and offers guidance for approaching these tantalizing markets.

Social Network Marketing: What Works?
Published: July 27, 2009
Purchase decisions are influenced differently in social networks than in the brick-and-mortar world, says Harvard Business School professor Sunil Gupta. The key: Marketers should tap into the networking aspect of sites such as Facebook.

Enron's Lessons for Managers
Published: July 12, 2004
Like the Challenger space shuttle disaster was a learning experience for engineers, so too is the Enron crash for managers, says Harvard Business School professor Malcolm S. Salter. Yet what have we learned?

Power Posing: Fake It Until You Make It
Published: September 20, 2010
Nervous about an upcoming presentation or job interview? Holding one's body in "high-power" poses for short time periods can summon an extra surge of power and sense of well-being when it's needed, according to Harvard Business School professor Amy J.C. Cuddy.

10 Reasons to Design a Better Corporate Culture
Published: December 22, 2008
Organizations with strong, adaptive cultures enjoy labor cost advantages, great employee and customer loyalty, and a smoother on-ramp in leadership succession. A book excerpt from The Ownership Quotient: Putting the Service Profit Chain to Work for Unbeatable Competitive Advantage by HBS professors Jim Heskett and W. Earl Sasserand coauthor Joe Wheeler.

Updating a Classic: Writing a Great Business Plan
Published: October 6, 2008
Harvard Business School professor William A. Sahlman's article on how to write a great business plan is a Harvard Business Review classic, and has just been reissued in book form. We asked Sahlman what he would change if he wrote the article, now a decade old, today.

Most Popular Working Papers 2008-2011

Goals Gone Wild: The Systematic Side Effects of Over-Prescribing Goal Setting
Published: February 11, 2009
For decades, goal setting has been promoted as a halcyon pill for improving employee motivation and performance in organizations. Advocates of goal setting argue that for goals to be successful, they should be specific and challenging, and countless studies find that specific, challenging goals motivate performance far better than "do your best" exhortations. The authors of this article, however, argue that it is often these same characteristics of goals that cause them to "go wild."

How Can Decision Making Be Improved?
Published: August 28, 2008
While scholars can describe how people make decisions, and can envision how much better decision-making could be, they still have little understanding of how to help people overcome blind spots and behave optimally.

Do Friends Influence Purchases in a Social Network?
Published: May 21, 2009
In spite of the cultural and social revolution in the rise of social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace (and, in South Korea, Cyworld), the business viability of these sites remains in question. While many sites are attempting to follow Google and generate revenues from advertising, will advertising be effective? If friends influence the purchases of a user in a social network, it could potentially be a significant source of revenue for the sites and their corporate sponsors. Using a unique data set from Cyworld, this study empirically assesses if friends indeed influence purchases. The answer: It depends.

Communication (and Coordination?) in a Modern, Complex Organization
Published: July 31, 2008
Coordination, and the communication it implies, is central to the very existence of organizations. Despite their fundamental role in the purpose of organizations, scholars have little understanding of actual interaction patterns in modern, complex, multiunit firms. To open the proverbial "black box" and begin to reveal the internal wiring of the firm, this paper presents a detailed, descriptive analysis of the network of communications among members of a large, structurally, functionally, geographically, and strategically diverse firm. The full data set comprises more than 100 million electronic mail messages and over 60 million electronic calendar entries for a sample of more 30,000 employees over a three-month period in 2006.

From Strategy to Business Models and to Tactics
Published: November 24, 2009
Drivers such as globalization, deregulation, or technological change, just to mention a few, are profoundly changing the competitive game. Scholars and practitioners agree that the fastest-growing firms in this new environment appear to have taken advantage of these structural changes to compete "differently" and innovate in their business models. However, there is not yet agreement on what are the distinctive features of superior business models. This dispute may have arisen, in part, because of a lack of a clear distinction between the notions of strategy, business model, and tactics.

The Devil Wears Prada? Effects of Exposure to Luxury Goods on Cognition and Decision Making
Published: November 25, 2009
Gandhi once wrote that "a certain degree of physical harmony and comfort is necessary, but above a certain level it becomes a hindrance instead of a help." This observation raises interesting questions for psychologists regarding the effects of luxury. What psychological consequences do luxury goods have on people? In this paper, the authors argue that luxury goods can activate the concept of self-interest and affect subsequent cognition.

Performance Persistence in Entrepreneurship
Published: December 3, 2008
All else equal, a venture-capital-backed entrepreneur who starts a company that goes public has a 30 percent chance of succeeding in his or her next venture. First-time entrepreneurs, on the other hand, have only an 18 percent chance of succeeding, and entrepreneurs who previously failed have a 20 percent chance of succeeding. But why do these contrasts exist? Success breeds even more success if entrepreneurs have some skill.

The End of Chimerica
Published: December 16, 2009
For the better part of the past decade, the world economy has been dominated by a unique geoeconomic constellation that the authors call "Chimerica": a world economic order that combined Chinese export-led development with U.S. overconsumption on the basis of a financial marriage between the world's sole superpower and its most likely future rival. For China, the key attraction of the relationship was its potential to propel the Chinese economy forward by means of export-led growth. For the United States, Chimerica meant being able to consume more, save less, and still maintain low interest rates and a stable rate of investment. Yet, like many another marriage between a saver and a spender, Chimerica was not destined to last. In this paper, economic historiansNiall Ferguson of HBS and Moritz Schularick of Freie Universität Berlin consider the problem of global imbalances and try to set events in a longer-term perspective.

Authority versus Persuasion
Published: August 5, 2009
In directing employees, managers often face a choice between invoking authority and persuasion. In particular, since a firm's formal and relational contracts and its culture and norms are quite rigid in the short term, a manager who needs to prevent an employee from undertaking the wrong action has the choice of either trying to persuade the employee or relying on interpersonal authority. In choosing between persuasion and authority the manager makes a cost-benefit trade-off. This paper studies that trade-off, focusing in particular on conflicts that originate in open disagreement.

Speaking Up Constructively: Managerial Practices that Elicit Solutions from Front-Line Employees
Published: August 25, 2010
How can front-line workers be encouraged to speak up when they know how to improve an organization's operation processes? This question is particularly urgent in the U.S. health-care industry, where problems occur often and consequences range from minor inconveniences to serious patient harm. The authors examine the effectiveness of organizational information campaigns and managerial role modeling in encouraging hospital staff to speak up when they encounter operational problems and, when speaking up, to propose solutions to hospital management. The researchers find that both mechanisms can lead employees to report problems and propose solutions, and that information campaigns are particularly effective in departments whose managers are less engaged in problem solving. 

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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나를 손가락질 해다오 

    - 
이항녕 (전 홍익대 총장) 


역사(歷史)의 전환점(轉換點)에 서 있는 오늘에 있어서 나의 심정은 매우 착잡합니다. 온 세상이 민주화(民主化)를 위한 정치발전 작업에 들떠 있지만, 나는 그것보다도 나 자신이라는 인간이 싫어졌고 나의 처세에 구토를 느낍니다. 

민주주의를 위해 온갖 어려움을 무릅쓰고 갖은 고난을 겪은 사람들이 이제 내 앞에 서 있습니다. 그들이 어려움을 참을 때에, 그들이 지조(志操)를 지킬 때에, 그들이 순교(殉敎)하고자 할 때에 나는 도망을 쳤습니다. 

많은 사람들이 먹을 것이 없을 때 나는 입맛이 없다고 아내가 정성껏 마련해 준 음식을 타박하고, 유명한 음식점을 찾아 식도락(食道樂)을 즐겼고, 많은 사람이 생계비(生計費)도 못되는 보수를 받고 허덕일 때 나는 판공비(辦公費)가 모자라서 일류 요정에 나가 미인의 손을 자주 못 만져보는 것을 불만스럽게 생각했고, 많은 사람이 버스도 제대로 못타고 교통지옥에 시달릴 때 나는 고급 승용차의 폭신한 쿠션에 앉아서 그 교통지옥을 영화처럼 감상했습니다. 

나는 고작해야 잡문(雜文) 나부랭이나 쓰는 주제에 다른 동료들이 학문적 연구가 부족하다고 짜증을 내었고, 나는 내가 조석(朝夕)으로 직접 거느리고 있는 친자식들에게 조차 아무런 감화(感化)를 못 미치면서도 다른 교수들이 학생지도를 소홀히 한다고 나무랐고, 나에게는 나라를 생각하고 부모를 중히 여기는 생각은 없으면서 학생들에게는 忠-孝를 강조했습니다. 이렇게 해서 나는 대학총장이라는 영화를 잘 누려왔습니다. 생각해보면 희극(喜劇)이요, 만화(漫畵)입니다. 

첫째는 내가 학자랍시고 강단에서 행세했다는 것이 희극입니다.아니 희극이라기보다는 오히려 비극이라는 것이 옳겠지요. 나는 학자로서의 소양을 갖추지 못한데다 게을러서 내 전공과목에 관한 기초적인 지식도 불충분합니다. 

나는 대학에서 영어나 독일어를 배우기도 하였지만, 통 공부를 안 해 외국원서(外國原書)를 독파(讀破)할 능력이 없어서 고작해야 일본어 책에서 겨우 얻은 얄팍한 밑천으로 억지로 학자 행세를 해왔습니다. 

나에게는 아무런 새로운 학문체계도 없고 어떠한 독창적인 견해도 없으면서, 조그만 밑천을 값싸게 팔아넘기고는 오히려 세태를 초월하여 성실하게 진리만을 탐구하는 독학자(篤學者)를 시세(時勢)에 어둡다고 얕잡아보고 비웃었습니다. 

나는 겸손보다는 오만스럽게 구는 것이 나의 권위를 높인다고 생각했습니다. 이런 사람이 버젓하게 학자행세를 할 수 있었고, 이런 사람이 이 교육계의 원로라고 떠받침을 받아왔으니 어찌 비극이 아니겠습니까! 

내가 학생을 교육한다는 것도 희극입니다. 교육한다는 것은 조금이라도 나은 사람이 조금이라도 모자라는 사람에게 모범을 보여 그대로 따라오게 하는 것입니다. 

그런데 나는 명색이 교육자이지 학생보다 눈곱만큼이라도 나은 것은 없을 뿐 아니라 오히려 그들만도 훨씬 못하며 아무것도 모범을 보일 것이 없습니다. 내가 누구에게 가르쳐주며 누가 나에게 무엇을 배우겠습니까! 

나는 학생들처럼 순진하지 못하고 너무나 타산적입니다. 나는 학생들처럼 솔직하지 못하고 너무나 위선적(僞善的)입니다. 나는 학생들과는 달리 세속적 출세경쟁에 바쁩니다. 나는 학생들처럼 인류와 나라와 학문에 큰 관심이 있는 것이 아니라, 나 자신의 이해(利害)관계가 더 큰 관심사입니다. 

그런 나 같은 사람을 모범으로 하여 학생들이 그것을 닮는다면 장차 우리나라가 어떻게 될 것이며, 인류의 장래가 어떻게 되겠습니까! 

내가 소위 사회의 지도층에 속한다고 하는 것도 만화요, 웃기는 일입니다, 나는 멸사봉공(滅私奉公)이라는 말은 자주 했어도 그것을 실행한 일은 없습니다. 나는 한 푼의 세금이라도 덜 낼 궁리는 쉴 새 없이 했어도 사회를 위하여 단 한 푼의 희사(喜捨)를 한 일이 없습니다. 

나는 의식주의 걱정이 없건만 나보다 더 잘사는 사람을 미워했고, 나는 한 끼의 점심 값으로 수천 원을 쓰고도 하루 종일 뼈아프도록 일하고 겨우 1천 원도 못되는 삯을 받는 청소부 아주머니를 동정해 본 일이 없습니다. 이런 내가 무슨 지도층에 속한단 말입니까! 

나의 최대 관심사는 어떻게 하면 하루라도 더 오래 안일한 생활을 계속할 수 있느냐 하는 것입니다. 이 더러운 욕망은 하필 오늘의 나의 철학이 아니라 일제시대부터 내가 만고불멸(萬古不滅)의 철칙으로 알고 내려온 나의 확신(確信)입니다. 지금 이 순간에 나는 이 확신을 저주합니다. 

나는 한일합방(韓日合邦) 때에 절개를 지킨 애국자의 자손들이 곤궁(困窮)하게 살고 있는데 친일파의 자손이 지금까지도 잘 사는 것을 보고 있습니다. 나는 일제시대에 그들에게 아부한 사람들이 잘 살았고, 그 자손들이 좋은 교육을 받아 지금까지도 영화를 누리고 있는 사실을 잘 알고 있습니다. 나 자신이 바로 그 한 사람입니다. 

나는 일제 때에 그들에게 붙어서 민족의식을 상실한 것을 해방 직후에는 부끄럽게 생각했었으나 그 뒤 얼마 안가서 나의 일제행각(日帝行脚)에 대한 정당한 변명을 마련했습니다.그것은 시세는 어쩔 수 없는 것이라는 것이었지요. 나는 4.19 이후에 그때까지의 비교육자적인 처신을 일시 후회했었습니다. 

다시는 역사와 민족 앞에 부끄럽지 않은 사람이 되겠다고 맹세하기도 했습니다. 그러나 오래지 않아 나는 다시 곡학아세(曲學阿世)의 길을 걸었습니다. 나는 학원(學園)의 영원한 발전보다도 일시적 무사를 택했습니다. 

오늘의 우리나라에 진정한 학문이 없고 진정한 교육이 없는 것은 모두 나와 같은, 파렴치한(破廉恥漢) 때문입니다. 나는 이것을 깊이 참회하고 있습니다. 그리고 새사람이 되기를 결심도 합니다. 그러나 이 결의가 과연 얼마나 오래갈는지 도무지 자신이 없습니다. 나는 심한 건망증환자이기 때문입니다. 

내가 또다시 그 더러운 처세철학을 소생시켜 추(醜)한 사람이 되지 않도록 동료들은 나를 꾸짖어 주시고 제자들은 나를 손가락질 해 주기를 바랍니다. 

<조선일보 1980. 1. 26>



Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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The 10/20/30 Rule of PowerPoint



Thanks to Peter Smythe, this article was updated with the correct link (Dec. 21, 2017).

source: https://www.businessstudent.com/topics/how-to-present-and-pitch/


I suffer from something called Ménière’s disease—don’t worry, you cannot get it from reading my blog. The symptoms of Ménière’s include hearing loss, tinnitus (a constant ringing sound), and vertigo. There are many medical theories about its cause: too much salt, caffeine, or alcohol in one’s diet, too much stress, and allergies. Thus, I’ve worked to limit control all these factors.

However, I have another theory. As a venture capitalist, I have to listen to hundreds of entrepreneurs pitch their companies. Most of these pitches are crap: sixty slides about a “patent pending,” “first mover advantage,” “all we have to do is get 1% of the people in China to buy our product” startup. These pitches are so lousy that I’m losing my hearing, there’s a constant ringing in my ear, and every once in while the world starts spinning.

To prevent an epidemic of Ménière’s in the venture capital community, I am evangelizing the 10/20/30 Rule of PowerPoint. It’s quite simple: a PowerPoint presentation should have ten slides, last no more than twenty minutes, and contain no font smaller than thirty points. While I’m in the venture capital business, this rule is applicable for any presentation to reach agreement: for example, raising capital, making a sale, forming a partnership, etc.

    Ten slides. Ten is the optimal number of slides in a PowerPoint presentation because a normal human being cannot comprehend more than ten concepts in a meeting—and venture capitalists are very normal. (The only difference between you and venture capitalist is that he is getting paid to gamble with someone else’s money). If you must use more than ten slides to explain your business, you probably don’t have a business. The ten topics that a venture capitalist cares about are:

      Problem

      Your solution

      Business model

      Underlying magic/technology

      Marketing and sales

      Competition

      Team

      Projections and milestones

      Status and timeline

      Summary and call to action

    Twenty minutes. You should give your ten slides in twenty minutes. Sure, you have an hour time slot, but you’re using a Windows laptop, so it will take forty minutes to make it work with the projector. Even if setup goes perfectly, people will arrive late and have to leave early. In a perfect world, you give your pitch in twenty minutes, and you have forty minutes left for discussion.

    Thirty-point font. The majority of the presentations that I see have text in a ten point font. As much text as possible is jammed into the slide, and then the presenter reads it. However, as soon as the audience figures out that you’re reading the text, it reads ahead of you because it can read faster than you can speak. The result is that you and the audience are out of synch.

    The reason people use a small font is twofold: first, that they don’t know their material well enough; second, they think that more text is more convincing. Total bozosity. Force yourself to use no font smaller than thirty points. I guarantee it will make your presentations better because it requires you to find the most salient points and to know how to explain them well. If “thirty points,” is too dogmatic, the I offer you an algorithm: find out the age of the oldest person in your audience and divide it by two. That’s your optimal font size.

So please observe the 10/20/30 Rule of PowerPoint. If nothing else, the next time someone in your audience complains of hearing loss, ringing, or vertigo, you’ll know what caused the problem. One last thing: to learn more about the zen of great presentations, check out a site called Presentation Zen 


by my buddy Garr Reynolds.


Read more: https://www.businessstudent.com/topics/how-to-present-and-pitch/



Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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제품 정보
본 장에서는 MOSS 2007에 대한 제품 정보와 관렦 리소스를 정리하여 제공합니다.
1. 
제품 홈페이지

A. 
영문 홈페이지
http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint
B. 
한글 홈페이지(개편 짂행 중): http://www.microsoft.com/korea/sharepoint
2. 
기능 비교
A. 
제품굮 별 기능 비교 (WSS 3.0, Forms Server 2007, Standard/Enterprise CAL)
http://office.microsoft.com/ko-kr/sharepointserver/FX101758691042.aspx
B. 
제품굮 별 기능 상세 비교 스프레드시트 (WSS 3.0, Forms Server 2007, Standard/Enterprise CAL)
http://office.microsoft.com/ko-kr/sharepointserver/FX101758691042.aspx
C. Enterprise CAL 
기능 요약
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/2007/08/29/moss-2007-enterprise-cal.aspx
D. 
구버전 제품인 SPS 2003과의 기능 비교
http://office.microsoft.com/ko-kr/sharepointserver/FX101758881042.aspx
3. 
제품 기능 한글화 데모
A. 
제품 개요 데모 
http://www.microsoft.com/korea/office/preview/servers/sharepointserver/demo/Sharepoint_server.html
B. 
통합커뮤니케이션 및 협업 시나리오 데모
http://www.microsoft.com/korea/events/uc/default.mspx
C. 
비즈니스 인텔리전스 시나리오 데모
http://www.microsoft.com/korea/events/uc/Office2007_2.swf
4. 
제품 기능 영문 데모
A. 
제품 개요 관렦 데모 모음
http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/prodinfo/demos.mspx
B. 
협업 관렦 데모 모음
http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/capabilities/collaboration/demos.mspx
C. 
포털 관렦 데모 모음
http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/capabilities/portals/demos.mspx
D. 
전자양식을 이용한 비즈니스 프로세스 자동화 관렦 데모 모음
http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/capabilities/bpf/demos.mspx
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr 3
E. 
비즈니스 인텔리전스 관렦 데모 모음
http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/capabilities/bi/demos.mspx
5. 
고객 성공 사례
A. 
국내 고객 사례 목록
http://www.microsoft.com/korea/customerevidence/evidence_list.aspx?initmenu=No&industry=ALL&solution=ALL&tech=OfficeSharePointServer2007&situation=ALL
B. 
국외 고객 사례 목록
http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/prodinfo/evidence.mspx
C. 
국외 고객 사례 전체 목록
http://www.microsoft.com/casestudies/search.aspx?ProTaxID=1902
6. 
백서 모음
A. 
한글화 평가 가이드
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/2007/08/17/moss-2007.aspx
B. 2007 Office System 
기반의 기업용 Web 2.0 업무 플랫폼
http://download.microsoft.com/download/0/1/5/0154b9c3-44ae-4020-8542-cc9b9767bc3a/2007_Office_System_and_Web_2.0-ko.doc
C. 
콘텐츠 형식과 검색을 통한 전사적 메타데이터 관리
http://office.microsoft.com/download/afile.aspx?AssetID=AM102433461033
D. MOSS 2007 
기반의 Social Network 관리
http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=98123&clcid=0x409
E. 
비즈니스 홖경에서의 블로그 및 위키 홗용 방안
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/2007/09/06/business-blog-and-wiki.aspx
F. 
홗발해짂 공동 작업, WSS 3.0과 모바일 작업 공갂
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/2007/09/06/wss-mobile-workspace.aspx
7. 
세미나 발표 자료 모음
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/tags/_38C1F8BB98B0_/default.aspx
8. 
보도자료
A. MOSS 
매출 규모 관렦 기사
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/2007/08/16/sales-of-microsoft-office-sharepoint-server-break-800-million.aspx
B. ECM(Enterprise Contents Management) 
시장 동향 관렦 기사
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/2007/10/15/ecm.aspx
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr 4
C. 
해외 기사 목록
http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/news.mspx
9. 180
일 무료 평가판 다운로드
A. MOSS 2007 x86 
버전
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=2E6E5A9C-EBF6-4F7F-8467-F4DE6BD6B831&displaylang=ko
B. MOSS 2007 x64 
버전
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=3015fde4-85f6-4cbc-812d-55701fbfb563&DisplayLang=ko
C. MOSS 2007 
언어팩 x86 버전
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=2447426b-8689-4768-bff0-cbb511599a45&DisplayLang=ko
D. MOSS 2007 
언어팩 x64 버전
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=318d8562-58bd-4329-b1f6-f1941a38bc7f&DisplayLang=ko
10. 
서비스팩 1 관렦 정보
A. 
서비스팩 1 리소스 센터
http://technet.microsoft.com/ko-kr/office/sharepointserver/bb735839(en-us).aspx
B. 
서비스팩백서
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/21dcf8aa-8a6e-4325-aa17-0188e491361c1033.mspx?mfr=true
C. 
서비스팩온라인도서
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/91f47832-c84b-4a25-a703-41971c1c479a1033.mspx?mfr=true
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr 5
관리자를 위한 리소스
본 장에서는 MOSS 2007의 구성/배포/설정 방법과 같은 관리자를 위한 리소스를 정리하여 제공합니다.
1. TechCenter 
홈페이지

A. 
영문 홈페이지
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/office/sharepointserver/default.aspx
B. 
한글 홈페이지http://www.microsoft.com/korea/TechNet/sharepoint/default.mspx
C. TechNet 
최싞 콘텐츠 모음지속적으로 업데이트 됨
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/21dcf8aa-8a6e-4325-aa17-0188e491361c1033.mspx?mfr=true
D. TechNet 
최싞 백서 모음지속적으로 업데이트 됨
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/63ac78c9-6246-49f6-91fd-713ce6be559a1033.mspx?mfr=true
2. 
오프라인 교육
A. 
마이크로소프트 공인교육센터 다우교육원: TS Exam 70-630 연계
http://www.daoudata.co.kr/lecture/OffLine.asp?IDX=120#
3. 
온라인 교육
A. MOSS 2007 Training
http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/sharepointserver/HA102488011033.aspx
B. 
한글화 온라인 리소스 모음
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/2007/08/29/1853199.aspx
C. Microsoft IT 
제공 MOSS 2007 현업 적용 가이드라인
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/2007/09/10/microsoft-it-moss-2007.aspx
D. 
마이크로소프트 파트너사 프리엠컨설팅 제작 온라인 교육 http://www.solutionbuilder.co.kr/web/fmol/default.aspx
E. 
마이크로소프트 파트너사 제작 온라인 교육 http://blog.sharepointhosting.com/Downloads/SharePoint-Tutorials.aspx
F. 
본사 제작 Virtual Labs
http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/learning/virtual.mspx
4. 
웹캐스트 모음
A. 
한국마이크로소프트 제작 웹캐스트 모음
http://www.microsoft.com/korea/events/moss/default.mspx
B. 
본사 제작 웹캐스트 모음
http://go.microsoft.com/?linkid=7132870
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr 6
C. 2007 Office System
싞제품 발표회 세션 녹화 동영상
http://www.microsoft.com/korea/events/ready2007/agenda/agenda.mspx
D. Korea SharePoint Conference 2007 
세션 녹화 동영상
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/2007/10/02/korea-sharepoint-conference-2007-recordings.aspx
E. 
기타 본사 제작 웹캐스트 모음
http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/learning/events.mspx
5. 
관렦 도서
A. 
성공하는 팀 프로젝트를 위한 오피스 쉐어포인트 서버 2007
http://www.infopub.co.kr/bookinfo/bookinfo.asp?sku=04000116
B. 
온라인 도서 목록: MOSS
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/6a3ad2f2-e60f-4e7b-a409-f361328fd6441033.mspx?mfr=true
C. 
온라인 도서 목록: WSS
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver/WSS/en/library/decec839-73d9-4e23-b167-11e05dfc2feb1033.mspx?mfr=true
D. 
도서 목록
http://wss.asaris.de/sites/walsh/Lists/WSSv3%20FAQ/V%20Books.aspx
6. 
서버 구성배포 및 관리 관렦 리소스
A. 
논리적 아키텍처 구성 요소
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/aaed3a01-f4dc-4353-abda-0beced2080b61033.mspx?mfr=true
B. 
최적 성능을 위한 SQL Server 구성 및 모니터링 방안
http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=105623&clcid=0x409
C. 
소프트웨어 업데이트/패치 배포 방안
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/f484f5f2-35bb-4d70-bf56-dd1c4c287c721033.mspx?mfr=true
D. 
중소규모 배포에서의 데이터 백업 및 복구 방안
http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=102839&clcid=0x409
E. 
더 이상 사용되지 않는 사이트 자동 삭제 설정법
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/a219574c-783b-49e2-84a5-691685cd4b821033.mspx?mfr=true
F. SharePoint Toolbox
http://www.codeplex.com/sptoolbox
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr 7
7. 
커스터마이징 관렦 리소스
A. 
사이트 구조 커스터마이징
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/b18c35f6-2107-40b8-8102-7540d35d0de91033.mspx?mfr=true
B. 
페이지 디자인 커스터마이징
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/19dd4838-f0bd-4cfd-b490-8970e5cd81b41033.mspx?mfr=true
C. 
문서 관리 커스터마이징
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/afb61f44-5405-4a2f-9b13-2bc03a6e16f81033.mspx?mfr=true
D. 
워크플로 커스터마이징
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/ca538a1a-2017-4cf4-bb36-8a2f5c34ee051033.mspx?mfr=true
E. InfoPath 
폼 서비스 커스터마이징
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/7cb8b313-f0ec-4b98-9831-8afc10ff5d241033.mspx?mfr=true
F. 
비즈니스 인텔리전스
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/9f650af0-ffa9-4244-9715-94a93495a6351033.mspx?mfr=true
8. 
인증 관렦 리소스
A. LDAP 
폼 인증 구성 및 폼 인증 시 고려사항
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/2007/09/13/moss-2007-ldap.aspx
B. 
폼 인증과 관렦된 각종 기술 문서와 샘플 모음
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb975136.aspx
C. Windows Live ID 
인증 지원 모듈
http://www.codeplex.com/Release/ProjectReleases.aspx?ProjectName=CKS&ReleaseId=7746
9. IRM 
관렦 리소스
A. MOSS
 IRM 연동 기능 소개
http://blogs.msdn.com/ecm/archive/2006/06/09/624520.aspx
B. IRM 
적용 계획
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/f/?en-us/library/073bfc71-7b01-4b77-bdc3-ac018889d54b1033.mspx
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr 8
C. IRM 
설정 Step-By-Step 가이드
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=7bab2321-71e6-4cf2-8bcd-0880e0d1cda3&DisplayLang=en
10. 
검색 관렦 리소스
A. 
전사 검색을 위한 Crawling Planning
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/82c09ad6-6137-438d-a324-16a7f99e12681033.mspx?mfr=true
11. Enterprise 2.0 
관렦 리소스
A. 
향상된 블로그 지원 모듈
http://www.codeplex.com/Release/ProjectReleases.aspx?ProjectName=CKS&ReleaseId=4767
B. 
파트너 솔루션 소개: NewsGator & Atlassian
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr/archive/2007/10/30/web-2-o-summit-partner-pr-in-san-fransisco.aspx
12. 
기간계(LOB) 연동 관렦 리소스
A. 
상호운영성 리소스 모음
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/interopmigration/bb544954.aspx
B. 
기갂계 연동 시 고려할 수 있는 옵션 정리
http://blogs.msdn.com/sharepoint/archive/2007/10/26/integrating-sharepoint-with-other-portals-and-applications.aspx
C. BDC Definition Editor
http://blogs.msdn.com/sharepoint/archive/2007/08/22/announcing-the-microsoft-business-data-catalog-definition-editor-for-microsoft-office-sharepoint-server-2007.aspx
13. 
고객 지원 정보 모음: SharePoint 제품 관렦 Hotfix, KB, …
http://support.microsoft.com/ph/11373
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr 9
개발자를 위한 리소스
본 장에서는 MOSS 2007의 기능을 확장하거나 기반 솔루션을 개발하는 개발자를 위한 리소스를 정리하여 제공합니다.
1. Developer Portal
홈페이지

A. MOSS 
개발자 포털
http://msdn.microsoft.com/moss
B. WSS 
개발자 포털http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/sharepoint
C. MSDN
최싞 콘텐츠 RSS 피드http://www.microsoft.com/feeds/msdn/en-us/sharepoint/rss.xml
D. 
개발자 콘텐츠 제작팀 블로그http://blogs.msdn.com/sharepointdeveloperdocs/
2. Developer Map
http://download.microsoft.com/download/0/9/c/09cda3f2-6d3d-4082-aec5-9a62b7679ecf/WSS%20Platform.pdf
3. Software Development Kit (SDK)
A. MOSS SDK & ECM Starter Kit v1.2
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=6D94E307-67D9-41AC-B2D6-0074D6286FA9&displaylang=en
B. WSS SDK and Workflow Starter Kit v1.2
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=05e0dd12-8394-402b-8936-a07fe8afaffd&DisplayLang=en
C. Visual Studio Extensions for SharePoint
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=19F21E5E-B715-4F0C-B959-8C6DCBDC1057&displaylang=en
4. 
오프라인 교육
A. 
마이크로소프트 공인교육센터 웹타임 교육센터: TS Exam 70-542 연계
http://www.wtime.net/Course/Course_EduInfo.aspx?CategoryID=7&Idx=98
5. 
온라인 교육
A. Screencast: 
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/sharepoint/aa905382.aspx
B. e
러닝http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/learning/training.mspx
C. Virtual Labs: 
http://www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/learning/resources.mspx
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr 10
6. 
관렦 도서
A. 7 Development Projects for SharePoint (
온라인도서)
http://download.microsoft.com/download/0/2/f/02f0f661-88e1-43c2-b523-88d2e9e6802f/7%20development%20projects%20with%20the%202007%20microsoft%20office%20system%20and%20windows%20sharepoint%20services%202007.pdf
B. 
도서 목록
http://wss.asaris.de/sites/walsh/Lists/WSSv3%20FAQ/V%20Books.aspx
7. 
커스터마이징 관렦 리소스
A. 
사이트 구조 커스터마이징
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/b18c35f6-2107-40b8-8102-7540d35d0de91033.mspx?mfr=true
B. 
페이지 디자인 커스터마이징
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/19dd4838-f0bd-4cfd-b490-8970e5cd81b41033.mspx?mfr=true
C. 
문서 관리 커스터마이징
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/afb61f44-5405-4a2f-9b13-2bc03a6e16f81033.mspx?mfr=true
D. 
워크플로 커스터마이징
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/ca538a1a-2017-4cf4-bb36-8a2f5c34ee051033.mspx?mfr=true
E. InfoPath 
폼 서비스 커스터마이징
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/7cb8b313-f0ec-4b98-9831-8afc10ff5d241033.mspx?mfr=true
F. 
비즈니스 인텔리전스
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/9f650af0-ffa9-4244-9715-94a93495a6351033.mspx?mfr=true
8. 
개발 시 유의 사항
A. 
보안 취약성이 없는 웹파트 페이지 및 콘트롤 개발을 위한 가이드라인
http://technet2.microsoft.com/Office/en-us/library/3c5ea34d-e9da-44b0-a1a7-e92107203b8d1033.mspx?mfr=true
B. Layouts 
폴더 내 파일 수정을 통한 페이지 커스터마이징 시 유의 사항
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/944105/en-us
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr 11
9. OBA(Office Business Application) 
관렦 리소스
A. OBA 
소개
https://www.obacentral.com/
B. OBA 
개발 시작하기: Part 1/2
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb614538.aspx
C. OBA 
개발 시작하기: Part 2/2
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb614541.aspx
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr 12
커뮤니티/블로그 정보
본 장에서는 MOSS 2007 관렦 커뮤니티 및 블로그 정보를 정리하여 제공합니다.
1. 
국내 커뮤니티

A. MOSS 2007 
배움터
http://moss2007.kr/
B. 
묻고 답하기
http://forums.microsoft.com/TechNet-KO/ShowForum.aspx?ForumID=668&SiteID=31
2. 
국외 커뮤니티
A. SharePoint Community Portal: 
http://sharepoint.microsoft.com/sharepoint
B. MSDN Forum: 
http://forums.microsoft.com/MSDN/default.aspx?ForumGroupID=328&SiteID=1
C. SharePointPedia: 
http://sharepointpedia.com/
3. RSS 
피드 모음http://sharepoint.microsoft.com/sharepoint/Lists/Feeds
http://blogs.technet.com/sharepoint_kr 13<?xml:namespace prefix = o /><?xml:namespace prefix = o />
Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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왜 통일은 개혁인가

[해외 시각] 위기 이후 한국의 정치경제와 통일문제


미국의 진보저널 <먼슬리 리뷰> 4월호에 한국의 정치경제 현황과 통일문제에 관한 글이 게재됐다. 미국 오리건 주 포틀랜드 시에 있는 루이스앤드클라크대학 경제학 교수인 마틴 하트-랜즈버그(Martin Hart-Landsberg)가 기고한 '한반도 통일의 전망과 함정'이라는 글이다. 한국에 관한 저서를 여러 권 낸 바 있는 그는 이 글에서 한반도의 통일은 남북한 정치경제의 개혁과 연관시켜 생각하고 추진해야 한다는 견해를 밝혔다. 이 글은 필자가 미국인들에게 하고 싶은 말을 정리해 쓴 것이지만 한국인들에게도 생각할 거리를 던져준다고 보아 출판사 필맥을 통해 <먼슬리 리뷰> 측의 허락을 얻어 번역해 싣는다. <편집자>

한반도의 통일에 대해서는 관련자들의 거의 모두가 지지하는 입장을 밝히고 있다. 미국, 북한, 남한의 정부는 물론이고 북한과 남한의 국민도 대다수가 한반도의 통일을 지지하고 있다. 이러한 사실은 우리의 신경을 예민하게 만든다. 왜냐하면 그것은 곧 각자가 한반도의 통일에 대해 서로 다른 의미로 이야기하고 있다는 뜻이기 때문이다. 한반도의 통일을 지지한다고 이야기할 때에는 한반도의 통일이라는 말을 무슨 뜻으로 사용하는 것인지를 신중하게 생각해야 할 필요가 있다. 다시 말해 우리는 한반도의 통일에 대해 그것은 분명히 좋은 것이라고만 생각하고 말 것이 아니라 그것은 일종의 논란과 경합의 과정이라고 생각할 필요가 있다. 분명한 점은 통일의 과정이 건전하다면 그 결과로 바람직한 통일이 이루어질 가능성이 크게 높아진다는 것이다. 그렇다면 한국 국민이 필요로 하는 바를 진정으로 반영하는 통일의 과정을 촉진시키는 한국의 노력을 지지하는 것이 우리의 과제가 된다.

일반적으로 말해 미국의 대중매체는 한반도의 통일에 대해 이야기할 때 우리에게 두 가지 선택지를 제시한다. 북한이 남한에 신속하게 흡수되는 것(독일의 경험과 비슷한 방식)과 점진적으로 흡수되는 것(흡수의 과정이 천천히 진행되어 북한이 붕괴하지 않고 전체적인 통일비용이 최소한으로 억제되는 방식)이 그것이다. 두 가지 선택지 모두 기존의 남한 정치경제가 확장되고 강화되는 것이 바람직한 결과에 당연히 포함된다고 가정하고 있다. 실질적인 통일, 즉 두 국가의 국민이 통일된 나라의 새로운 정치경제를 창출하기 위한 공동의 프로그램을 개발하는 통일은 이야기되고 있지 않다.

대체로 보아 그 이유는 북한은 의미 있는 협상을 요구하고 실현시키기에 충분한 힘을 갖추지 못하고 있고 앞으로도 그럴 것이라는 가정과 북한의 경험에는 가치 있는 것이 없다는 가정이 전제되는 데 있다. 북한 사람들도 새로운 체제를 필요로 하고 새로운 체제를 가질 자격이 있다는 것은 의문의 여지가 없다. 그러나 남한의 노동자들도 나름대로 의미 있는 체제의 변화를 필요로 하고 실제로 원하고 있다는 점을 우리가 명심하는 것도 중요하다. 이는 곧 우리가 한반도의 통일을 단순히 상충하는 두 개의 국익이라는 관점에서만 생각해서 통일이 어느 쪽에 더 이익이 되느냐를 따질 것이 아니라는 뜻이다. 이보다는 오히려 상충하는 계급이익에도 우리는 신중하게 주의를 기울여야 한다. 계급이익은 국익과 같은 것도 아니고, 국경에 의해 제한되는 것도 아니다.

이런 고려는 지금 내가 하고 싶은 말의 핵심과 직결된다. 그것은 남한의 정치경제가 변화해야 할 필요성, 그리고 그러한 변화를 실현하기 위한 진보적 통일전략의 결정적인 중요성이다.

성장과 위기

남한은 경제개발에 성공한 나라로서 다른 제삼세계 국가들에게 모범이 되는 나라이며, 따라서 통일된 새로운 한국을 건설하는 데 남한이 매력적인 토대가 된다는 것이 일반적인 생각이다. 그러나 실제 사정은 겉으로 보이는 모습과 크게 다르다.

1960년대 초엽부터 1990년대 중반까지 남한이 수출 주도의 성장을 빠르고도 지속적으로 이루어낸 과정은 복잡하지만 과도한 단순화의 위험을 무릅쓰고서라도 간단히 말해본다면 국내적 요인 두 가지와 국제적 요인 두 가지를 더해 모두 네 가지의 요인에 의해 가능했다고 할 수 있다. 국내적 요인은 경제활동에 대한 국가의 지도(재벌이라고 불리는 남한 대기업집단의 활동에 대한 국가의 통제)와 노동에 대한 국가의 억압이었다. 그리고 국제적 요인은 일본이 남한의 재벌들에게 기술부품기계를 기꺼이 판매하고자 했다는 점과 미국이 남한정부에 기꺼이 정치적, 금융적 지원을 해주고 남한의 수출시장이 돼주고자 했다는 점이었다. 남한의 국민은 대체로 군사독재 아래서 일종의 행진을 강요당했고, 그 결과로 남한의 국가경제가 크게 변모했다. 대부분의 분석가들은 이런 네 가지 요인이 비교적 안정적이라고 보았고, 따라서 남한이 계속해서 경제발전을 이루어나갈 것이라고 장담했다. 그것은 잘못된 생각이었다.

남한의 경제는 1980년대 후반부터 와해되기 시작했다. 대체로 보아 그것은 성공 그 자체가 초래한 모순의 결과였다. 그때까지 남한은 매우 빠른 성장을 달성했고, 처음으로 무역흑자도 실현했다. 무역흑자 덕분에 재벌들이 국가로부터 독립적인 지위를 확보했고, 생산적인 투자보다 투기적인 투자에 더 적극적으로 나설 수 있게 됐다. 오랜 기간 이어진 성장과 그 방식으로 인해 노동계급이 다수를 이루는 대규모 산업도시들이 생겨났고, 결국은 1987년에 노동자의 파업이 대대적으로 펼쳐지면서 민주적인 노동조합들이 생겨나고 노동자들의 임금이 크게 올랐다.

이 시기에 남한의 수출이 크게 늘어난 것이 일본의 생산자들을 위협하기도 했다. 그러자 그들은 남한의 수출업체들에게 공급해오던 주요 투입자재를 더 이상 공급하지 않으려는 태도를 취했다. 게다가 대부분 미국시장에 대한 수출을 통해 쌓이게 된 남한의 무역흑자가 미국정부를 자극했고, 이에 따라 미국정부는 원화를 평가절상하고 미국의 상품과 기업에 시장을 개방하라는 압력을 남한정부에 가했다. 이렇게 전개된 상황은 남한의 수출동력을 약화시키기 시작했다. 남한의 수출 증가율은 1987년의 36.2%에서 1988년에는 28.4%, 1989년에는 5.7%, 1990년에는 3%로 내리막길을 걸었다.

이러한 추세는 다른 요인들에 의해 더욱 심화됐다. 말레이시아, 태국, 인도네시아를 비롯한 여러 동남아시아 국가들이 외국인투자, 특히 일본의 투자에 힘입어 남한의 제품에 경쟁이 되는 제품을 생산해 수출하기 시작했다. 게다가 1990년대 중반에 이르면 중국이 해외 다국적기업들의 수출거점이 된다. 남한은 낮은 노동비용으로도, 발전된 기술로도 경쟁을 하지 못하는 처지가 됐다. 남한의 무역적자와 남한 기업들의 손실이 점점 더 커져갔다. 1996년에는 남한에서 규모가 큰 순서로 49개 대기업집단이 총 2740억 달러의 매출로 3200만 달러의 이익을 거두는 데 그쳐 매출 대비 이익률이 0.1%에도 미치지 못했다(<비즈니스위크> 1997년 12월 29일).

남한의 국가는 대응능력이 거의 없었다. 더 이상 재벌을 통제할 수 없었고, 당연히 일본정부나 미국정부를 통제할 수 없었으며, 다른 동아시아 국가들의 경제전략을 통제할 수도 없었다. 그래서 남한의 국가는 노동자들을 통제하는 데로 관심을 돌리고, 기업들의 수익성을 회복시키려는 노력으로 노동운동을 거듭 공격했다. 그러나 노동운동은 이미저항을 할 수 있을 정도로는 힘을 기른 상태였다. 예를 들어 노동조합은 1996년에 억압적인 새로운 노동법에 반대하는 총파업을 벌였다.

마침내 1997년에 경제가 붕괴했다. 그 해의 상반기에 대규모 재벌들 가운데 몇몇이 파산하지 않을 수 없었다. 이는 보다 광범위한 동아시아 금융위기가 발발하기 몇 달 전의 일이었다. 외국인투자자들과 해외의 채권자들은 남한이 경제적으로 취약함을 알아차리고는 그동안 갖고 있던 남한의 주식과 채권을 팔아치우고 남한의 기업들에게 대출만기를 연장해주기를 거부하는 식으로 대응했다. 경제가 곤두박질하자 남한정부는 국제통화기금(IMF)에 도움을 요청하지 않을 수 없었다. 1998년에 남한의 국내총생산(GDP)은 6% 이상 줄어들었다. 간단히 말해, 여러 해에 걸쳐 준비돼온 구조적 위기가 본격화하자 남한의 경제가 그 타격을 입고 쓰러져버렸던 것이다.

구조조정

1997-98년의 위기에 이어 전개된 경제적 구조조정과 관련해 두 가지 중요한 점을 더 말해야겠다. 그 가운데 하나는 일본정부와 미국정부가 남한정부의 금융지원 요청을 거부했고, 이에 따라 남한의 위기가 더욱 악화됐다는 점이다. 일본정부와 미국정부는 더 이상 남한의 성장을 뒷받침해주는 데 관심을 갖고 있지 않았다. 다른 하나는 미국정부의 앞잡이 대리자 역할을 하는 IMF가 남한에 부과한 신자유주의-자유시장주의 구조조정에 대해 남한의 재벌들이 지지하는 태도를 취했다는 점이다. 구조조정이 외국자본에 대해 상대적으로 재벌들을 약화시키는 것이었지만, 그들은 개혁조치를 견디고 살아남는 데 필요한 정도의 구조적 힘은 이미 갖추고 있었다. 더구나 그들은 자신들에게 더 이상 도움이 되지 않는 과거의 계획체제에 대해 이미 거부하는 태도를 취해왔다. 이제는 노동이 그들의 주된 표적이었고, 이런 맥락에서 그들은 구조조정을 받아들였다. 구조조정은 계급간 세력균형점을 그들 자신에게 유리한 쪽으로 이동시키는 데 도움이 되는 일련의 조치들을 포함하고 있었기 때문이다. 이에 따라 남한에서 그 뒤로 실시된 구조조정의 부담은 노동자들과 중소기업들에게 가장 많이 돌아갔다.

위기 이후의 경제

1999년과 2000년에는 남한의 경제가 급속하게 성장했고, 이에 따라 남한에 부과한 신자유주의 구조조정은 성공했다고 IMF가 선언하기에 이르렀다. 그러나 경제성장률은 다음해에 극적으로 떨어졌고, 그 뒤로도 계속해서 과거에 비해 상당히 낮은 수준에 머물렀다. 위기 이후에는 남한의 경제성장을 네 개의 기둥이 떠받쳤다. 그것은 정부의 적자지출, 외국인직접투자, 소비자지출, 수출이다. 우리는 이 네 가지 기둥에 영향을 미치는 추세들을 살펴보는 것을 통해 남한의 경제전망이 악화되는 지금의 상황을 이해할 수 있다.

위기 직후에 남한의 경제가 급반등하는 데는 정부의 공격적인 적자지출이 절대적으로 긴요한 역할을 했다. 그러나 그때 정부지출의 수준이 그대로 유지될 수는 없었다. 적자지출은 공적부채의 급증으로 이어졌고, 얼마 지나지 않아 남한정부는 IMF로부터 지출을 줄이라는 압력을 받게 된다.

외국인투자도 위기 직후의 몇 년 간에는 경제성장을 촉진하는 데 중요한 역할을 담당했다. 그러나 외국인투자의 상당부분은 남한의 자산을 헐값으로 사들이는 데 몰두하는 '벌처투자'였다. 가장 매력적으로 보인 자산들이 다 팔리자 외국인투자가 급감한 것은 의미심장한 현상이었다. 이와 동시에 외국인투자는 남한자본의 탈국적화를 상당히 진척시켰다. 예를 들어 남한의 상장주식 시가총액 가운데 외국인투자의 비중이 40%를 넘어섰고, 삼성전자나 현대자동차와 같은 대규모 상장기업들 대부분의 외국인 주식소유 비중이 절반을 넘기에 이르렀다.

그런 상황에서 정부의 적자지출과 함께 외국인투자도 줄어들자 경제성장이 본격적으로 둔화되기 시작했다. 2002년에는 소비자지출이 늘어난 덕분에 경제가 일시적으로나마 한숨을 돌릴 수 있었다. 그러나 불행하게도 그 소비자지출은 신용카드 부채에 크게 의존한 것이었다. 신용카드 지출은 정부의 뒷받침을 받는 가운데 1998년의 530억 달러에서 2002년에는 5190억 달러로 급증했다. 소비자의 거래 가운데 거의 3분의 2가 신용카드의 현금서비스와 카드대출로 이루어지기에 이르렀고, 수많은 가계가 머지않아 부채의 부담을 더 이상 감당할 수 없게 될 처지였다.

대대적인 파산사태로 금융혼란이 일어날 가능성에 두려움을 느낀 정부는 신용카드 사용을 제한하는 조치를 취하지 않을 수 없었다. 그 조치로 인해 2003년에 개인소비지출과 투자가 동시에 급감하면서 경기침체가 초래됐다. 2004년에 개인소비지출이 더 줄어들었고, 투자도 정체됐다. 그리고 그 뒤로 여러 해가 지나도 상황은 그다지 개선되지 않았다. 2008년 상반기에 가계소비지출은 GDP의 48.3%라는 기록적으로 낮은 수준까지 떨어졌다(<코리아헤럴드> 2008년 7월 29일).

이러한 여러 가지 추세의 결과로 지금 남한의 경제는 어느 때보다도 수출에 더 많이 의존하고 있다. 2008년 상반기에 GDP 대비 수출의 비율은 64.9%라는 높은 수준에 이르렀다. 미국보다 중국이 남한의 주된 수출시장이 된 것은 새로운 현상이다. 그러나 중국에 대한 남한의 수출은 대부분 중국에서 추가로 가공된 다음에 미국으로 다시 수출되는(중국의 수출로서) 중간재다. 따라서 이제 남한의 경제성장 전망은 더욱 위태로운 토대에 근거하게 됐다. 그 위태로운 토대 가운데 가장 중요한 것은 역시 미국경제의 수입능력이다(이 토대는 최근에 미국의 거품경제 붕괴로 인한 경기침체로 거의 무너졌다). 게다가 남한의 경제성장과 그 국민의 필요 충족 간 단절이 점점 더 심화되고 있다.

▲ 지난 2001년 5월 1일 노동절을 맞아 금강산에서 열린 남북노동자 5.1절 통일대회에서 남측의 한국노총과 민주노총 노조원들과 북측 조선직업총동맹 노동자들이 한데 어우러져 줄다리기를 하고 있다. ⓒ연합뉴스

하강의 악순환과 계급갈등

노무현 정부(2003–07년)는 남한의 경제적 입지가 약화되는 데 대응해 외국인투자의 감소세를 증가세로 전환시키기 위한 노력에 나섰다. 노무현 정부는 입주 외국기업에 대해 세금을 감면해주고 환경 및 노동과 관련된 규제를 면제해주는 경제자유구역을 세 군데 지정했고, 일본과 미국을 비롯한 여러 나라와 투자 및 자유무역에 관한 양자간 협정을 추진했다. 또한 노무현 정부는 직권중재와 경찰의 개입을 통해 노동자들의 파업을무력화시키는 한편 기업들에 임시직 노동자 고용을 장려하고 노동자들의 조직화를 어렵게 만드는 내용의 노동법 개정을 추진하는 등 적극적인 반노동 공세에 나섰다. 2007년 12월에 당선된 이명박 대통령이 이끄는 현 정부는 대체로 보아 노무현 정부가 추진했던 정책과 똑같은 정책을 추구하고 있다.

주목해야 할 것은 이러한 노력들도 그동안 외국인투자를 의미 있는 수준으로 늘리는 데 실패했다는 점이다. 2008년 상반기에는 오히려 외국인직접투자가 10억 달러에 가까운 순유출을 기록했다. 이는 1980년에 외국인직접투자에 관한 통계를 작성하기 시작한 이래 최초의 순유출이었다. 이렇게 된 가장 큰 이유는 다른 나라들, 특히 중국이 훨씬 더 매력적인 투자 패키지를 제공하고 나선 데 있었다. 2004년에 주한 미국상공회의소 회장은 이 점을 다음과 같은 말로 분명히 지적했다. "한국의 경쟁상대는 상하이, 홍콩, 중국이다. 경쟁상대가 어디인지를 인식해야 한다. 왜냐하면 투자자들은 어디로 갈 것인지를 선택할 수 있기 때문이다." 그는 남한에 필요한 것으로 '노동유연성'의 제고를 꼽았다(<코리아헤럴드> 2004년 5월 22일).

정부의 노력은 국내투자를 부추기는 데도 실패했다. 사실 재벌들은 꾸준히 생산을 나라 밖으로 옮기고 있다. 남한 기업들의 해외 직접투자는 2003년의 59억 달러에서 2004년 81억 달러, 2005년 92억 달러, 그리고 2006년 1-9월에는 125억 달러로 늘어났다. 그리고 주된 투자처는 중국이다. 대한상공회의소는 이렇게 밝혔다. "한국의 제조업체 10개 가운데 9개 정도는 장차 중국에 투자할 계획을 갖고 있다. 중국의 낮은 생산비용과 적극적으로 요구에 맞춰주는 중국의 규제 운용을 고려하면 중국이 한국보다 더 매력적인 투자처로 생각되기 때문이다."

산업공동화의 조짐이 이미 가시화되고 있다. 예를 들어 남한의 기업들은 국내에서 조업하는 데 필요한 설비의 구매를 거의 중단하다시피 했다. 2004년에 남한의 제조업 부문에서 공장과 설비 신증설에 지출한 금액은 1996년에 비해 4% 이상 적었다. 1996년이전에는 연평균 10% 이상으로 증가하던 시설투자가 2000년대 전반에는 단지 연평균 1.1%로 증가하는 데 그쳤다. 그 결과의 하나로 지금 제조업 부문의 고용이 줄어들고 있다.

이러한 추세는 미래의 문제들을 예고해주기만 하는 것이 아니다. 노동자들은 위기 이후에 전개된 구조조정의 대가를 이미 톡톡히 치르고 있다. 1996년에 9% 정도였던 빈곤율이 2006년에는 20% 가까이로 치솟았다. 중산층이 급속히 위축되고 있다. 전체 가구가운데 중산층 가구의 비중은 1996년의 56%에서 2006년에는 44%로 축소됐다. 그리고 불평등이 기록적인 수준에 이르고 있다. 소득순위로 최하위 20%에 속하는 사람들이 버는 소득에 대한 상위 20%에 속하는 사람들이 버는 소득의 비율이 1996년에는 4.5배였는데 2006년에는 7.1배로 크게 높아졌다.

이렇게 부정적인 사회적 추세가 생겨난 주된 원인은 노동시장의 구조조정에 있다. 전체 노동자 가운데 정규직 노동자의 비율이 위기 이전의 58%에서 2006년에는 45%로 떨어졌다. 또한 이제 노동력의 절반을 넘게 된 비정규직 노동자가 한 달에 버는 임금은 "정규직 노동자에 비해 50%를 겨우 넘는 수준"이다(<코리아타임스> 2006년 12월 31일). 이는 남한의 정부와 업계가 기업의 수익성과 수출경쟁력을 끌어올리기 위해 기울여온 노력의 내용이 낳은 논리적인 결과다.

남한국민 대다수가 필요로 하는 바를 충족시키는 데 신자유주의가 실패했음을 보여주는 가장 분명한 증거는 아마도 2004년에 <한국방송공사(KBS)>가 경제상황에 관해 실시한 여론조사의 결과일 것이다. <코리아타임스>의 보도에 따르면 이 여론조사에서 다음과 같은 사실이 확인됐다. "한국 국민의 절반 이상은 금융위기가 나라를 뒤흔들었던 1997년 말보다도 지금의 경제상황이 더 나쁘다고 느끼고 있다. … 특히 응답자의 52.6%는 자신의 현재 생활수준이 6년 전에 비해 더 열악해졌다고 말했고, 자신의 생활여건이 장차 개선될 것이라고 생각한다는 응답은 단지 9.9%에 그쳤다."

통일문제와 앞으로의 과제

위기 이후의 신자유주의 구조조정은 남한의 노동자들에게 재앙이었던 것이 분명하다. 더욱 비극적인 것은 이제는 남한이 누적적인 하강의 악순환에 갇혀버린 점이다. 구조조정은 해외투자와 수출에 대한 경제의 의존도를 높였다. 이에 따라 외국기업과 재벌은 더 많은 양보를 요구하기에 아주 좋은 위치를 차지하게 됐다. 그러나 그들의 요구를 들어주는 것은 해외투자와 수출에 대한 의존도만 더 높이게 될 것이다.

남한의 노동자들은 집단행동과 파업을 통해 자신들의 이익을 지키려고 애써왔지만 이제는 심각한 구조적 제약에 직면해있다. 특히 노동자들의 강경한 행동은 자본유출을 가속화시키고, 정부로 하여금 경제난 심화에 대해 기업의 행태나 정부 자신의 정책을 문제 삼기보다는 노동자들을 탓하게 하는 빌미가 된다. 비극적이게도 중산층 가운데 많은 사람들이 이러한 주장을 그대로 받아들이는 태도를 보여서 정부가 자신의 정책에 대한 반대에 저항하거나 그러한 반대를 억압하기 쉽게 만들어주고 있다.

분명히 노동자들의 입장에서는 나라 전체 정치경제에 획기적인 구조적 전환이 일어나야 할 필요가 있지만, 그것은 결코 쉬운 일이 아니다. 그리고 바로 이 과제에 어떻게 접근하는 것이 가장 좋은지를 고찰하는 맥락에서 통일이라는 쟁점이 관건이 된다. 나라의 분단은 남한정부에게 변화를 추구하는 사람들에 대항해 사용할 수 있는 강력한 무기가 돼주고 있다. 예를 들어 남한정부는 계속해서 노동조합 지도자를 체포하고 노조결성과 파업을 억압하는 데 국가보안법을 이용하고 있다. 남한정부는 또한 사회운동 지도자를 체포하고 미국과의 자유무역협정에 반대하는 시위와 같은 각종의 시위를 억압하는 데도 국가보안법을 이용하고 있다.

뿐만 아니라 남한정부는 비판적인 대안의 사고를 촉진할 수 있는 사상에 대중이 노출되는 것을 제한하는 데도 계속해서 국가보안상의 우려를 이용하고 있다. 예를 들어 2008년 7월에는 국방부가 군부대 안에서 병사들이 이른바 '불온서적'을 보지 못하게 하라는 명령을 전군에 내렸다. '불온서적'은 친북, 반정부, 반미, 반자본주의에 속하는 책을 가리킨다. 지금까지 23종의 책이 '불온서적'으로 지정됐다. 군당국은 또한 '위험한' 문서가 군부대에 유통되는 것을 막기 위해 모든 우편물을 장교가 참관하는 가운데 개봉하도록 지시했다(<한겨레> 온라인 영어판 2008년 7월 31일). 2008년 8월에는 남한정부가 대학의 명예교수를 비롯해 8명을 국가보안법 위반 혐의로 체포했다. 사회주의를 주장하는 웹사이트(이 웹사이트는 북한에 대해 비판하고 있음에도)를 운영하는 조직의 구성원이라는 것이 그들의 죄목이었다.

이런 맥락에서 볼 때 통일문제에서 진전이 이루어지지 않고는 노동자의 조직화나 기존의 남한 정치경제에 대한 대안을 강구하고 주장하는 진보적 노력이 불가능하지는 않겠지만 계속 어려울 것이다. 물론 남한의 민중에게 필요한 변화의 목록이 이미 작성돼있는 것도 아니고, 그러한 변화를 통일과정의 일부로서 달성하기 위한 방법을 담은 실천계획이 존재하는 것도 아니다. 그러나 남한의 기존 구조를 강화하기만 하는 통일은 남한의 노동자는 물론이고 북한의 노동자에게도 바람직하지 않다는 점은 인정돼야 한다. 따라서 바람직한 변화의 성격을 분명하게 하고 그러한 변화가 실현될 가능성을 높이는 동시에 통일의 과정을 촉진시킬 수 있는 전략이 개발돼야 한다.

그러한 전략에 핵심적인 구성요소로 포함돼야 할 것 가운데 하나가 대화다. 우리는 남북분단선을 가로지르는 대화의 공간을 창출하기 위해 싸워야 할 필요가 있다. 대화를 통해 남한과 북한의 노동조합들이 적절한 노동법과 일터의 조직형태에 대해 논의하고, 남한과 북한의 교육자들이 민주적인 통일국가의 새로운 교육 커리큘럼을 설계하고, 남한과 북한의 환경주의자들이 지속가능한 경제성장 전략을 모색하고, 남한과 북한의 여성운동가들이 여성의 인권을 증진하고 보호하는 방안에 대해 의견을 나누어야 한다. 이러한 대화는 새로운 비전과 보다 독립적인 북한쪽 대화상대 조직의 창출에 기여할 것이고, 그 과정에서 남북분단선 양쪽의 사람들이 각각 그들의 정부가 수립하고 추진하는 통일전략을 평가하고 희망컨대 그것에 영향을 미치는 데 필요한 기준도 개발될 수 있을 것이다. 이러한 대화를 준비하는 것만 해도 남한의 사회운동을 강화하고 통합하는 동시에 남한의 정치적 의제에 중대한 전환을 가져오는 데 도움이 될 것이다.

이러한 과정이 촉진되도록 돕기 위해 우리가 이 나라(미국)에서 할 수 있는 일이 많이 있다. 우리는 국가보안법의 파괴적인 성격에 대해 미국인들을 교육하고, 미국정부에 압력을 가해 남한정부에 국가보안법 이용의 중단을 요구하게 해야 할 필요가 있다. 우리는 북한과 미국 간 관계의 정상화를 앞당기기 위한 노력을 기울여야 한다. 북미관계의 정상화는 생산적인 남북 간 대화를 촉진하는 분위기를 창출하는 데 도움이 될 것이다. 또한 남한 사람들과 북한 사람들이 현재 남한과 북한에 존재하는 정치경제와는 상당히 다른 새로운 정치경제를 창출하기를 원하게 될 가능성이 높으며, 그렇게 하는 것은 그들의 권리라는 점에 대한 이해가 이 나라에 보다 확산되도록 우리가 노력해야 할 필요가 있다.

우리는 이런 우리의 노력을 단지 남을 돕는 이타적인 문제로만 생각해서는 안 된다. 이런 노력에서 진전이 이루어진다면 그것은 곧 한반도에서 또 다시 전쟁이 일어날 위험이 크게 줄어들어 인명피해가 예방되고, 우리(미국)의 막대한 군사예산을 줄여 그보다 훨씬 더 필요한 사회적 지출을 늘릴 수 있게 됨을 의미할 것이다. 더 나아가 이런 노력으로부터 새로운 사회적 비전이 생겨나온다면 그 비전은 우리에게 크게 필요한 미국의 사회적 변화에 대해 우리가 새로운 사고를 하도록 자극해줄 것이다. 바로 이런 것이 진정한 연대가 아니겠는가.

(번역=필맥 MR팀)

/마틴 하트랜즈버그 미 루이스앤드클라크대학 교수 메일보내기 

Source: http://www.pressian.com/article/article.asp?article_num=40090403151835&section=05






Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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