Science of Persuasion (설득의 심리학) Korean language 




1. Reciprocity (First Give Small and Take Big). 
2. Scarcity (Provide Benefits, Unique, and Lose)
3. Authority (Diploma, Certificate, Uniform, Suit)
4. Consistency (Make a small change first to make a big change)
5. Linking (Genuine complements)
6. Consensus (Include people in a desired group) 

(English Version) 





(Korean Version) 



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Researchers (Bloom (1985)Bryan & Harter (1899)Hayes (1989)Simmon & Chase (1973)) have shown it takes about ten years to develop expertise in any of a wide variety of areas, including chess playing, music composition, telegraph operation, painting, piano playing, swimming, tennis, and research in neuropsychology and topology. The key is deliberative practice: not just doing it again and again, but challenging yourself with a task that is just beyond your current ability, trying it, analyzing your performance while and after doing it, and correcting any mistakes. Then repeat. And repeat again. There appear to be no real shortcuts: even Mozart, who was a musical prodigy at age 4, took 13 more years before he began to produce world-class music. In another genre, the Beatles seemed to burst onto the scene with a string of #1 hits and an appearance on the Ed Sullivan show in 1964. But they had been playing small clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg since 1957, and while they had mass appeal early on, their first great critical success, Sgt. Peppers, was released in 1967. Malcolm Gladwell reports that a study of students at the Berlin Academy of Music compared the top, middle, and bottom third of the class and asked them how much they had practiced:
Everyone, from all three groups, started playing at roughly the same time - around the age of five. In those first few years, everyone practised roughly the same amount - about two or three hours a week. But around the age of eight real differences started to emerge. The students who would end up as the best in their class began to practise more than everyone else: six hours a week by age nine, eight by age 12, 16 a week by age 14, and up and up, until by the age of 20 they were practising well over 30 hours a week. By the age of 20, the elite performers had all totalled 10,000 hours of practice over the course of their lives. The merely good students had totalled, by contrast, 8,000 hours, and the future music teachers just over 4,000 hours.

So it may be that 10,000 hours, not 10 years, is the magic number. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) thought it took longer: "Excellence in any department can be attained only by the labor of a lifetime; it is not to be purchased at a lesser price." And Chaucer (1340-1400) complained "the lyf so short, the craft so long to lerne." Hippocrates (c. 400BC) is known for the excerpt "ars longa, vita brevis", which is part of the longer quotation "Ars longa, vita brevis, occasio praeceps, experimentum periculosum, iudicium difficile", which in English renders as "Life is short, [the] craft long, opportunity fleeting, experiment treacherous, judgment difficult." Although in Latin, ars can mean either art or craft, in the original Greek the word "techne" can only mean "skill", not "art".

source: 

1. http://norvig.com/21-days.html

2. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/11/20/AR2008112002658.html

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Leadership Models and Theories

http://www.stewart-associates.co.uk/leadership-models.aspx




Fiedler's Contingency Model.


Leadership Traits

Leadership theories that attempt to identify the common traits possessed by successful leaders.  These traits included:

·         Adaptable to situations

·         Alert to social environment

·         Ambitious and achievement oriented

·         Assertive

·         Cooperative

·         Decisive

·         Dependable

·         Dominant (desire to influence others)

·         Energetic (high activity level)

·         Persistent

·         Self-confident

·         Tolerant of stress

·         Willing to assume responsibility

 

However the list is ever growing and no definitive list is possible

 


Leadership Styles and Behaviours

A different perspective to trait theory for leadership is to consider what leaders actually do as opposed to their underlying characteristics.  A number of models and theories have been put forward to explore this.

 

T. McGregor (1906-1964) postulated that managers tend to make two different assumptions about human nature.  These views he explored in his theory X and theory Y:

 

 

 

Theory X

1.       The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he or she can.

2.       Because of this human characteristic, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organisational objectives.

3.       The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and wants security above all.

Theory Y

1.       The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.

2.       External control and threat of punishment are not the only means for brining about effort toward organisational objectives.  People will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.

3.       Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.

4.       The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept responsibility but to seek it.

5.       The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination. Ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organisational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed I the population.

6.       Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilised.

 

 

Other studies were carried out to identify successful leadership behaviours, including studies at Ohio State University and Michigan University, following on from this research two studies of particular note were by Gary M. Yukl and by Robert Blake and Jane Mounton.

 


Ohio State University Research

 

A series of studies at the University indicated that two behavioural dimensions play a significant role in successful leadership.  Those dimensions are:

Consideration – (friendship, mutual trust, respect and warmth)

Initiating Structure – (organises and defines relationships or roles, establishes well-defined patterns of organisation, channels of communication, and ways of getting jobs done.)

 

 

University of Michigan Research 

Studies carried at the university revealed two similar aspects of leadership style that correlate with effectiveness:

Employee Orientation – (the human-relations aspect, in which employees are viewed as human beings with individual, personal needs)

Production Orientation – (Stress on production and the technical aspects of the job, with employees viewed as the means of getting the work done.

 

Gary M. Yukl felt that there was a void in existing descriptions of leader behaviour.  They did not provide specific guidelines for behaviour in varying situations.  He and his colleagues isolated eleven leadership behaviours which fall into four broad categories:

 

 

Building Relationships

1.       Networking

2.       Supporting

3.       Managing conflict

 

Influencing People

4.       Motivating

5.       Recognising and rewarding

 

Making Decisions

6.       Planning and organising

7.       Problem solving

8.       Consulting and delegating

 

Giving / Seeking Information

9.       Monitoring operations and environment

10.   Informing

11.   Clarifying roles


The Leadership Grid

Robert Blake and Jane Mouton developed another theory called the Leadership Grid, focusing on production/relationship orientations uncovered in the Ohio State and Michigan University studies.  They went a little further by creating a grid based on Leaders’ concern for people (relationships) and production (tasks).  It theory suggest there is a best way to lead people the 9,9 way.

  

   The leadership Grid

 

The Major Leadership Grid Styles

1,1        Impoverished management. Often referred to as Laissez-faire leadership.  Leaders in this position have little concern for people or productivity, avoid taking sides, and stay out of conflicts.  They do just enough to get by.

1,9        Country Club management.  Managers in this position have great concern for people and little concern for production.  They try to avoid conflicts and concentrate on being well liked.  To them the task is less important than good interpersonal relations.  Their goal is to keep people happy.  (This is a soft Theory X approach and not a sound human relations approach.)

9,1        Authority-Compliance.  Managers in this position have great concern for production and little concern for people.  They desire tight control in order to get tasks done efficiently.  They consider creativity and human relations to be unnecessary.

5,5        Organisation Man Management.  Often termed middle-of-the-road leadership.  Leaders in this position have medium concern for people and production.  They attempt to balance their concern for both people and production, but they are not committed.

9+9      Paternalistic “father knows best” management.  A style in which reward is promised for compliance and punishment threatened for non-compliance

Opp  Opportunistic “what’s in it for me” management.  In which the style utilised depends on

         which style the leader feels will return him or her the greatest self-benefit.

9,9        Team Management.  This style of leadership is considered to be ideal.  Such managers have great concern for both people and production.  They work to motivate employees to reach their highest levels of accomplishment.  They are flexible and responsive to change, and they understand the need to change.

 

 


  

Contingency Approaches

Contingency theories propose that fro any given situation there is a best way to manage.  Contingency theories go beyond situational approaches, which observe that all factors must be considered when leadership decisions are to be made. Contingency theories attempt to isolate the key factors that must be considered and to indicate how to manage when those key factors are present.  


 

The continuum of Leadership Behaviour

The model put forward by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt framed leadership in terms of choices managers may make regarding subordinates’ participation in decision making.

 

 The continuum of leadership behaviour

The actions shown at the left side of the continuum are relatively authoritarian; those at the right side are relatively participative.  The manager’s choices depend on three factors:

 

 

1.       Forces in the manager: The manager’s value system, confidence in subordinates, leadership inclinations, and feelings of security in an uncertain situation.

2.       Forces in the subordinate: Expectations, need for independence, readiness to assume decision-making responsibility, tolerance for ambiguity in task definition, interest in the problem, ability to understand and identify with the goals of the organisation, and knowledge and experience to deal with the problem.

3.       Forces in the situation:  Type of organisation, effectiveness of the group, the problem itself (the task), and time pressure.

 

 


Fielder’s Contingency Model

In this model leadership is effective when the leader’s style is appropriate to the situation, as determined by three principal factors:

 

  

1.       Leader-member relations: The nature of the interpersonal relationship between leader and follower, expressed in terms of good through poor, with qualifying modifiers attached as necessary.  It is obvious that the leader’s personality and the personalities of subordinates play important roles in this variable.

2.       Task structure: The nature of the subordinate’s task, described as structured or unstructured, associated with the amount of creative freedom allowed the subordinate to accomplish the task, and how the task is defined.

3.       Position power:  The degree to which the position itself enables the leader to get the group members to comply with and accept his or her direction and leadership

 

 

Fielder's Contingency Model


Path-Goal Theory

A leadership theory that focuses on the need for leaders to make rewards contingent on the accomplishment of objectives and to aid group members in attaining rewards by clarifying the paths to goals and removing obstacles to performance.  According to the goal-path theory there are four primary styles of leadership:

 

1.       Directive Leadership: The leader explains the performance goal and provides specific rules and regulations to guide subordinates toward achieving it.

2.       Supportive Leadership: The leader displays personal concern for subordinates.  This includes being friendly to subordinates and sensitive to their needs.

3.       Achievement-oriented Leadership:  The leader emphasises the achievement of difficult tasks and the importance of excellent performance and simultaneously displays confidence that subordinates will perform well.

4.       Participative Leadership: The leader consults with subordinates about work, task goals, and paths to resolve goals.  This leadership style involves sharing information as well as consulting with subordinates before making decisions.

 

 

The Path-Goal Model

 The Path-Goal Model

 

 


 

Action Centred Leadership

A model proposed by John Adair (1973) argued that it is not who you are but what you do which establishes you as a leader.  A leader needs to balance the needs of the task, the team and the individual, shown clearly in the diagram below in his 3 circle model.  The effective leader carries out the functions and demonstrates the behaviours appropriate to the circles, varying the level according to the needs of the situation.  The leader whilst balancing the three circles, sits in his/her helicopter above the process, ensuring the best possible overview of what is happening.

Action Centred Leadership Model

 

  

 

 

Leaders Behaviour under Task

·         Providing clear Objectives

·         Providing appropriate procedures

·         Ensuring there is evidence of progress

·         Ensuring avoidance of digression

·         Ensuring deadlines are met

 Leaders Behaviour under Team

·         Commitment

·         Trust & Openness

·         Sense of purpose

·         Stability

·         Cohesion

·         Success

·         Fun

Leaders Behaviour under Individual

·         To be included

·         To make a contribution

·         To be respected

·         To receive Feedback

·         To feel safe

·         To grow

 

 

The Leaders Blueprint

 

KEY ACTION

TASK

TEAM

INDIVIDUAL

Define Objectives

Identify Tasks and Constraints

 

Hold team meetings Share Commitment

Clarify Objectives

Gain Acceptance

PLAN

 

 

Gather

Information

 

Consider options

Check resources

Consult     Encourage Ideas

Develop Suggestions     Assess skills

Decide

 

Prioritise   Time scales

Standards

Structure

Allocate Jobs  Delegate

Set targets

Brief

Clarify Objectives   Describe plan

 

Explain decisions   Listen  Answer questions  Enthuse  Check understanding

Monitor Support

Assess Progress   Maintain standards

Co-ordinate  Reconcile conflict  Recognise effort

Advise/Praise

Assist/Reassure

Counsel  Discipline

Evaluate

Summarise Progress

Review Objectives

Re-plan Objectives if necessary

Recognise and gain from Success

Learn from Mistakes

Appraise Performance

Guide and Train             Give Praise 

 




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Leadership Essay: Holistic Leadership Development and Teaching Organization

 

 

 

Review of Leadership Theories with respect to

Holistic Leadership Development and Teaching Organization

 

 

 

 

Jeong Hwan Choi, MBA

 

 

 

Doctorate Student, Human Resource Education

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

351 Education, 1310 South Sixth Street

(217) 819 1040

 

jchoi52@uiuc.edu

 

Nov. 30, 2007


Executive Summary

 

There are lots of leadership theories to explain the leaders’ role, function, and effectiveness. Although it’s very hard to find out the universal principles of leadership, we must have an own point of view of leadership. In this sense, I propose BMBS (Body / Mind / Brain / Spirit) model and concept of teaching organization and review leadership theories with respect to holistic leadership development approach and teaching organization.

 

InTRODUCtion

Concept of Holistic Leadership Development

             Holistic leadership development is the integrative approach for developing Brain, Mind, Body, and Spirit. . Quatro, Waldman, and Galvin (2007) proposed a new leadership model, named ACES which represented four leadership domains; Analytical, Conceptual, Emotional, and Spiritual. They insisted that these four different leadership domains of leaders should be equally developed to engage subordinate either explicitly or implicitly. However the concept of holistic education was originated from Bloom’s taxonomy which is widely used in adult learning (Bloom, B. 1956, Krathwohl, D 1937, Simpson, E. 1972). In the Table 1, the comparison of the ACES leadership domain and revised Bloom’s Taxonomy are presented. In the ACES model, psychomotor factor are missing, while there is no spiritual factor in the bloom’s taxonomy. Probably these discrepancies come from the difficulty for segregation from holistic or integrative characteristics of leadership education.

             To overcome these discrepancies, I hope to propose BMBS leadership development model. The BMBS model is composed four factors: Brain, Mind, Body, and Spirit.


Table 1 Comparison of ACES Model and Bloom’s Taxonomy

ACES Leadership Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Analytical

Quantitative analysis

Logical reasoning

Decisiveness

Cognitive (Knowledge)

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation

Conceptual

Qualitative analysis

Creativity

Curiosity

Emotional

Persuasive communication

Empathic understanding

Self-monitoring

Affective (Attitude)

Receiving

Responding

Valuing

Organizing

Characterizing

 

 

Psychomotor (Skills)

Perception

Set

Guided response

Mechanism

Complex overt

Adaptation

Origination

Spiritual

Self-reflection

Integrity

Mediatative thinking

 

 

 

Figure 1 Conceptual Framework for BMBS Model

Table 2 Comparison of BMBS, ACES and Bloom’s Taxonomy

BMBS Model

ACES Leadership Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Domain

Function

Verb

Output

Domain

Domain

Brain

Data processing

Think

Knowing

Organizing

Analytical

Cognitive (Knowledge)

Conceptual

Mind

Decision making

Decide

Evaluating

Characterizing

Emotional

Affective (Attitude)

Body

Doing

Behave

Realizing

Implementing

 

Psychomotor (Skills)

Spirit

Interacting

Learn & Teach

Integrating

Synthesizing

Spiritual

 

 

The BMBS model is based on the functions of human activities. Brain acts as a processor: analyzing, calculating, questioning, and reasoning. Mind builds up decision. Once the external or internal stimuli processed in brain, mind take it and evaluates, sorts, characterizes, and decides something, then body realize the decision. Previous three functions are related with individuals. However, leadership is an active communication with followers, organizations, and other people. So, a certain media which can transfer or accept one’s idea (Brain), emotion (Mind), and behavior (Body) is required. Peter Drucker (1954, pp. 144 ~ 160) named the media as the spirit. He also said that the spirit should be practiced to insure the right spirit throughout the organization. I may say that spirit can be shaped by learning and teaching with interacting others.

             Leaders should have the high capabilities in four different domains of BMBS model. And I propose that four BMBS domains are mutually interlinked and it can be practiced and trained in a systematic way to achieve the wholeness of leadership. By using four domains proposed in this chapter will be used as metrics for evaluating leadership theories.

 

Teaching Organization

             Tichy (2002) insisted that winning organizations are teaching organization in his book of ‘Leadership Engine: How winning companies build leaders at every level.’ Comparing to the Peter Senge’s  (1999) learning organization, teaching organization is requesting for more active responsibility and strong commitment to leaders in developing other leaders. As presented previous chapter, if we can define the spirit is the media of transferring active communication between a leader and followers, learning and teaching are key processes of spirit domain. In particular, accepted that teaching is the best strategy for learning, teaching others and transform them into leaders is the most important actions in leadership development. In this sense, I hope to apply the teaching organization as a metric for leadership theory evaluation. I choose three metrics from Tichy’s teaching organization concepts. The first one is the current leader’s direct responsibility of teaching all level of future leaders. The second one is the energizing or motivating all level of future leaders. The Third one is the strong commitment in teaching others, and the final one is These three things are quite related with the “Spirit” of an organization. Organizational spirit can be practiced through teaching and learning in both individual and group, which can be the differentiated competitive advantages of organizations.

 

Assessment Tool for Leadership Theory Evaluation

             Integrating with BMBS model and concept of teaching organization, I suggest the assessment tool for leadership theory evaluation as Table 3. The tool is composed two main categories. Individually BMBS model is applied to explain the internalizing process of leadership, and externally teaching organization concepts are applied to measure the effectiveness of leadership theories. Moreover, the spirit will be evaluated with special care, because the spirit intermediate individuals and organization. 


 

Table 3 Assessment tool for Leadership Theory Evaluation

Leadership Approach & Theory:

Concept of the Theory:

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

 

 

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

 

 

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor?

 

 

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

 

 

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

 

 

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

 

 

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity?

 

 

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

 

 

 

 

Evaluation of leadership theories

             In this chapter, nine leadership approaches and theories, listed in List 1, which were presented and discussed through classes will be evaluated with according to the presented assessment tool.

List 1 Leadership Approach and Theories

1. Trait Approach

2. Skills Approach

3. Style Approach

4. Situational Approach

5. Contingency Theory

6. Path-Goal Theory

7. Leader-Member Exchange Theory

8. Transformational Leadership

9. Team Leadership

 

1. Trait Approach

Leadership Approach & Theory: Trait Approach

Concept of the Theory:

The trait approach has its root in leadership theory that suggested that certain people were born with special traits that made them great leaders. Because it was believed that leaders and non-leaders could be differentiated by a universal set of traits, through the 20th century researchers were challenged to identify the definitive traits of leaders

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Since the theory is focusing on innate ability of intelligence, development of leadership is not much applicable. But the theory is significantly concern about the ability of knowledge and it seems the fairly concern about developing knowledge of leaders.

Fair

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

The theory explains that leaders’ personalities are already set by nature, and it’s not be trained or changed. However, the theory is trying applying the development of emotions of leaders.

Fair

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

No psychomotor skills are addressed.

Poor

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

The theory is focusing on leaders’ innate traits but it is not addressing the relationship with others. However, it concerns with the ability of sociability of leaders

Fair

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Trait approach is stressing the individual ability or personality of leaders. So, it’s not easy to find and responsibility of developing others

Poor

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Even though Kirkpatric and Locke mentioned about motivation factors of leadership, the theory is not much concern about the developing the motivation skills

Poor

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Referring to the trait approach, integrity is one of the important traits for leaders

Fair

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

Due to limiting the point on leaders, the theory is not much applicable for developing leaders at every level

Poor

 

Comments

 

             Overall, the trait approach is concern about individual innate abilities or characteristics of leaders. So the application of the theory for BMBS model & Teaching organization is somewhat possible, but the application of it is quite limited.


2. Skills Approach

Leadership Approach & Theory: Skills Approach

Concept of the Theory:

The skills approach is a leader-centered perspective that emphasizes the competencies of leaders. It is best represented in the early work of Katz (1955) on the three-skill approaches [technical, human, conceptual] and the more recent work of Mumford and his colleagues (2000), who initiated the development of comprehensive skills model of leadership.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Focusing on general and crystallized cognitive ability.

Excellent

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not much concerning individual emotional skills but emphasize social judgment skills

Fair

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Not much psychomotor skills are addressed

Poor

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Addressed the environmental influences of leaders

Good

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Skills approach concern the relationship with followers but it is usually explained by leader’s skill

Good

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Motivation skills and career experiences are fairly addressed as one of social skills

Good

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Leaders’ integrity about subordinate is fairly addressed

Good

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

Skills approach is focusing on developing competencies of leader, and it is matched with the BMBS / Teaching organization application. But still it has some limitation especially in developing leaders in all level, because it is quite leader centric approach.

Good

 

Comments

 

             The skills approach is good to apply it to BMBS/Teaching organization model. But still the model has limits on developing leaders in all level, because it is quite leader centric not much concern about subordinates and followers.

 

 


3. Style Approach

Leadership Approach & Theory: Style Approach

Concept of the Theory:

The style approach is strikingly different from the trait approach and skills approach to leadership because the style approach focuses on what leaders do rather than who leaders are. It suggests that leaders engage in tow primary types of behaviors: task behaviors and relationship behaviors. How leaders combine these two types of behaviors to influence others is the central focus of the style approach.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not concerned about leaders cognitive ability development

Poor

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not concerning about developing emotions

Poor

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Very focused on the leaders’ behavior

Excellent

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

One from two axis of leadership grid is the concern for people. But it’s not much specified or crystallized one.

Fair

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Not much concerned about leader’s responsibility for developing others

Poor

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Not concerned about motivating others

Poor

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Not much concerned about developing authenticity of others

Poor

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

Style approach is quite focusing on leaders’ behavior not on developing traits or organization.

Poor

 

Comments

 

             Style approach is not fit for applying BMBS/Teaching organization. But the theory’s high concern of leadership behavior is applicable to develop leader’s psychomotor skills.


4. Situational Approach

Leadership Approach & Theory: Situational Approach

Concept of the Theory:

Situational leadership is a prescriptive approach to leadership that suggests how leaders can become effective in many different types of organizational settings involving a wide variety of organizational task. This approach provides a model that suggests to leaders how they should behave based on the demands of a particular situation.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not much concern about developing knowledge of leader.

Poor

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not much concern about developing emotional competencies of leader

Poor

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Focusing on matching leaders’ behavior onto different situation (Supportive behavior vs. Directive behavior)

Excellent

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Addressed improvement of relationship by changing leaders’ style, but it is not much concern about personal development of leader

Good

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Situational approach stressed on the developing subordinates.

Excellent

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Concerned about motivating followers, but its is not an active tasks for leaders but optimizing process to match up one’s style

Good

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Suggesting specific follower development methods

Excellent

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

Situational approach is focusing on developing organizations. And it is quite well describing the leadership role w.r.t. teaching organization concept. But The approach is not much detail in developing leaders’ knowledge and emotions.

Good

 

Comments

 

             Situational approach is quite well matched with the concept of teaching organization. Meanwhile this approach is not much concern about developing leader him/herself.


 5. Contingency Theory

Leadership Approach & Theory: Contingency Theory

Concept of the Theory:

Contingency theory represents a shift in leadership research from focusing on only the leader to looking at the leader in conjunction with the situation in which the leader works. It is a leader-match theory that emphasizes the importance of matching a leaders’ style with the demands of a situation.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not much concern about developing knowledge of leader.

Poor

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not much concern about developing emotional competencies of leader

Poor

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Focusing on matching leaders’ behavior onto different situation. But the model do not addressing self-development of leaders

Good

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Much concern about relationship and atmosphere of organization. In addition, the model specifies the subordinate characteristics and task characteristics. But this model is not much focused on developing leader’s own spirit

Good

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Even though the theory mentions about the responsibility, it do not explain the active role of leader for developing others.

Poor

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

The theory is recommending passive action of leaders to match him/her with followers’ situations.

Fair

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Through optimizing leadership style, they leader can get authenticity from subordinates, but it’s not an active action.

Fair

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

Contingent theory is not concern about the active role of leaders’ efforts to develop organization, but it suggests the passive process to match leaders themselves into certain situations.

Poor

 

Comments

 

             Although contingency theory is practically feasible, it is almost impossible to apply BMBS/Teaching organization model, because it do not address the possibility of changing leaders or organizations.


6. Path-Goal Theory

Leadership Approach & Theory: Path-Goal Theory

Concept of the Theory:

Path-goal theory was developed to explain how leaders motivate subordinates to be productive and satisfied with their work. It is a contingency approach to leadership because effectiveness depends on the fit between the leader’s behavior and the characteristics of subordinates and the task.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not much concern about developing knowledge of leader.

Poor

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not much concern about developing emotional competencies of leader

Poor

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Focusing on matching leaders’ behavior onto different situation. But the model do not addressing self-development of leaders

Good

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Much concern about relationship and atmosphere of organization. In addition, the model specifies the subordinate characteristics and task characteristics. But this model is not much focused on developing leader’s own spirit

Good

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Path-goal theory is focusing on the responsibility of developing subordinate by providing clear goal, paths. Also it stresses the leader’s role of removing obstacles, and supporting subordinate.

Excellent

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Focusing on motivating subordinates based on expectancy theory.

Excellent

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Suggesting specific methods for developing followers.

Excellent

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

The theory is quite fit for explaining the needs for developing leaders in all level..

Excellent

 

Comments

 

             Path-goal theory is quite good for applying Teaching organization concept. Because it explains the importance of responsibility of leaders in developing leaders in all level, and stresses the motivation factor. However, path-goal theory is not much concern about developing leader him/herself. The theory is applicable to teaching organization development.


7. Leader-Member Exchange Theory

Leadership Approach & Theory: Leader-Member Exchange Theory

Concept of the Theory:

LMX theory addresses leadership as a process centered on the interactions between leaders and followers. It makes the leader-member relationship the pivotal concept in the leadership process. By using the concept of Leader-Member dyads, LMX theory explains how leader should build up better relationship with his/her subordinate. Identifying the in-group and out-group is critical for leaders, and he/she has to build up leadership through providing better relationship with all subordinates.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not much concern about developing knowledge of leader.

Poor

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Not much concern about developing emotional competencies of leader

Poor

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Behavior of leaders is quite important in this model. To build up a better relationship to enhance one’s leadership he/she should concern about his/her behavior. However, specific methods are not presented

Fair

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Much concern about relationship and atmosphere of organization. But the theory explains the dyad of relationship. Even though it is exists, ideally leader should be fair to every subordinate.

Good

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

LMX theory is focusing on the responsibility of making good relationship with subordinates. But the theory does not provide the practical methods how leader should do.

Good

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Focusing on motivating subordinates based on leadership dyad.

Good

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Pointing out the importance of relationship between leader and follower. However, it does not explain the mechanism of authenticity improvement

Good

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

The theory is focusing on making better relationship with subordinates in all level. But it is not an active process but passive one.

Fair

 

Comments

 

             LMX theory is fairly explaining the importance of relationship between leaders and subordinates. However, the theory is limited to explain how the leadership is improved. Then application of this theory for BMBS/Teaching organization is limited.


8. Transformational Leadership Theory

Leadership Approach & Theory: Transformational Leadership

Concept of the Theory:

Transformational leadership is concerned with the process of how certain leaders are able to inspire followers to accomplish great things. This approach stresses that leaders need to understand and adapt to the needs and motives of followers. Transformational leaders are recognized as change agents who are good role models, who can create and articulate a clear vision for an organization, who empower followers to meet higher standards, who act in ways that make other want to trust them, and who give meaning to organizational life.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Focusing on intellectual stimulation to followers to be creative and innovative and to challenge their own beliefs. However, the theory does not provide how leader him/herself develop their own cognitive level

Good

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Focusing on individualized consideration. But the theory do not explain the leaders own development of his/her emotional competencies

Fair

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Behavior of leaders is quite important in this theory. Leaders affect subordinate by charismatic behaviors.

Excellent

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Stressing inspirational motivation to setup a better team spirit through effective communication. Also it explains the importance of the level of expectation

Excellent

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Transformational theory is highly stresses the importance of leaders responsibility in developing followers.

Excellent

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Focusing on individualized consideration to motivate his/her subordinates

Excellent

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Focusing on the trust building for fostering collaboration with others

Excellent

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

The theory is quite matched with the concept of developing all level followers.

Excellent

 

Comments

 

             Although transformational leadership theory does not concern much about individual level, it is best matched with the concept of BMBS/Teaching organization. The theory explain importance of developing all level subordinates, and critical roles of leaders’ in motivating his/her followers.


9. Team Leadership Theory

Leadership Approach & Theory: Team Leadership Theory

Concept of the Theory:

The team leadership model provides a framework in which to study the systematic factors that contribute to a group’s outcomes or general effectiveness. Within this approach, the critical function of leadership is to help the group accomplish its goals by monitoring and diagnosing the group and taking the requisite action.

Metric

Criteria

Evaluation

Assessment

Individual Level (BMBS model)

 

 

Brain

Addressing the development of knowledge?

Not much concern about intellectual development, but it provides a cognitive guide that helps leaders design and maintain effective teams. .

Good

Mind

Addressing the development of emotion?

Focusing on diagnosing the problem of team, and providing specific approach to solve the problem.

Excellent

Body

Addressing the development of psychomotor skill?

Identifying the specific leadership behaviors with according to mental model of the situation.

Excellent

Intermediary

 

 

 

Spirit

Addressing the development of good spirit?

Stressing mental model for selecting and implementing the appropriate behavior

Excellent

Organizational Level (Teaching organization)

 

 

Responsibility

Addressing the development of other leaders (leadership pipeline)?

Addressed the importance role of team leader, but not much stressed on training or development of his followers

Excellent

Energize / Edge

Addressing the development of motivation skills?

Systematic approach for motivation, but it does not specifies the required action

Good

Commitment

Addressing the development of authenticity

Focusing on the developing team performance as well as team authenticity

Excellent

Applicability

Applicable to build leader at every level?

The theory is quite matched with the concept of developing all level followers.

Excellent

 

Comments

 

             Team Leadership Theory is good to explain the importance of developing all level individuals and organizations. However, the team leader’s role is not much stressed in this theory, many specific actions is provided. Overall, the theory is one of the best matched theories for BMBS/Teaching organization model.


RESULT / DISCUSSION

 

I have reviewed leadership theories by using BMBS/Teaching organization model in this paper. Each leadership theories have strengths and weaknesses with respect to BMBS/Teaching organization model. However, transformational leadership theory and team leadership theory are ranked in top two theories in my analysis. But these two theories are not perfectly matched with concept of my model. Meanwhile there are some other leadership theories which are very well matched with BMBS/Teaching organization model. For example skill’s approach is appropriate to brain domain, because it’s focusing on developing cognitive ability. Style approach is matched with body domain in BMBS model. Concept of changing leaders’ behavior in style approach is well supporting the concept of body domain, which is quite focusing on leader’s behavioral development. On the other hand, in BMBS/Teaching organization model, there are three domain levels: Individual, Intermediate, and Organization. Path-goal theory and situational theory is quite well matched with the level of organization. But the theories are limited in other levels.

             I agree with that that my model probably not perfect. However, it’s really important to have my own voice at leadership. Through the leadership development classes (HRE490, 2007), I learned the most important thing that there is no one exact solution in developing leadership. And having my own perspective which is based on my knowledge, experience, and intuition is more important than following others.

             As Tichy said, having one’s own story and telling it to others to teach them is the first step of becoming a leader.


REFERENCES

Anderson, L. W. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of bloom's taxonomy of educational objectivesLongman.

Bennis, W. (2003). ON BECOMING A LEADERSDa Capo Press.

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. handbook 1, cognitive domainDavid McKay.

Drucker, P. F. (1954). The practice of management. NY 10022: HarperCollins Publisher, Inc.

Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and practice (4th ed.). CA 91320: Sage publications, Inc.

Quatro, S. A., Waldman, D. A., & Galvin, B. M. (2007). Developing holistic leaders: Four domains for leadership development and practice. Human Resource Management Review, 17(4), 427-441.

Senge, P. M. (1992). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organizationCentury Business.

SIMPSON, E. J. (1966). THE CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES, PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN.

Tichy, N. M. (2005). THE LEADERSHIP ENGINE (Collins Business Essentials paperback edition published 2005 ed.). NY 10022: Harper Collins Publishers Inc.,.


APPENDIX

 

1. Trait Approach

 

Table 1. Pat’s criteria vs. Trait approach

 

Intelligence

Self-confidence

Determination

Integrity

Sociability

Interpersonal Skill

 

 

 

 

 

Confident

 

 

 

 

 

Poise & Initiative

 

 

 

 

Analytical & Technical Skills

 

 

 

 

 

Problem solving

 

 

 

 

 

Computer skills

 

 

 

 

Work ethics

 

 

 

 

 

Commitment

 

 

 

 

 

Willingness to do job

 

 

 

 

 

2. Skills Approach

Table 2. Trajectory of employees’ skills to Mumford skills approach model

 

Kelly

Danielle

Patrick

Competencies

 

 

 

 

Problem-Solving

Good

Poor: Lousy with numbers

Good

 

Social Judgment

Poor: Difficulty getting along with other employees

Good

Poor: Weak on people side

 

Knowledge

Good

Poor

Good

Individual Attributes

 

 

 

 

General Cognitive ability

Good

 

 

 

Crystallized cognitive ability

 

 

 

 

Motivation

Good

Good

 

 

Personality

Poor

Good

Good

Career Experiences

Kitchen manger

Front

Front & Kitchen

Environmental Influences

1.      Andy’s strong Ego

2.      Italian (Sicily) culture

3.      Human skills are highly required

 

3. Style Approach

 

Table 1. Style Questionnaire of Susan Park

Key: 1 = Never, 2 = Seldom, 3 = Occasionally, 4 = Often, 5 = Always

Questions

Task

Relationship

1

Tells group members what they are supposed to do

2

 

2

Acts friendly with members of the group

 

1

3

Sets standards of performance for group members

4

 

4

Helps others feel comfortable in the group

 

2

5

Makes suggestions about how to solve problems

4

 

6

Responds favorably to suggestions made by others

 

2

7

Makes his or her perspective clear to others

5

 

8

Treats others fairly

 

3

9

Develops a plan of action for the group

4

 

10

Behaves in a predictable manner toward group members

 

4

11

Defines role responsibilities for each group members

4

 

12

Communicates actively with group members

 

2

13

Clarifies his or her own role within the group

4

 

14

Shows concern for the well-being of others

 

2

15

Provides a plan for how the work is to be done

4

 

16

Shows flexibility in making decisions

 

3

17

Provides criteria for what is expected of the group

4

 

18

Discloses thoughts and feelings to group members

 

2

19

Encourages group members to do high-quality work

4

 

20

Helps group members get along

 

2

 

Total

39

24

Susan Park’s Leadership Style is Moderately high “Task” and Low “Relationship”

 

4. Situational Approach

According to the basic assumptions of situational leadership,

 

(Low) Commitment Level (High)

D1: Beth Edward

(New employee who are very excited but lack understanding of job requirements)

D4: Rick Nakano

(Seasoned worker with proven abilities and great devotion to a company)

D2: Steve Lynch

(Skeptical to his/her ability)

D3:

 

(Low)    Competency Level     (High)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 1 Development Level of Bruce Cannon’s Company Employees

 

 

5. Contingency Theory

Fig. 1  Tamara’s Leadership Requirement

Leader-Member relationship

Good

Poor

Task Structure

High Structure

Low Structure

High Structure

Low Structure

Position Power

Strong power

Weak Power

Strong power

Weak Power

Strong power

Weak Power

Strong power

Weak Power

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Preferred Leadership Style

Low LPCs

Middle LPCs

High LPCs

Low LPCs

 

 


 

6. Path-Goal Theory

Fig. 2  Daniel’s Leadership at The Copy Center

Subordinate Characteristics

Task Characteristics

Required Leadership

Daniel’s Behaviors

Goal/Motivation

Part-time worker

-   Struggling with their class schedule and part-time job schedule

 

Duplicating

-      Straight forward

-      Boring

-      Repetitive

Supportive Leadership

(Provides nurturance)

1)  Helpful with working out schedule conflict

2)  Help the staff make it tolerable

3)  Promotes a friendly work atmosphere

4)  Spend a lot of time conversing informally

5)  Making workers feel significant

6)  Involving staffs

1) Paralleling part-time job with full-time studying

2) Feel doing valuable tasks

Full-time worker

-   Independent

-   Self-assured

-   Self-motivated

-   Self-directed

 

Desktop Publishing

-      Complex

-      Requires creativity

-      Challenging

 

Participative Leadership

(Provides involvement)

1)  Give staffs a lot of space and leaves them alone

2)  Available when they need help

3)  Being resource person (Participate troubleshooting the problem)

4)  Spend less time than duplicating staff

 

1) Accomplish tasks in a creative way

2) Autonomous work environments

 

7. Leader-Member Exchange Theory

Table 1. Leader-Member Exchange Questionnaire

 

LMX 7 Questionnaire

(Carly Peters at Mils, Smith, & Peters Advertising Agency)

Jack

Terri

Julie

Sarah

Do you know where you stand with you leader? Do you usually know how satisfied your leader is with what you do?

5

2

1

3

How well does your leader understand your job problems and needs?

4

1

1

3

How well does your leader recognize your potential?

5

1

1

2

Regardless of how much formal authority he or she has built into his or her position, what are the chances that your leader would use his/her power to help you solve problems in your work?

4

2

2

3

Again, regardless of the amount of formal authority your leader has, what are the chances that he/she would “bail you out” at his or her expense?

5

1

2

4

I have enough confidence in my leader that I would defend and justify his her decision if he or she were not present to do so

5

1

1

4

How would you characterize your working relationship with your leader

5

2

1

4

Total Score

33

10

9

23

Five Point Scale: None (1) ~ Very High (5)

Criteria: Very high 30~35, High=25~29, Moderate=20~24, Low=15~19, Very Low=7-14

 

 

8. Transformational Leadership

Table 9.2 Leadership Factors

Transformational Leadership

Transactional Leadership

Laissez-Faire Leadership

Factor 1

Idealized influence Charisma

Factor 5

Contingent reward

Constructive Transactions

Factor7

Laissez-Faire

Nontransactional

Factor2

Inspirational Motivation

Factor 6

Management-by-Exception

Active and Passive corrective Transactions

 

Factor3

Intellectual Stimulation

 

 

Factor 4

Individualized consideration

 

 

 


 

9. Team Leadership

Fig. 1. Analysis of Characteristics of Jim’s Virtual Team

Characteristics of Team Excellence

Have

Don’t have

Details

Clear, elevating goal

 

Develop and implement technology innovations for all global business unit

Results-driven structure

 

No clear team structure

Competent team members

 

20 competent professionals

Unified commitment

 

Travel to business sites at least 2 weeks each month

Collaborative climate

 

No experience work together on any project

Standards of excellence

 

No clear performance standard

External support

 

The have only 1/2 secretary in NY

Principled leadership

 

Jim is trying but not effective

 

 



Leadership Theories

 

1. Trait Approach (특성 이론)

 

특성이론은 어떤 사람은 리더가 될만한 특별한 특성을 가지고 태어나서 리더가 된다는 이론이다. 리더는 보통사람과 특성에 따라 구별 있다고 믿어지는데, 이론은 20세기 이후 개별 특성이 제한적이라는 비판을 받게 된다.

 

The trait approach has its root in leadership theory that suggested that certain people were born with special traits that made them great leaders. Because it was believed that leaders and non-leaders could be differentiated by a universal set of traits, through the 20th century researchers were challenged to identify the definitive traits of leader

 

2. Skills Approach (능력 이론)

 

능력이론은 리더의 능력에 주안점을 두고 설명하는 이론이다. Katz 세가지 리더 능력 (기술적 능력, 사회적 능력, 개념화 능력) 대표적이며 최근 Mumford 그의 동료들이 더욱 발전 시켰다.

 

The skills approach is a leader-centered perspective that emphasizes the competencies of leaders. It is best represented in the early work of Katz (1955) on the three-skill approaches [technical, human, conceptual] and the more recent work of Mumford and his colleagues (2000), who initiated the development of comprehensive skills model of leadership.

 

3. Style Approach (스타일 이론)

 

스타일 이론은 위의 두가지 리더쉽 이론과 달리 리더 본인이 아닌, 리더의 행위에 주안점을 두고 있는 이론이다. 스타일 이론에서는 리더의 두가지 행위를 가지고 설명하는데, 첫째는 Task Behavior ( 중심적 행위), 둘째는 Relationship Behavior (관계 중심적 행위)이다. 리더는 일중심적이냐, 관계 중심적이냐에 따라 스타일이 다르며 추종자들에게 스타일에 따라 영향을 주므로 두가지 행위를 조절해야 한다. 

 

The style approach is strikingly different from the trait approach and skills approach to leadership because the style approach focuses on what leaders do rather than who leaders are. It suggests that leaders engage in two primary types of behaviors: task behaviors and relationship behaviors. How leaders combine these two types of behaviors to influence others is the central focus of the style approach.

 

4. Situational Approach (상황 이론)

 

상황 이론은 리더가 처한 개별 상황에 따라 리더의 행위가 달라진다는 이론이다.

 

Situational leadership is a prescriptive approach to leadership that suggests how leaders can become effective in many different types of organizational settings involving a wide variety of organizational task. This approach provides a model that suggests to leaders how they should behave based on the demands of a particular situation.

 

5. Contingency Theory (임시 이론)

 

임시 이론은 리더에 중점을 두었던 이론들과 달리, 상황에 따라 적합한 리더가 달라진다는 이론이다.

Contingency theory represents a shift in leadership research from focusing on only the leader to looking at the leader in conjunction with the situation in which the leader works. It is a leader-match theory that emphasizes the importance of matching a leaders’ style with the demands of a situation.

 

6. Path-Goal Theory

 

경로-목적 이론은 리더가 어떻게 추종자들에게 동기부여를 해서 그들이 보다 효율적이고 만족하게 하는지를 설명하기 위해 개발되었다. 경로-목적이론은 임시 이론과 비슷하게 추종자들의 행위와 특성 그리고 일에 따라 리더쉽이 변하는 것을 설명한다.

 

Path-goal theory was developed to explain how leaders motivate subordinates to be productive and satisfied with their work. It is a contingency approach to leadership because effectiveness depends on the fit between the leader’s behavior and the characteristics of subordinates and the task.

 

 

7. Leader-Member Exchange Theory

 

리더-멤버 상호교환 이론은 리더와 추종자간에 관계 프로세스 중점을 두고 있다. 이론은 리더와 멤버간에 관계가 중요한 역할을 한다는 가정하에 리더가 어떻게 하면 추종자들과 보다 나은 관계를 만들어 가느냐에 따라 보다 효율적인 리더쉽이 형성되느냐를 설명한다. 리더에게 In-group (내부 그룹) Out-group (외부 그룹) 나누는 것이 중요한 요인이며 추종자들에게 어떤 관계를 제공하느냐에 따라 리더쉽 차이가 생겨난다는 것을 설명한다.

 

LMX theory addresses leadership as a process centered on the interactions between leaders and followers. It makes the leader-member relationship the pivotal concept in the leadership process. By using the concept of Leader-Member dyads, LMX theory explains how leader should build up better relationship with his/her subordinate. Identifying the in-group and out-group is critical for leaders, and he/she has to build up leadership through providing better relationship with all subordinates.

 

8, Transformational Leadership Theory

 

전환 리더쉽 이론은 어떤 리더가 추종자들에게 강력한 동기부여를 통해 그들이 변화하여 보다 나은 일을 이루어 있도록 하는 것을 설명한다. 이론은 리더가 추종자들의 요구와 동기를 파악하고 반영하는 것에 중점을 두며, 리더 스스로 추종자들의 역할 모델이 되고, 비전을 제시하며, 추종자들에게 책임을 부여하여 리더를 믿도록 하면 조직생활에 의미를 찾도록 하는 것을 설명한다.

 

Transformational leadership is concerned with the process of how certain leaders are able to inspire followers to accomplish great things. This approach stresses that leaders need to understand and adapt to the needs and motives of followers. Transformational leaders are recognized as change agents who are good role models, who can create and articulate a clear vision for an organization, who empower followers to meet higher standards, who act in ways that make other want to trust them, and who give meaning to organizational life.

 

9. Team Leadership Theory

 

리더쉽 모델은 조직의 성과에 영향을 끼는 시스템적인 요인들을 설명한다. 리더쉽 이론은 팀의 목표를 이루기 위해 팀원들의 성과를 모니터링 하고 진단하여 적절한 대응을 하는 것이 리더의 중요한 역할이란 것을 설명한다.

 

The team leadership model provides a framework in which to study the systematic factors that contribute to a group’s outcomes or general effectiveness. Within this approach, the critical function of leadership is to help the group accomplish its goals by monitoring and diagnosing the group and taking the requisite action.

 

10. Psychodynamic Approach

 

정신분석학적 접근은 리더와 추종자 개인의 Personality (개인특성) 진단하는 것에 기반을 두고 있으며, 자아(Ego) 상태 분석 프로이트와 융의 심리학적 분석을 토대로 MBTI Personality 분석을 사용하여 리더쉽의 다른 점을 이해하고 현실에 적용하는 것을 설명한다.

 

The psychodynamic approach is based on assessments of the personalities of leaders and followers. It differs from approaches and models that begin by studying and summarizing the traits, behaviors, skills, or styles of leaders. Several ways of identifying personality characteristics are available, including the ego state model from transactional analysis and the personality types of Freude and Jung, as interpreted by Maccoby (2003) and the MBTI, respectively

 

11.  Women Leadership

Beginning in the 1970s researchers started investigating gender differences in leadership. Investigations into leadership style have revealed that women are somewhat more likely to use democratic and transformational styles than men. Research looking at leadership effectiveness indicates a slight disadvantage fro women in masculine domains, a slight effectiveness advantage for women in feminine domains, and a greater use by women of effective transformational and contingent reward behaviors.

 

12. Culture and Leadership

Since World War II there has been a dramatic increase in globalization throughout the world. Globalization has created a need for leaders with greater understanding of cultural differences and increased competencies in cross-cultural communication and practice. Culture is defined as the commonly shared beliefs, values, and norms of a group of people. Two factors that can inhibit cultural awareness are Ethnocentrisism and prejudice. Ethnocentrisism is the human tendency to place one’s own group at the center of one’s observations of others and the world. It is problematic for leaders because it prevents them from fully understanding the world of others. Similarly, prejudice consists of judgments about others based on fixed attitudes and unsubstantiated data. Prejudice has a negative impact because it is self-orented and inhibits leaders from seeing the many facets and qualities of others.

 

13. Leadership Ethics

Ethical theory provides a set of principles that guide leaders in making decisions about how to act and how to be morally decent. In the Western tradition, ethical theories typically are divided into two kinds: theories about conduct and theories about character. Theories about conduct emphasize the consequences of leader behavior (teleological approach) or the rules that govern their behavior (deontological approach). Virtue-based theories focus on the character of leaders, and they stress qualities such as courage, honesty, fairness, and fidelity.

 

14. Integrative (Holistic) Leadership Theory

 

 

Reference: Northouse, Peter G., Leadership Theory and Practice: theory and practice, 4th ed., Sage Publication, Inc. 2007, ISBN 1-4129-4161-X


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■ 리더쉽의 정의 및 이론


▶리더십의 정의

  리더십이란 어떤 상황하에서 목표달성을 위해 어떤 개인이 다른 개인, 집단의 행위에       영향력을 행사하는 과정

▶ 리더십이론

   리더의 유효성을 결정하는 요소가 어떠한 것인가?

   어떤 특성, 행위, 상황에 따라 어떤 유형의 리더십이 더 유효한가?

  * 연구방법상 리더십과정의 어느 측면을 강조하느냐에 따라

  ① trait-leader (40-50년대)

  ② behavioral-leader, follower (50-60년대)

  ③ situational theory-situational (70-80년대)

  ④ transformation (80년대 이후)


■ 리더십의 특성이론

   GREAT MAN THEORY

  * 리더십의 초기연구 --> 「위인이론」 영웅들이 지니고 있었던 독특한 자질

  * 리더가 남보다 더 고유하고 현저한 특성을 보유하고 있으면

    --->그가 처해 있는 상황/환경이 변화한다 하더라도 항상 리더

▶ 리더의 특성

  -->그렇다면 어떠한 특성이 리더의 자질을 결정할까?

  * 1930-1950년대에 많은 육체적, 정신적, 인격적 특성들에 대한 연구

    연구결과 대부분 타당성이 결여---지능만이 어느 정도 일관성 있는 특성

  * K.Davis--① 지능

              ② 사회적 성숙도

              ③높은 내적 동기부여와 성취추진력

              ④ 인간 관계적 태도


  * R.M.Stogdill

  (1) 신체적 특성--연령, 신장, 체중, 외모

  (2) 사회적 배경--학력, 가정, 지역, 사회적지위  * 배경의 중요성-사회적 비판

  (3) 지적능력--판단력, 결단력, 주의력, 사고력, 일반상식 * 권한위양의 장애

  (4) 성격--환경적응성, 신념, 자신감, 솔직성, 인내력, 독립심

  (5) 과업특성--과업지향적, 목표달성에 대한 강한 의지(동기)ꠏꠏꠈ상호배반적

  (6) 사회적특성--대인관계의 원활, 타인에게 좋은 이미지 전달ꠏꠎ특성


▶ 특성이론의 평가

  * 리더십 특성이론의 종합

     대체로 리더란 책임감이 강하며 목표달성에 대한 열정과 인내심.

     원만한 대인관계, 자신감, 지구력, 좌절극복의 인내력이 있어야 함.

  * 특성이론의 비판---

     상황문제를 거론하지 않고 모든 리더들을 동일한 특성으로 분류하는 점

     <어떤 상황하에서는 매우 유효하고 활동적인 특성들이 다른 상황하에서는 비능율적,            비활동적>

  * 특성이론의 새로운 연구방향

    -->어떠한 상황하에서도 보편적인 타당성을 지니고 있는 특성 추구

    -->보편적 특성을 교육을 통하여 주입함으로 후천적 리더십 양성 가능

  * 특성이후 리더십연구의 진행

    리더가 어떤 사람이냐 하는 것이 아니라(특성추구이론)

    ①그가 무엇을 하고 있느냐(행동이론)로 부각되기 시작

    ②그 상황에서 어떠한 사람이 효과적인 리더가 될 수 있는가? 연구 진행


■ 리더십 행동이론

  * 1950년대--리더십 특성추구이론 비판--리더의 실제행위에 점차 관심 고조

    --> 리더의 행동은 무엇이며, 어떻게 행동하는가 하는 관점

  * 현장, 실험실연구--리더의 행위관찰, 기록

    --->리더의 행위에 어떤 패턴이 존재한다는 사실 확인 (리더십 스타일)

        효율적인 리더는 특정 스타일을 이용하여 목표달성, 높은 생산성, 사기의 유지


▶ 아이오와 리더십 연구

  * Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lippitt, Ralph White 집단역학의 선구자 (1939년)

        ꠆ꠏ권력형(권위주위적) : 명령지시적, 집단활동의 토론회피, 참여의 비허용

        ꠉꠏ민주형 : 집단토의 권장, 객관적입장에서 칭찬과 격려, 평등 분위기 발전

        ꠌꠏ자유방임형 : 집단활동 불간섭, 소년들만의 자율적 결정, 사실상 리더 無

   -->소년들은 압도적으로 민주형 리더를 선호 / 자유방임적 / 권력형 순

  

     * 권력형리더    --조직구성원에게 좌절감, 도전적 행동의 초래 가능

     * 자유방임형리더--지원의 부족에 따른 무관심, 도전적 반응 유발 가능

     * 민주형리더    --가장 집단구성원들에게 만족을 가져다주게 될 것.



▶ 매니지리얼 그리드 (Managerial grid)

  * R.R.Blake & J.S.Mouton--오하이오대학의 리더십연구에서 이론적 기초

    오늘날 산업에서 경영자개발계획에 광범위하게 적용

  * 매니지리얼 그리드의 리더유형


  ① 무관심형--리더자신의 직분을 유지하는데 필요한 최소의 노력을 투입

  ② 친목형--구성원의 만족한 관계와 친밀한 분위기를 조성하는데 주력

  ③ 과업중심형--인간적인 요소보다는 과업의 달성을 최고로 중요시하는 유형

  ④ 중간형--생산과 관계의 유지에 중간정도의 관심을 기울이는 리더

  ⑤ 팀형--종업원의 자아실현욕구를 만족시켜주고 신뢰와 지원의 분위기를 이루며

           한편으로는 과업달성을 이룩하기를 강조하는 가장 이상적 리더유형

        ꠆ꠏ오하이오--부하와 동료, 직속상사가 지각하는 리더의 행위분류

        ꠌꠏ그리드  --리더가 자기 자신을 어떠한 리더라고 생각하는지 태도


▶ 리더십 행동이론의 결론

  ① 배려적, 종업원 중심적 리더십은 종업원에게 높은 사기와 만족

  ② 직무수행 측면에 초점을 둔 생산중심 리더십스타일이 종업원 중심 리더십보다 성과가       높음

  ③ 효율적리더=종업원중심적(배려,인간관계적)+직무중심적(구조주도,생산지향적)높                          아야


■ 리더십 상황이론

 

▶피들러의 상황모형

  * 일리노이대교수--피들러--최초의 리더십 상황이론의 연구

        ꠆ꠏ초기 연구목적-->리더의 특성규명-->결과 상황에 따라 리더특성차이

        ꠌꠏ후기 연구목적-->상황에 따라 유효한 리더의 특성차이를 설명하기 위해서 상황                             이론을 전개

  * 리더가 처해 있는 상황의 호의성을 높일때 리더십은 촉진된다는 맥락

    (리더와 구성원의 상호작용유형 / 상황의 호의성에 따라 리더유효성 결정)


(1) LPC의 측정 및 해석 (리더의 특성)

    Least Preferred Coworker

  ① 리더에게 동료작업자 중 직무수행시 가장 애로를 느꼈던 사람을 생각

  ② 리더에게 LPC 척도 각 항목을 기준으로 그 사람을 평가

     <각 항목의 점수를 합산---LPC 점수에 따라 리더십의 유형 판별>

     -->리더가 매우 비판적이면  낮은 LPC 점수     <63점 이하>

     -->리더가 관대하게 평가했다면 높은 LPC 점수  <73점 이상>

  * 해석 <리더의 특성>

        ꠆ꠏ LPC 높은 리더 : 부하와의 사교강조, 지원적 태도, 대인관계 개선 노력

        ꠌꠏ LPC 낮은 리더 : 과업목표달성에 비중, 과업지향적 행동 추구

(2) 상황적 조절변수 (狀況好意性)

    -->LPC 점수와 리더의 유효성은 직접적으로 연결되는 것이 아니다.

       상황의 호의성에 따라 리더의 유효성이 영향을 받게 된다.

      

   ① 리더/구성원 관계--구성원들이 리더를 신뢰하고 지원하고 있는지 여부

   ② 과업구조--목표 명확성, 수단의 다양성, 정확한 해결안의 존재 여부

   ③ 직위권한--리더의 합법적, 보상적 권력(권위와 보상권한)의 존재 여부

   -->상황호의성은 그 상황이 리더로 하여금 자기집단에 대해 영향력을 행사할 수 있게          하는 정도

   -->세 가지 요소의 결합방법에 따라 8가지 상황의 조합이 가능 (2*2*2=8)

   -->리더와 구성원관계가 좋은 관계이고 / 과업의 구조화가 높고 / 직위권한을 보유하고         있을 경우 전체적 상황호의성은 높다

    

▶ 피들러의 상황모형의 평가

  * 타당성 검증

  ① 비판점

     LPC 점수와 관련된 문제 -- LPC 점수가 리더의 분류기준으로 타당한가?

                                LPC 점수가 집단성과의 원인변수 이유?

     리더십유형의 2분법 -- 리더십유형을 과업지향, 인간관계적 (단순화)

                            리더십유형의 절충 혹은 변화의 가능성 무시

     상황조절변수 문제 -- 지나치게 단순한 상황변수의 설정

                           상황조절변수의 가중치 결정에 대한 이론근거

  ② 공헌점

    리더십이론에 상황변수 최초로 접합(리더십유형 좋다/나쁘다는 관점 배제)

    리더십개발의 방향 제시 -- 리더와 상황간의 적합관계가 리더십 유효성에 중요한 요소                                 라는 것.

    리더의 변경은 어렵지만 상황의 변경으로 인해 리더십 유효성 제고 가능 


▶ 하우스의 경로-목표이론

   * 기대이론에 기반을 둔 새로운 모형의 제시

     --> 상황요인을 일정한 것으로 간주하고 한 리더가 상황적 제약 내에서 부하의 목표            를 성취하는데 도움을 줄 수 있는 방법 추구

   첫째, 작업목표의 달성에 대한 대가로 부하가 향유하게 될 보상을 증가

   둘째, 목표로 하는 보상을 얻도록 경로상의 장애물을 제거


▶ 하우스의 경로-목표이론            

▶ 리더의 행동

   ①지시적 리더십 : 구체적 작업지시, 규칙/절차, 계획통제조정, 의사결정에의 참여

          상황조건 : 직무의 구조화가 안되어 있는 경우

                     하급자들이 리더가 지시해 줄 것을 기다릴 때

                     하급자가 기술, 정보사항 등을 리더에게 의존하는 경우

   ②지원적 리더십 : 우호적이고 친밀감, 인간적 관심, 하급자의 의사표현존중

          상황조건 : 기업이 극히 구조화되어 있는 경우

                     직무의 성격상 집단간의 상호작용이 극히 필요할 때

                     스트레스를 주고 불만족스러운 과업인 경우

   ③참여적 리더십 : 부하들과의 협의 및 제안을 활용하나 의사결정은 리더가

          상황조건 : 과업이 흥미있고 적당히 구조화되어 있는 경우

                     강한 독립심과 성취욕구를 지닌 작업자들인 경우

                     부하가 필요한 지식과 정보를 갖추고 있을 때

   ④성취지향적 리더십 : 도전적 목표설정 강조, 부하능력 신뢰(성과에 대한 책임)

          상황조건 : 대부분 참여적 리더십의 상황과 유사함.

                     복잡과업을 수행하는 성취지향적인 부하들이 있을 경우

(2) 경로-목표 모형의 상황요인

   ① 하급자의 특성   ② 환경적 요인

(3) 경로-목표 이론의 평가

   --> 관리자에게 그의 행동이 상황에 따라 수정되어야 한다는 점 시사

     1. 리더는 부하들의 특성 및 과업의 환경적 요소들과의 상호작용을 통한 적절한 리더          행동

     2. 부하들의 목표에 대한 기대감과 유의성에 영향을 줌으로써

     3. 이들의 동기수준과 노력, 그리고 성과와 만족감을 높일수 있다.

   --> 결점은 너무 복잡하다는데 있다 --이론의 검증이 어렵다


   <평가의의>

     1. 어떤 상황에서 어떤 유형의 리더십 유형이 적합한가를 구체적 설명

     2. 조직행동론의 중심적 두 과제인 리더십과 동기이론을 결합한 이론

     3. 허시와 블랜차드의 리더십상황이론 (리더십 3차원모델)

* 매니지리얼 그리드모델 + Reddin의 3차원모델 --

   생활주기이론(life-cycle theory)


■ 리더의 특성

    ① Task Orientation Behavior (TO)

         리더가 구성원들의 역할을 조직화 / 역할의 범위와 한계 설정 / 의사소통경로 및           직무수행 방법의 확립을 위해 노력하는 행동

    ② Relationship Orientation Behavior (RO)

       리더가 의사소통경로 개방 / 사회정서적 지원 / 심리적 위안 제공 / 바람직한 행동         조장


<기본적 유형>

    -->기본유형이 주어진 상황에 적합할 때/유효- 적합치 않을경우/비유효함

    -->Reddin의 상황요인 = 리더자신, 부하들, 상사, 동료, 조직, 직무요구, 조직내외적변수


(2) 상황적 조절변수

   * 허시와 블랜차드는 레딘의 많은 상황변수를 최대한으로 축약 ‘부하들’만 선정

   # 허시와 블랜차드의 상황모형의 인과관계

   

    --리더십스타일과 추종자들의 성숙도와의 관계에서 효과적 리더십연구  

    --부하들의 성숙도수준에 따라 리더의 행위가 달라져야 한다는 것

  ※ 부하의 성숙도 (Maturity)

     성취동기의 수준 / 과업달성에 대한 책임과 능력 / 자율성 등의 관점에서

     심리적 성숙도 / 직무상의 성숙도로 구분 가능

    

     ①갓난 아이   ② 취학년령   ③ 청소년   ④ 사회적 생활인

     --자신을 스스로 통제할 수 있는 능력이 성장해감에 따라 성숙


(3) 리더의 유효성에 대한 가설

   ① 부하들의 성숙수준이 미성숙에서 성숙으로 이행됨에 따라, 알맞는 리더십유형도 달라        져야

   ② 성숙수준에 따른 리더십유형의 성공확율은 가장 높은 확율의 리더십형에 근접해 있는        순서

   * 성숙도와 최적의 리더십 유형



(4) 이론의 평가

    * 실증적 타당성 연구의 부족

      -- 상황변수의 단일화

    공헌--부하의 특성에 따라서 리더십유형을 상이하게 적용해야 한다는 점

          부하가 동일인이라 할지라도 상황의 변화에 따라 다르게 관리할 것

          부하의 성숙도수준을 교육을 통하여 변경시킬 수 있다는 것


■ 리더십의 새로운 패러다임


▶ 상호작용이론 : 전통적 리더십이론들은 리더의 행동에 따른 결과만을 연구

       -->리더의 행동결과가 그 이후의 리더의 행동에 영향을 미칠 수 있음

       -->즉 리더의 어떤 행동에 의해 바람직한 결과가 나왔다면 그런 행동은 계속 반복            될 것이고, 반대의 경우에는 반복되지 않으리라는 것

       -->충분한 연구는 이루어지지 않았지만 관심 있는 영역

   * 유효성의 사이클의 나선효과

       높은 기대-->높은 성과-->높은 기대-->높은 성과   동기부여의 요인

   * 비유효성의 사이클의 나선효과

       낮은 기대-->낮은 성과-->낮은 기대-->낮은 성과   위생요인의 악화


▶ 리더십 대체이론 : 리더십을 반드시 필요로 하지 않는 상황 존재

        --> 부하, 과업의 특성 등에 의해 리더십의 영향이 중화(무력화)될 수 있는 상황                간과

        --> 다음 요인들이 실제 리더십을 크게 필요로 하지 않는 상황

        ꠆ꠏ종업원 특성 : 경험, 훈련, 전문성, 자율에 대한 욕구가 강렬할수록

        ꠉꠏ과업의 특성 : 모호성이 없고 직무나 과업 자체에서 오는 내재적 만족감이 클 경                          우

        ꠌꠏ조직의 특성 : 분명하게 공식화된 목표, 엄밀한 절차 및 규칙, 응집성이 강한 집                          단 혹은 조직


▶ Transactional and Transformational Leadership

1) 거래적 리더십 : 리더와 부하간의 거래관계(부하의 공헌과 리더의 유인)

      : 리더는 일정수준 성과 요구 / 성과 달성시 일정수준 보상제공 약속

      : 부하는 그 이익을 얻기 위하여 요구된 수준의 성과 수행에 동의

      : 리더는 성과달성 위한 자원과 기회 제공, 부하 업무수행 장애물 제거, 교육훈련 통          한 부하 능력향상기회 제공, 상황에 따라 보상과 벌 제공

      : 특히 직무 및 직무수행결과에 대한 명확한 정의와 아울러 부하들에게 자신의 직무          요구와 기대를 명확하게 전달해 주어야 함

      --> 리더는 보상적 권력을 최대한 이용

      --> 부하는 계산된 추종을 하게 됨  : 반복적인 작업상황에 효과적


2) 변혁적 리더십 : 카리스마와 개인적 배려, 지적자극을 통한 부하들의 자아개념 자극

      : 부하들에 대한 높은 기대의 표현을 통하여

      : 부하들에게 확신적 태도를 보여줌으로 인하여

      : 부하들의 욕구와 능력의 개인차에 따른 차별적 관리를 통한 부하들의 자기확신감

        고양. 리더  자신의 자기확신감에 찬 태도와 행동은 부하들에게 역할모델로 지각

   ① 카리스마--리더의 이상적인 공약, 부하들에 대한 높은 기대감, 리더 자신의 확신감과                  부하들에 대한 리더의 신뢰감에 의해 형성

       -->부하들은 리더계획에 대한 강력한 지지와 몰입, 리더와 자신 동일시.

   ② 지적자극--부하들에게 문제점을 새로운 방식으로 보도록 시도하는 것

      -->부하들은 스스로 문제에 대한 해결책을 탐구, 부하들의 문제해결능력이 고양(학             습)

   ③ 개별적 배려--리더의 관심사항과 부하들의 관심사항을 공유하는 것

      -->부하들이 개인적 욕구를 스스로 확인하게 만들고, 보다 높은 차원의 욕구를 가질            수 있도록


▶ Super Leadership

  * 부하들을 중심으로 한 리더십 연구 (리더--부하 서로간에 영향을 미침)

  ① 리더의 부하에 대한 영향

     - 뚜렷한 목표와 비전의 설정

     - 건설적인 제안과 변화의 촉진

     - 부하들의 자아개념의 촉진

     - 부하들에게 Impowerment : 의사결정/교육훈련/인센티브/조직구조변경

        Empowerment = Autonomy * Direction * Support

  ② 부하들의 결과

     - 독자적 판단능력과 업무수행능력의 향상

     - 개인적 이익을 넘어서는 집단과 조직에 대한 기여

     - 개인능력의 자발적인 개발 - 높은 도덕적 기준의 달성


▶ LMX 이론

   * Leader-Member Exchange

     : 리더와 멤버 간 개별적인 교환과정이 이루어진다는 이론.

       리더-멤버간 공헌, 충성, 애정의 정도가 깊고 강할 경우 리더-멤버 교환관계 질이               상승

   * 결정요인

     : 리더-멤버간 유사성/동질성, 교환관계 기간/빈도, 리더의 개인특성...

   ① 내부집단 - 리더와 멤버간 사회적 교환을 통한 높은 수준의 상호작용

   ② 외부집단 - 리더와 멤버간 꼭 필요한 경제적 교환 외의 상호작용 없음


▶ Servant Leadership

  * 훌륭한 리더가 되기 위해서는 부하들을 주인과 같이 섬기는 관계 확보해야

  * 리더의 권력은 행사하는 것이 아니다. 부하들을 통하여 만들어지는 것.

  ① 섬기는 리더의 특징

     - 다른 사람의 말을 잘 들어준다.

     - 다른 사람에게 동정심을 갖는다.

     - 다른 사람에게 활력을 불어넣어 준다.

     - 인지, 설득, 개념화, 예측 능력을 갖추고 있다.

     - 대리인과 같은 삶, 타인의 성장에 몰두, 공동체를 형성한다.



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KDI School of Public Policy and Management의 초대 학장이셨던 故 임길진 교수님의 협상 및 갈등조정 관리 수업시간에 행해 졌던 전략적 리더쉽 Session에서 나누어주셨던 전략적 리더의 매뉴얼입니다. 국가적 차원의 위기 관리와 갈등조정을 위한 전략적 리더를 많이 배양하고자 하셨던 교수님의 모습이 아직도 눈에 선합니다.


J.H.Choi



Strategic Leaders Manual

Essential Guidelines for Prudent Governance
(성공적인 거버넌스를 위한 전략적 리더의 매뉴얼)

Gill-Chin Lim (임길진 교수)
MSU Endowed Professor of Asian Studies in a Global Context
Professor of Georgraphy and Planning

Michigan State Univ., USA

Distinguished Institute Professor

KDI School of Public Policy and Management, Seoul, Korea


Introduction

Leaders of contemporary organizations constantly face challenging decision making tasks. Their decisions have a wide range of implications to the organizations they belong to as well as the entire society.

In order to make efficient, beneficial and ethical decisions, leaders need to possess professional knowledge about organizational governance. And they have to practice what they know in a competent manner. Otherwise, their organizations will not be able to achieve their goals. They may also ruin their own professional careers and exercise harmful influences on the society.

The financial disasters observed in countries such as Indonesia, Korea and Thailand and the scandals at corporations such as Enron and WorldCom all alert us of the critical importance of governance and the leaders role.

This manual covers essential elements of governance, which are useful for contemporary leaders. This is a checklist for prudent governance of public and private entities, governments, private companies, financial institutions and non-for-profit civilian organizations.

현대 조직을 운영하는 리더는 계속해서 도전적인 정책결정의 문제에 직면한다. 그들의 결정은 자신들이 속한 조직 뿐 아니라 전 사회에 영향을 끼친다.

이들이 효율적이고, 혜택이 있고, 윤리적인 결정을 내리기 위해서는 조직 경영에 관한 직업적 전문지식을 가지고 있어야 한다. 그렇지 않으면 그들은 조직의 목표를 달성할 수 없다. 심지어 자신의 경력을 망치고 사회에 큰 피해를 줄 수 있다.

인도네시아, 한국, 태국 등에서 목격된 국가적 재정위기나, 엔론, 월드컴 등이 보여준 기업의 부정행위는 분별있는 거버넌스와 리더의 중요성을 다심금 확인하게 한다.

이 매뉴얼은 전략적 리더가 효과적인 거버넌스를 하기 위해 알아야할 가장 필요한 요소들을 압축한 것이다. 여기에 집약된 내용은 정부, 공공기관, 민간단체, 기업체, 금융기관, 비영리 단체 등이 사용할 수 있다.

 

I. Vision: Construct Vision and apply it to management
(비전단계: 장기 비전을 만들고 그 비전을 경영에 적용하라)

A. Vision is an ability to see something invisible. It is a basis for formulating mission statement and guiding an organization


(비전은 보이지 않는 것을 볼 수 있는 능력이다. 비전은 조직의 행동강령을 만들고 운용하는데 기초가 된다)


B. Use the Vision in concrete aspects of strategy and management

(비전을 이용하여 전략적, 경영적 행동을 구체적으로 만들어야 한다)


II. Strategy: Leaders need to develop and use short-term and long-term strategies to guide the entire organization
(전략단계: 리더는 조직을 이끄는 단기 및 장기 전략을 수립하고 사용해야 한다)

A. Strategy is an action oriented framework which contains:

(전략은 아래의 사항들을 포함하는 행동 지향적 틀을 말한다)

1.       Goal (목표)

2.       Problem analysis (문제의 분석)

3.       Establishment of means to achieve goals (목표달성을 위한 방법 설정)

4.       Evaluation Criteria. Important criteria include: (목표를 달성하기 위한 해결방법을 선택하는 기준의 설정)

A.       Efficiency (효율성)

B.       Equity (형평성)

C.       Accountability (책임성)

D.       Risk potential (위험 잠재성)

E.        Crisis potential (위기 잠재성)

F.        Flexibility (유연성)

5.       Evaluation of the alternatives (선택기준을 사용하여 해결방법을 평가)

6.       Selection of an alternatives (해결방법의 선택)

7.       Implementation (해결방법의 집행)

A.       Securing human resources (인적자원의 확보)

B.       Securing financial resources (재정자원의 확보)

C.       Securing technological infrastructure (기술적 인프라 확보)

D.       Obtaining government support (정부 지원 확보)

E.        Building public support (국민 지원 확보)

8.       Monitoring and Control (모니터링, 통제 그리고 비전, 전략, 집행의 재수정)

 

III. Management Supervision: Establish competent management, monitor its activities and review its performance. Then take measures to reform and improve management system. The key areas of management supervision are:

(경영관리: 능력있는 경영체제를 확립하고, 그 경영체제를 통제하고, 성과를 평가한다. 그리고 혁신을 통해 경영을 개선한다. 이 경영관리의 핵심들은 아래와 같다)

 

A. Human resources management (인적자원 관리)

1.       Long term hire and fire (장기 고용 및 퇴출)

2.       Compensation (보상)

3.       Rewards, discipline and punishment (상, 규율, 그리고 벌)

4.       Economic Value Added (경제적 부가가치)

5.       Leave and vacation (일시적 휴직과 휴가)

6.       Education: Long term, short term and life-long (단기, 장기, 평생교육)

7.       Cultural management and creation of a sense of community (문화적 경영과 공동체의식의 형성)

8.       Ethics management (윤리경영)

 

B. Financial management (재정 관리)

1.       Budgeting (예산 작성)

2.       Borrowing (차용)

3.       Lending (여신)

4.       Investment (투자)

5.       Asset management (자산 경영)

6.       Profit planning (수익 증진 계획)

7.       Capital planning (자본 계획)

 

C. Production quality control (생산의 질 통제)

1.       R&D (연구 개발)

2.       Policy/Product pioneering (신정책 및 신상품 개발)

3.       Process engineering (절차 공학화)

4.       Quality assurance (고품질 보장)

5.       Operation excellence (집행의 최우량화)

 

D. Marketing and public relations (마케팅과 공공 관계)

1.       Citizen/Customer relations management (시민/고객관계관리)

2.       Advertising (홍보광고)

3.       Public relations (공공 관계)

A.       Media (매스컴)

B.       Government (정부)

C.       Politicians (정계)

D.       NGOs (민간단체)

E.        Special interest groups (특정이익집단)

F.        General public (일반국민)

 

IV. Information and Knowledge: Gain information and knowledge needed to perform duties. Restructure existing knowledge basis and obtain most up-to-date knowledge. The areas of information and knowledge are:

(정보와 지식: 업무를 수행하기 위한 지식과 정보를 취득해야 한다. 기존의 지식체계를 재정비하고 최신지식을 흡수한다. 정보와 지식의 영역은 아래와 같다)

 

A.       Information on current law, regulations and business trends (최신 법안, 규제, 그리고 경제, 경영 추세에 관한 정보)


B.       Substantive and technical knowledge to supervise management such as Customer relations management, Human resource management, Financial management, production quality control, Marketing, Information technology (고객관계관리, 인사관리, 재정관리, 생산의 질 통제, 마케팅, 정보통신기술 등과 같은 경영을 감독 하기 위한 기초적이고 기술적인 지식)


C.       Communication skills: Written and verbal communication skills, Negotiation skills (의사소통의 기술: 서면과 구도로 의사를 전달하는 기술과 협상의 기술)

 

V. Risk/Crisis Management: Aware of risks and prevent them. If crises break out manage them immediately. Integrate risk analysis and crisis management into strategies. Apply risk/crisis management to all areas of management supervision. Key areas of risks and crises are:

(위험/위기 경영: 위험을 미리 예측하고 예방조처를 취하라. 그럼에도 불구하고 위기가 발생하면 위기경영을 즉각 적용하라. 전략계획에 위험분석과 위기 경영을 포함하라. 경영관리 전분야에 위험/위기 경영을 적용하라. 위험/위기 경영체제를 마련하라. 주요 위험/위기 경영분야는 아래와 같다)

A. Global system risks/crisis: Risks and crises originating from the global scene (세계적 위험/위기: 세계적인 상황에서 발생된 위험/위기들)

1.       War and conflicts (전쟁과 분쟁)

2.       Political changes (정치의 변화)

3.       International trade/Exchange rates (무역/환율)

4.       Price of input materials (원가 변화)


B. National system risk/crisis: Risks and crises originating from national setting

(국가적 위험/위기: 국가의 상황에서 오는 위험/위기들)

1.       Political change (정치의 변화)

2.       Economic changes (경제의 변화)

3.       Technological changes (기술의 변화)

4.       Natural disasters (국가적 재해)

5.       Cultural changes (문화의 변화)

6.       Legal changes (법률의 변화)


C. National financial system risk/crisis: Risks and crises originating from the financial system of a nation (국가 재정체계의 위험/위기)

1.       Legal changes in financial regulations (재정규정에 관한 법률변화)

2.       Interest rate risk (이율의 변화)

3.       Foreign exchange risk (외환률의 변화)

4.       Mergers, acquisitions (합병과 인수)

5.       Birth and death of financial institutions (재정기관들의 신생과 몰락)


D. Organizational system risk/crisis: Risks and crises generated within the organization. Use risk/crisis management in all areas of Section III: Management Supervision above

(근본적 체계의 위험/위기: 기관 자체 내에서 발생하는 위험/위기들. 위의 III 경영관리에 있는 모든 분야에 위험/위기 경영을 적용하라)

 

VI. Internal Control System: Establish and operate an efficient internal control system in association with external auditing

(내부 통제 체계: 외부의 감사체제와 합의하여 효율적인 내부통제체계를 확립, 운영하라)


A. Establish internal control system dealing with all aspects of management

(모든 경영에 관련된 내부통제 체계를 확립하라)

B. Work closely but independently with external auditing system

(외부감사 체계와 함께 일하되 독립적으로 일하라)


C.  Establish and use fast and accurate reporting system

(빠르고 정확한 보고체계를 확립, 운용하라)

 

VII. Ethics Management: Maintain high ethical standards

(윤리 경영: 높은 윤리적 기준 유지)

A. Setup code of ethics (윤리규정 확립)

B. Setup ethics board (윤리위원회 설치)

C. Avoid conflict of interests (이해상충 제거)

D. Avoid preferential transactions (특혜 제거)


Ten Commandments of Strategic Leader

(전략적 리더 10계명)

1. I am a spokesperson (나는 우리조직의 대변인이다)

2. I am a problem solver (나는 우리 문제 해결자다)

3. I am a team-worker (나는 팀과 함께 일한다)

4. I am an innovator (나는 혁신가이다)

5. I learn from others (나는 남에게서 배운다)

6. I teach others (나는 남을 가르친다)

7. I set the goals (나는 목표를 확립한다)

8. I design means to obtain goals (나는 목표를 달성하기 위해 수단을 강구한다)

9. I am a risk-taker (나는 위험을 두려워하지 않는다)

10. I am persistent (나는 모든 일을 꾸준히 계속한다)


Program on Humanistic Globalization
Michigan State University

Copyright 2004 by Gill-Chin Lim

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Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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리더가 되기 위해 수없이 많은 리더쉽 이론에 대해 모두 잘 알고 있을 필요는 없을 겁니다. 또한, 리더쉽 이론에 모두 통달 하였다고 하더라도 훌륭한 리더가 되는 것은 아닐 겁니다.

하지만, 모든 학문과 이론이 그러하듯 보다 확고한 이론적 이해를 통해 현실을 보다 분석적이고 체계적으로 바라보고 이에 대해 보다 쉽고 일관된 인식과 행위를 해 나갈 수 있는 것 또한 사실입니다.

특히나 리더쉽 이론은 그 견해가 다양하고 일관된 체계가 적은 바, 이에 대한 확고한 정리가 쉽지는 않은 듯 합니다. 하지만, 제가 들었던 리더쉽 개발(Leadership Development Class, 2007 Fall, by Prof. Dr. Jeffrey Flesher at UIUC) 수업을 바탕으로 여러 리더쉽 이론에 대한 대략적 정리를 나누어 함께 고민하고 의견을 나누는 계기로 삼고자 합니다.

그럼 도움이 되셨으면 좋겠습니다.

감사합니다.

J.H.Choi



Leadership Theories


1. Trait Approach (특성 이론)

특성이론은 어떤 사람은 리더가 될만한 특별한 특성을 가지고 태어나서 리더가 된다는 이론이다. 리더는 보통사람과 특성에 따라 구별 될 수 있다고 믿어지는데, 이 이론은 20세기 이후 개별 특성이 제한적이라는 비판을 받게 된다.

The trait approach has its root in leadership theory that suggested that certain people were born with special traits that made them great leaders. Because it was believed that leaders and non-leaders could be differentiated by a universal set of traits, through the 20th century researchers were challenged to identify the definitive traits of leader


2. Skills Approach (능력 이론)

능력이론은 리더의 능력에 주안점을 두고 설명하는 이론이다. Katz의 세가지 리더 능력 (기술적 능력, 사회적 능력, 개념화 능력) 이 대표적이며 최근 Mumford 와 그의 동료들이 더욱 발전 시켰다.

The skills approach is a leader-centered perspective that emphasizes the competencies of leaders. It is best represented in the early work of Katz (1955) on the three-skill approaches [technical, human, conceptual] and the more recent work of Mumford and his colleagues (2000), who initiated the development of comprehensive skills model of leadership.


3. Style Approach (스타일 이론)

스타일 이론은 위의 두가지 리더쉽 이론과 달리 리더 본인이 아닌, 리더의 행위에 주안점을 두고 있는 이론이다. 스타일 이론에서는 리더의 두가지 큰 행위를 가지고 설명하는데, 첫째는 Task Behavior (일 중심적 행위), 둘째는 Relationship Behavior (관계 중심적 행위)이다. 각 리더는 일중심적이냐, 관계 중심적이냐에 따라 그 스타일이 다르며 추종자들에게 각 스타일에 따라 영향을 주므로 이 두가지 행위를 잘 조절해야 한다. 

The style approach is strikingly different from the trait approach and skills approach to leadership because the style approach focuses on what leaders do rather than who leaders are. It suggests that leaders engage in two primary types of behaviors: task behaviors and relationship behaviors. How leaders combine these two types of behaviors to influence others is the central focus of the style approach.


4. Situational Approach (상황 이론)

상황 이론은 리더가 처한 개별 상황에 따라 리더의 행위가 달라진다는 이론이다.

Situational leadership is a prescriptive approach to leadership that suggests how leaders can become effective in many different types of organizational settings involving a wide variety of organizational task. This approach provides a model that suggests to leaders how they should behave based on the demands of a particular situation.


5. Contingency Theory (임시 이론)

임시 이론은 리더에 중점을 두었던 이론들과 달리, 상황에 따라 적합한 리더가 달라진다는 이론이다.

Contingency theory represents a shift in leadership research from focusing on only the leader to looking at the leader in conjunction with the situation in which the leader works. It is a leader-match theory that emphasizes the importance of matching a leaders’ style with the demands of a situation.


6. Path-Goal Theory (경로-목적 이론)

경로-목적 이론은 리더가 어떻게 추종자들에게 동기부여를 해서 그들이 보다 효율적이고 만족하게 하는지를 설명하기 위해 개발되었다. 경로-목적이론은 임시 이론과 비슷하게 추종자들의 행위와 특성 그리고 일에 따라 리더쉽이 변하는 것을 설명한다.

Path-goal theory was developed to explain how leaders motivate subordinates to be productive and satisfied with their work. It is a contingency approach to leadership because effectiveness depends on the fit between the leader’s behavior and the characteristics of subordinates and the task.


7. Leader-Member Exchange Theory (리더-멤버 교환이론)

리더-멤버 상호교환 이론은 리더와 추종자간에 ‘관계 프로세스’ 에 중점을 두고 있다. 이 이론은 리더와 멤버간에 관계가 중요한 역할을 한다는 가정하에 리더가 어떻게 하면 추종자들과 보다 나은 관계를 만들어 가느냐에 따라 보다 효율적인 리더쉽이 형성되느냐를 설명한다. 리더에게 In-group (내부 그룹)과 Out-group (외부 그룹)을 나누는 것이 중요한 요인이며 추종자들에게 어떤 관계를 제공하느냐에 따라 리더쉽 차이가 생겨난다는 것을 설명한다.

LMX theory addresses leadership as a process centered on the interactions between leaders and followers. It makes the leader-member relationship the pivotal concept in the leadership process. By using the concept of Leader-Member dyads, LMX theory explains how leader should build up better relationship with his/her subordinate. Identifying the in-group and out-group is critical for leaders, and he/she has to build up leadership through providing better relationship with all subordinates.


8, Transformational Leadership Theory (전환 리더쉽 이론)

전환 리더쉽 이론은 어떤 리더가 추종자들에게 강력한 동기부여를 통해 그들이 변화하여 보다 나은 일을 이루어 낼 수 있도록 하는 것을 설명한다. 이 이론은 리더가 추종자들의 요구와 동기를 파악하고 반영하는 것에 중점을 두며, 리더 스스로 추종자들의 역할 모델이 되고, 비전을 제시하며, 추종자들에게 책임을 부여하여 리더를 믿도록 하면 조직생활에 의미를 찾도록 하는 것을 설명한다.

Transformational leadership is concerned with the process of how certain leaders are able to inspire followers to accomplish great things. This approach stresses that leaders need to understand and adapt to the needs and motives of followers. Transformational leaders are recognized as change agents who are good role models, who can create and articulate a clear vision for an organization, who empower followers to meet higher standards, who act in ways that make other want to trust them, and who give meaning to organizational life.


9. Team Leadership Theory (팀 리더쉽 이론)

팀 리더쉽 모델은 조직의 성과에 영향을 끼는 시스템적인 요인들을 설명한다. 팀 리더쉽 이론은 팀의 목표를 이루기 위해 팀원들의 성과를 모니터링 하고 진단하여 적절한 대응을 하는 것이 리더의 중요한 역할이란 것을 설명한다.

The team leadership model provides a framework in which to study the systematic factors that contribute to a group’s outcomes or general effectiveness. Within this approach, the critical function of leadership is to help the group accomplish its goals by monitoring and diagnosing the group and taking the requisite action.


10. Psychodynamic Approach (정신분석학적 접근)

정신분석학적 접근은 리더와 추종자 개인의 Personality (개인특성)을 진단하는 것에 기반을 두고 있으며, 자아(Ego) 상태 분석 및 프로이트와 융의 심리학적 분석을 토대로 한 MBTI Personality 분석을 사용하여 리더쉽의 다른 점을 이해하고 현실에 적용하는 것을 설명한다.
 
The psychodynamic approach is based on assessments of the personalities of leaders and followers. It differs from approaches and models that begin by studying and summarizing the traits, behaviors, skills, or styles of leaders. Several ways of identifying personality characteristics are available, including the ego state model from transactional analysis and the personality types of Freude and Jung, as interpreted by Maccoby (2003) and the MBTI, respectively


11.  Women Leadership (여성 리더쉽)

여성 리더쉽에 관한 연구는 1970년대부터 본격적으로 시작되었으며, 주로 성별 리더쉽 차이에 관한 연구가 주종을 이루고 있다. 여성의 경우 남성에 비해 보다 민주적이며 전환 리더쉽에 강한 편으로 조사되고 있다. 리더쉽 측면에선 여성의 경우 남성이 주된 작업장일 경우 리더쉽 효율이 약간 낮으며, 반대로 여성이 주된 작업장의 경우 보다 효율적으로 조사되었다. 또한 여성 리더의 경우 전환적 리더쉽과 그때 그때 보다 효율적 보상을 통해 리더쉽을 향상하는데 능하다.

Beginning in the 1970s researchers started investigating gender differences in leadership. Investigations into leadership style have revealed that women are somewhat more likely to use democratic and transformational styles than men. Research looking at leadership effectiveness indicates a slight disadvantage fro women in masculine domains, a slight effectiveness advantage for women in feminine domains, and a greater use by women of effective transformational and contingent reward behaviors.


12. Culture and Leadership (문화와 리더쉽)

문화와 리더쉽연구는 2차 세계대전 이후 급증한 세계화에 따라 다른 문화에 대한 이해를 통한 효율적 소통과 실행에 관한 요구에 의해 진행되었다. 문화란 공통된 믿음, 가치, 관습이라 정의 되는데, 큰 두가지 요인은 민족과 편견에 대한 문화적 자각이다. 민족 중심주의란 자기가 속한 민족 중심적으로 세계를 바라보는 것이며 이는 종종 큰 문제를 야기하곤 한다. 따라서 리더는 다른 민족과 세계에 대한 충분한 이해를 통해 이러한 민족 중심적 사고를 방지해야 한다. 편견은 고정된 태도와 사실에 기반하지 않은 판단을 말하는데 이 또한 자기 중심적 사고에 바탕을 둔 부정적 행동을 유발하게 되므로 리더는 다른 세계에 대한 다면적 이해와 특성에 대한 충분한 관찰을 해야 한다.

Since World War II there has been a dramatic increase in globalization throughout the world. Globalization has created a need for leaders with greater understanding of cultural differences and increased competencies in cross-cultural communication and practice. Culture is defined as the commonly shared beliefs, values, and norms of a group of people. Two factors that can inhibit cultural awareness are Ethnocentrisism and prejudice. Ethnocentrisism is the human tendency to place one’s own group at the center of one’s observations of others and the world. It is problematic for leaders because it prevents them from fully understanding the world of others. Similarly, prejudice consists of judgments about others based on fixed attitudes and unsubstantiated data. Prejudice has a negative impact because it is self-oriented and inhibits leaders from seeing the many facets and qualities of others.


13. Leadership Ethics (리더쉽 윤리)

윤리적 리더쉽 이론은 리더가 결정을 내릴 때 어떠한 윤리적 규범을 따라야 하는지에 대한 원칙을 제공한다. 서구의 전통에 의하면 윤리 이론은 두 가지로 나뉠 수 있는데, 하나는 윤리적 행위 이며, 또 다른 하나는 윤리적 특성에 대한 것이다. 윤리적 행동 이론은 리더의 행동을 지배하는 규율에 과한 것이며, 가치 중심 이론은 리더의 내적 규범 특성에 과한 것이며 이는 특히 용기, 정직, 공평함 그리고 신뢰 등을 강조한다.

Ethical theory provides a set of principles that guide leaders in making decisions about how to act and how to be morally decent. In the Western tradition, ethical theories typically are divided into two kinds: theories about conduct and theories about character. Theories about conduct emphasize the consequences of leader behavior (teleological approach) or the rules that govern their behavior (deontological approach). Virtue-based theories focus on the character of leaders, and they stress qualities such as courage, honesty, fairness, and fidelity.


14. Integrative (Holistic) Leadership Theory (통합 리더쉽 이론)

통합이론은 리더쉽의 각 일면을 분석하여 그 특징을 규정하는 것이 아니라 다양한 측면과 종합적 특징에 대한 연구이며, 최근 많은 주목을 받고 있다.


Reference:

Northouse, Peter G., Leadership Theory and Practice: theory and practice, 4th ed., Sage Publication, Inc. 2007, ISBN 1-4129-4161-X


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Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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