Women in Entrepreneurship Education within U.S. Higher Education

Jeonghwan Choi
Ph.D. student, Human Resource Education
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
351 Education Building, 1310 S. 6th Street, Champaign, IL 61820
Tel. (217) 819 1040
Fax. (217) 244 5632
E-mail: jchoi52@illiniois.edu

[Copyright: Unpublished Article, Class of 2011 Spring, EPS590: Women in Higher Education, Prof. Dr. Bernice McNaire Barnett, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Jeonghwan (Philip) Choi is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Human Resource Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is also a co-founder of Local Exchange Trade System in Champaign-Urbana (LETS C-U) project which aims to develop community economy in Champaign County, Illinois, U.S.A. His research interests include: (1) community economy development through entrepreneurship education; (2) evaluating entrepreneurship education programs in colleges and universities, (3) entrepreneurship education for minority and underserved people; and (4) influence of educational policies to economic development.

E-mail: jchoi52@illinois.edu


Women in Entrepreneurship Education within U.S. Higher Education

Jeonghwan (Philip) Choi

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on examining gender gap in entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities. Based on Fisher (1993)’s finding - there is no gender gap in education within entrepreneurs, four hypotheses are formulated and tested with entrepreneurship degrees and certificates awarding data from Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. Results show that women get less entrepreneurship degrees and certificates than men during 1996-2008, while women are outnumbered in business education. In addition, majority women enrolled in associate colleges while men enroll in doctoral and research universities. The author discusses these gender differences with regard to theories of schooling and society.

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Keywords: entrepreneurship education, women, gender difference, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), theories of schooling and society

Entrepreneurship is a dynamic process of creation and implementation of new ideas and creative solutions (Kuratko, 2004), and entrepreneurship education is the activity of teaching, developing, and transferring knowledge, skills, abilities, and mindsets for entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship education, particularly in post-secondary education, is an ongoing process that requires a myriad talents, skills and knowledge leading to unique pedagogies capable of stimulating and imparting knowledge simultaneously (Solomon, 2007). Entrepreneurship education has been one of the most rapidly emerging academic disciplines in U.S. colleges and universities since 1950s (Greene & Rice, 2007; Solomon, 2007). It has grown enormously with respect to the number of colleges and universities offering programs and courses in the past fifteen years (1990-2005) (Solomon, 2007). Academic publications for entrepreneurship research (Katz, 2003; Kuratko, 2005; Vesper & Gartner, 1999) , and number of faculty (Finkle, 2007) for entrepreneurship teaching dramatically increased in this period as well. However, little attention has been paid to women who enroll and complete entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities, even though women entrepreneurs are an important growing force in the United States economy, both in terms of the number of participants and the gross revenues and employment they represent (Gatewood, Shaver, & Gartner, 1995).

INTRODUCTION

Women are significant population in the entrepreneurial world (Kuratko, 2004, p. 677). Over the past two decades, the number of women entrepreneurs, who started a business with more than fifty percent ownership of the business, has dramatically grown. For example, the number of businesses owned by women entrepreneurs has increased more than double between 1987 and 1999 in the U.S. (Gundry & Welsch, 2001). However, many challenges still exists for women entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs commonly have tensions between work and home role; experience difficulties in getting outside financing; have lack of entrepreneurial knowledge and skills; limit themselves in a bounded are of business - service industry (Kuratko, 2004). But today, women entrepreneurs prepare themselves for starting their own businesses with more formal training and learning both in practical business settings and educational institutions (Cadieux, Lorrain, & Hugron, 2002).

In general, entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities enhances entrepreneurial opportunity perception of participants (Levie & Autio, 2008). Especially for women, entrepreneurship education in MBA programs significantly improves entrepreneurial self-efficacy (Wilson, Kickul, Marlino, Barbosa, & Griffiths, 2009). Thus, providing access to entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities is important to fueling in the pipeline of aspiring future women entrepreneurs.

But, to the author’s knowledge, there has been no scholarly research examining state-of-arts of entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities in the perspective of gender difference. In addition, there are little studies on entrepreneurship education underpinning sociology theories of higher education though entrepreneurship education researches on social preoccupations take the largest portion (45 articles out of 113) in academic literature of entrepreneurship education in higher education (Béchard & Grégoire, 2005).

The purpose of study is to examining gender differences in entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities from 1996 to 2006 with focusing in degrees and certificates awarding. In addition, the author explores the gender differences in entrepreneurship education with social theories of higher education.

FEMINIST THEORIES TOWARD WOMEN IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION

Research on gender differences in entrepreneurial characteristics and performance have received and continues to receive a considerable amount of attention, but relevance and relatedness of feminist theories for women entrepreneurs are still underdeveloped and examined (Fischer, Reuber, & Dyke, 1993). In this section, the author presents general overview of feminist theories in order to outline gender differences in entrepreneurship education. In addition, the author propose four hypotheses of this study by reviewing Fisher(1993)’s study on women entrepreneurs with focusing on gender difference of education.

Overview of Feminists Theories. “Feminists challenge traditional race-class-sexuality-power arrangement which favor men over women, white over non-white, adults over children, able-bodiedness over non-able-bodiedness, residents over non-residents, and the employed over the non-employed” (Elliot & Mandell, 1995). Feminist theories vary in nature, content, and consequence as other set of theories in academic disciplines, yet the term of ‘feminist’ has not achieved a consensus of common definition though it is widely used in social science (Elliot & Mandell, 1995). Despite definitional differences and difficulties, feminist theories generally share four major interests (Jaggar & Rothenberg, 1984):

· Interest in gendered nature of social and institutional relations.

· Interest in gender inequities and contradictions in social life.

· Interest in historical and sociocultural production and reconstitution of gender relation.

· Interest in political advocacy of social change.

Those interests in various subjects of feminists can be grouped with several categories by broader philosophical and political perspectives. Elliot and Mandell (1995) groups feminism theories in six different categories: Liberal feminism; socialist feminism; radical feminism; anti-racist feminism; psychoanalytic feminism; postmodernist feminism. Meanwhile, Fischer (1993) adopts liberal feminism and social feminism as her theoretical frames to study women entrepreneurs in business field. In this section, the author presents general concept of liberal feminism and social feminism theory and examines the relevance of it with women entrepreneurs. In this study, the author applies Fischer’s categorization for the purpose of focusing on entrepreneurship education and women by including socialist, radical, and racist feminism as in a category of social feminism. Psychoanalytic feminism and postmodernist feminism are not included since those theories are thought to be derived from the social feminism in a broader perspective.

First, liberal feminism assume that the inequality of women stems from unequal rights and learned reluctance to exercise such rights though women are equally capable of rationality and thus are as fully human as men (Elliot & Mandell, 1995; Fischer, et al., 1993). But, the inequities of women entrepreneurs in terms of financing funding, representation, and market presence are almost diminished in business fields since 1990s as Kuratko (2004) says.

Second, social feminism views the gender difference or discrimination is socially constructed (Fischer, et al., 1993). Socialist feminists, for example, argue that women’s oppression is formulated and structured by social, political, ideological, and economic categories while liberal feminists focus on increasing opportunities and public consciousness of women (Elliot & Mandell, 1995). For example, all wives, regardless of their paid labor commitments, are responsible for household management, childcare, the emotional nurturing of dependants, and the general well-being. These unpaid and underappreciated socio-economic domestic structures oppress women as a domestic slavery which should be abolished to guarantee women’s freedom and right. However, women’s domestic responsibilities cannot explain the origin and reproduction of gender difference in the labor market, especially in starting a new business. Knowledge, skills, and competency development for being an entrepreneur is highly dependent on one’s historical traces of occupation and education rather than the limits placed on women’s time and energy (Elliot & Mandell, 1995).

Fischer’s Findings. With regard to education, Fischer (1993) hypothesizes that women have less entrepreneurially relevant formal education than men, and their firms will therefore be less successful because women are systematically less likely to have access to education that would help them in running their own businesses. However, the study’s results indicate that there are few significant gender differences in education except the production education at the level of .05 percent. The irrelevance of formal education onto entrepreneurial performances of Fischer’s study is compatible with other studies (Birley, Moss, & Saunders, 1987; Kalleberg & Leicht, 1991). However, those formal educations investigated by Fischer, Birley, and Kalleberg are general education or business related educations rather than entrepreneurship targeted education. We cannot assume that general education encourages ‘entrepreneurship’ for women. Especially, business education – such as MBA programs in the U.S. – commonly discourage ‘entrepreneurship’ for its controlling and administration orientation (Mintzberg, 2004). Thus we need to examine gender differences of entrepreneurship education in formal education settings – colleges and universities.

Research Questions and Hypotheses. Studies on entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities have flourished in the past decade (Greene & Rice, 2007; Katz, 2003, 2008; Kuratko, 2005; Pena, 2010; Solomon, 2007; Vesper & Gartner, 1997). Yet, gender differences at entrepreneurship education in higher education institutions are not addressed before. This study aims to exam eth gender difference in entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities with three research questions.

· To what extent have women, compared to men, enroll and complete entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities?

o Number of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates by gender

o Proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificate by gender

o Levels of entrepreneurship degrees and certificate by gender

· Do gender differences exist in entrepreneurship?

· Are those gender differences, if any, distinguishable from business and non-business education?

According to previous research on women entrepreneurship and education (Birley, et al., 1987; Fischer, et al., 1993; Kalleberg & Leicht, 1991), there is not gender difference between women and men entrepreneurs. Underpinning those findings and increase number of women entrepreneurs in the U.S. (Kuratko, 2004), four hypotheses are formulated in order to examine gender differences of entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities.

· H1: The number of women in entrepreneurship education increases.

· H2: The proportion of women to men in entrepreneurship education is even.

· H3: The proportion of women to men in entrepreneurship education is not different from business education or general education.

· H4: The level of education is not different by gender.

First, the author hypothesizes that the number of women in entrepreneurship education increases since we’re experiencing rapid growth of women entrepreneurs in the U.S. society (Kuratko, 2004). Second, the number of women and men students at the entrepreneurship education in the U.S. colleges and universities are not different if there is not gender difference. Third, if we can tell there is a gender difference in entrepreneurship education, the proportion of women to men of entrepreneurship education should be discernable from the proportion of women to men in business education and general education. Finally, if there is no gender difference in entrepreneurship education, we may observe the level of education degrees and certificate between women and men are not distinguishable. With these hypotheses, this study examines the gender difference in entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities from 1996 to 2008 academic years.

RESEARCH METHOD

Based on the issues of concern identified in the review of related literature, a quantitative research design is employed as a primary research method. In this study, descriptive statistics are presented to examine the maturity stage of entrepreneurship education in academic discipline growth model with Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) data of academic degrees and certificates awarding in U.S. colleges and universities during 1996-2008. Inferential statistics -the t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), post-hoc analysis - are used to test proposed hypotheses, and to draw conclusions.

Academic Degrees and Certificates. As stated before, previous research on entrepreneurship education indicated that the number of entrepreneurship courses(Katz, 2003), endowment and chairs (Katz, 1991, 1994), programs (Solomon, 2007; Solomon, Duffy, & Tarabishy, 2002), academic associations (Plaschka & Welsch, 1990), and journals and articles (Dos Santos, Holsapple, & Ye, 2010; Katz, 2003) rapidly increased in the past fifteen years (1990-2005). But investigation into academic degree and certificate awarding in entrepreneurship education has not yet been conducted to test the gender difference of the discipline.

Investigating academic degree and certificate awarding in U.S. colleges and universities enables us to examine the gender difference of the discipline with a significant advantage. It enables us to capture most reliable national wide study. The IPEDS database of the National Center for Education Science (NCES) is the most representative and reliable educational information to examine change of degree and certificate awarding from U.S. colleges and universities (McBroom, 2008). The Higher Education Act in 1992 mandated the completion of IPEDS surveys for all U.S. colleges and universities accepting federal student financial aid. In 1993, NCES began collecting information such as institutional characteristics, degree completion, twelve month enrollment, human resources, financial aid, and graduation rates etc. The data collected is available to the public through their website: http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/datacenter/Default.aspx (National Center for Education, 2010).

Data Mining and Screening. The IPEDS in National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) specializes in descriptive research to produce statistical information on the aspects of education that interest policymakers and educators (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2007). Institutional characteristics and completion of degrees and certificates data are mined from IPEDS because this study focuses primarily on examining the gender difference of entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities.

The 1996 through 2008 academic years are analyzed – this period represents the data available at the time of this study which included data that was substantially similar over time. The data were screened by several criteria: and aggregated with certain criteria to address research questions and test hypothesis for this study.

Only colleges and universities in the fifty United States and the District of Columbia are included. (U.S. territories are included in the IPEDS data, but are excluded from this analysis.) In each year of data used, for-profit, non-degree granting, inactive, non-accredited and less than two-year institutions are not included. Although for-profit four-year colleges and universities have rapidly emerged in recent years in the United States (Breneman, 2005), they were not as prevalent in the earlier years covered by this data, and they may be less influenced by the educational policies and models of interest herein. These institutions deserve a separate focus.

To categorize academic degrees and certificates awarded in entrepreneurship, business, and non-business fields, the IPEDS classification of instructional program (CIP) codes, providing a taxonomic scheme, were used. Our focus is Entrepreneurial and Small Business Operations (CIP 52.07), which incorporates Entrepreneurship/Entrepreneurial Studies (52.0701); Franchising and Franchise Operations (52.0702); Small Business Administration Management (52.0703); and Other Entrepreneurial and Small Business Operations (52.0799) - the labels used for the 2010 CIP classification. This study uses the term “entrepreneurship” which refers to entrepreneurship and small business management. (Note: The CIP codes have undergone some revision, but using this broader definition allowed comparisons over time. In 2002 and prior years, CIP 52.07 focused on small businesses including franchising, and entrepreneurship was placed in another section of the classification, related to marketing. Both small business and entrepreneurship were included in this analysis for all years. Changes in CIP codes are accessible to http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/ )

The IPEDS data report degrees, from associate degrees through doctoral degrees, and academic certificates from less than one year through post-master’s level. In using these categories, we identified what ‘entrepreneurship and small business degrees’ represents and what might be considered an undercount of entrepreneurship education, in part because of the exclusion of minors. Also not included are those degrees which an institution may market as entrepreneurship majors, but which are listed on a transcript, and reported to the IPEDS, as business administration or similar degrees. However, the inclusion for analysis of only those degrees represented on transcripts and reported to IPEDS as entrepreneurship is not seen by the authors as a limitation of the study, but rather a demonstration of the legitimacy and stage of academic growth of the field, as conceived by the academic discipline growth model.

Institutional characteristics used in this analysis have been provided by the U.S. Department of Education (e.g., level and sector of colleges and universities), based on their definitions. IPEDS also provides the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, the traditional framework developed by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education and now published by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (Carnegie Commission on Higher, 2010). This classification identifies institutions by such categories as doctoral/research universities, master’s colleges and universities, baccalaureate colleges, and associate’s colleges. More detailed framework and definitions of institutional categories are available at the Carnegie Foundation website (http://classifications.carnegiefoundation.org/summary/basic.php).

Quantitative Analysis. In this study, parametric and/or non-parametric t-test, ANOVA, and post-hoc analysis were applied to test the proposed hypotheses. Prior to conducting inferential analyses, normality condition of data is examined with Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk method. Nonparametric analysis such as Mann-Whitney U test for independent two samples and Kruskal-Wallis test for three or more independent samples which do not rely on an assumption of normality, then, applied to test hypothesis (Myers & Well, 2003).

Homogeneity condition of data is evaluated applying the Levene's test method before conducting the hypothesis test. If the homogeneity condition is significantly violated, we apply robust ANOVA method, the Welch and Brown-Forsythe methods, which do not assume equal variance of data in groups to test mean differences between or among groups (UCLA: Academic Technology Services). Dunnett T3 and Games-Howell post-hoc analysis techniques were applied to identify which means were different from the others if the data did not meet the homogeneity condition (Myers & Well, 2003).

Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) TM software was used for testing the hypotheses of this study because the software provided various statistical techniques for non-normal, non-homogeneous, and non-parametric data analysis (Gall, et al., 2007), which are frequently encountered in the educational study or social science research.

RESULTS AND FINDINGS

Figure 1 shows the comparison of women and men with respect to entrepreneurship degree and certificate awarding from U.S. colleges and universities. It indicates that the number of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates awarded to women and men are both increased during 1996 to 2008 academic years with a similar pattern. Therefore, the first hypothesis -the number of women in entrepreneurship education increases – is supported from the data.

Figure 1. Number of entrepreneurship degrees and certificated awarded to Women and Men.

Note: 1999 and 2002 data are not included. The 1999 data is not available from IPEDS, and 2002 data has a significant data validity problem: the number of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates is 17,321- an extraordinary deviation from the overall pattern.

Gender_Figure1_Degree_Number

Figure 2 indicates proportion changes of academic degrees and certificates awarded to women and men in entrepreneurship, business, and non-business education. As depicted in the figure, the proportion of women to men in entrepreneurship education is not even, and the proportion of women business [M = 44.399%, SD =2.936%] is much lower than men [M = 55.601%, SD =2.936%]. Therefore, the second hypothesis is not supported.

Figure 2. Proportion of academic degrees and certificates awarded to women and men in entrepreneurship, business, and non-business.

Gender_Figure2_Degree_Proportion

Parametric ANOVA and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test are both applied because non-business dataset significantly violate the normality assumption [Kolmogorov-Smirnov (11, 0.340), p=.001; Shapiro-Wilk (11, 0.798), p = .009]. ANOVA results indicate that there is at least one different mean among mean proportions of entrepreneurship, business, and non-business [F (2, 30) = 107.524, p = .000]. In addition, Kruskal-Wallis test results also indicate that there is at least one mean difference [K-W (2): Chi-square = 28471, p = .000]. Post-hoc test results confirm that the proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates awarded to women [M = 44.399%, SD =2.936%] is significantly lower than business [M = 51.837%, SD =0.915%] and non-business degrees and certificates [M = 60.410%, SD =3.201%]. Taken into all results in consideration, the third hypotheses of the proportion of women to men in entrepreneurship education is not different from business education or general education is not supported.

Figure 3 and Table 1 show that the proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificate awarded to women and men by degree level. More than half women get less than two year certificates [M = 54.370%, SD =3.301%] while majority men get associate degree [M = 44.5490%, SD =2.679%] or undergraduate degree [M = 23.072%, SD =2.713]. Interestingly, more women get graduate degree [M = 2.279%, SD =1.017%] than men [M = 1.180%, SD =0.573%].

Figure 4 and Table 2 show that the proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates awarded to women and men by institutional types. Results in Figure 4 and Table 2 also indicates that women enroll and complete entrepreneurship education at associate colleges [M = 51.263%, SD =5.765%] than men [M = 28.994%, SD =4.166%]. More than half of men enroll and complete entrepreneurship education in doctoral/research universities [M = 44.193%, SD =7.959%] and master universities [M = 11.962%, SD =3.888%]. In short, the fourth hypothesis – the level of education is not different by gender – is not supported.

Figure 3. Proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificate awarded to women and men by degree level.

Note1: Graduate degree (Doctors, Master, Post-master); Undergraduate degree (Bachelors, Post-baccalaureate); Associate degree (Associate, 2-4 years); < 2 years certificate (less than 2 year and less than 1 year)

Gender_Figure3_Proportion_Level

Table 1

Comparisons of Mean Proportion of Entrepreneurship Degrees/certificates Awarded to Women and Mean by Degree Level for 1996~2008 Academic years

Degrees/certificates Level

Category

Mean (%)

S.D. (%)

t

p

Graduate Degree

Women

2.279

1.017

3.120

.005

Men

1.180

0.573

Undergraduate Degree

Women

16.147

4.281

-4.532

.000

Men

23.072

2.713

Associate Degree

Women

27.205

2.642

-15.287

.000

Men

44.549

2.679

< 2 years Certificate

Women

54.370

3.301

20.545

.000

Men

31.198

1.759

Note: Graduate degree (doctors, master, post-master); undergraduate degree (Bachelors, post-baccalaureate); associate degree (associate, 2-4 years); < 2 year certificate (less than 2 year and less than one year).

Figure 4. Proportion of entrepreneurship degrees and certificates awarded to women and men by institution type.

Note: Academic degrees and certificates from special colleges are not included since there is limited information to categorize them into specific type of colleges and universities.

Gender_Figure4_Proportion_Type

Table 2

Comparisons of Mean Proportion of Entrepreneurship Degrees/certificates Awarded to Women and Men by Institutional Types for 1996~2008 Academic years

Degrees/certificates Level

Category

Mean (%)

S.D. (%)

t

p

Doctoral/Research University

Women

24.587

5.296

-6.802

.000

Men

44.193

7.959

Master University

Women

9.139

3.454

-1.800

.087

Men

11.962

3.888

Baccalaureate College

Women

8.247

3.440

1.438

.166

Men

6.475

2.210

Associate College

Women

51.263

5.765

10.384

.000

Men

28.994

4.166

Note1: Types of college and university follows the Carnegie Classification..

Note2: Academic degrees and certificates from special colleges are not included since there is limited information to categorize them into specific type of colleges and universities.

DISCUSSIONS

As can be seen, the results of this study support that there are significant gender differences in entrepreneurship education over past decade though the awarding number of entrepreneurship degrees and certificate both for women and for men has continually increased from 1996 to 2008 in U.S. colleges and universities. These results are contradictory to previous research on women entrepreneurs in business field (Birley, et al., 1987; Fischer, et al., 1993; Kalleberg & Leicht, 1991). How to interpret this gap? The author presents four propositions based on findings of this study and theories of schooling and society in order to guide us to understanding gender differences in entrepreneurship education.

Hurn (1985) categorizes many theories of schooling and society into two domains: functional paradigm and conflict paradigm. The functional paradigm sees schools as teaching the kind of cognitive skills and norms essential for the performance of most adult roles in a society increasingly dependent on ‘knowledge’ for economic growth with sorting and selecting talented people. Within the functional paradigm, human capital theorists see education as an investment that will pay off in the future in the form of increased earning by increasing an individual’s human capital, knowledge, and expertise (Hurn, 1985). This investment on developing human capital at education and training is assessed using return on investment (ROI) or cost-benefit analysis (Kuchinke, 2003; Swanson & Holton, 2001). From the results of this study, the number of women who get awarded entrepreneurship degrees and certificates in U.S. colleges and universities has increased. Therefore, women enroll and complete entrepreneurship education in order to gain entrepreneurial knowledge, skills, and expertise for their future business creation.

Proposition 1: Women enroll and complete entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities to gain entrepreneurial knowledge, skills, and expertise for their future business creation.

But lower proportion of women in entrepreneurship education indicates that women less value the entrepreneurship education. In addition, the high proportion of women’s in associate colleges and less than two year certificates show that they expect lower pay-off from the education.

Proposition 2: Women value the entrepreneurship education less than men since they expect lower pay-off from the education.

In the functional paradigm, there is an assumption that those who do well in college should, other things being equal, obtain better jobs and make more money than those who did less well (Hurn, 1985). Yet the link between schooling and jobs is not empirically supported (Jencks et al., 1973).

Conflict paradigm sees schools as serving the interest of elites, as reinforcing existing inequalities and as producing attitudes that foster acceptance of this status quo. Conflict theorists argue that unnecessary educational credentials determine access to desirable jobs in a society (Hurn, 1985). John Meyer (1977; 2007), an institutional theorist in conflict paradigm, stress individuals or institutions’ dependence on wider environmental meanings, definition, rules, and models. Result of lower proportion of women in entrepreneurship and higher proportion in business and non-business education shows that institutionalized value of business education is much higher than entrepreneurship education. In addition, women’s higher enrollment in baser degrees and certificates program than men in entrepreneurship education confirms that women are highly influenced by social environment when they choose an academic discipline.

Proposition 3: Women are reluctant to choosing entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities since they got influenced by reluctant social environments toward women entrepreneurs.

Finally, Collins (1979)’s notion of ‘largely unnecessary educational credentials determine access to desire job’ can be partly supported by the results of women’s higher enrollment and completion of entrepreneurship education in practical knowledge oriented educational institutions such as associate college and less than two year certificate programs.

Proposition 4: Women avoid unnecessary educational credentials to access to desirable job, but they choose educational institutions and program where they can get useful skills for business creation.

Gender inequality at work and job searching is very well-known (Jacobs, 1995; Jacobs & Gerson, 2004; Lesnick, 2005; Robeyns, 2001; Tomaskovic-Devey, 1993). In consequence of this inequality, women tend to start small businesses in searching for ‘equal or higher’ financial rewards instead of searching a desirable job (Birley, 1989; Fielden & Davidson, 2006).

CONLCUSION

More and more women get entrepreneurship degrees and certificates in U.S. colleges and universities in order to gain entrepreneurial knowledge, skills, and expertise for their future business creation. However, this study found out that there are significant gender differences in entrepreneurship education. While women are outnumbered in business and general education, women are still minorities in entrepreneurship education. Women participates less prestigious higher education institutions (e.g. associate colleges and less than two year certificates programs) than men to get entrepreneurship education. These gender differences are caused by 1) women’s lower expectation of pay-off from entrepreneurship education than men, 2) reluctant social environments toward women entrepreneurs, and 3) avoiding unnecessary educational credentials.

Educational leaders and policy makers should aware the gender difference in entrepreneurship education in U.S. colleges and universities. They also need to understand underlying assumptions and unconscious gender discriminations in entrepreneurship education. Gender sensitive curriculum design and implementation in colleges and universities are desirable to nurture future women entrepreneurs. In addition, providing more practical and hand-on entrepreneurial experiences for women in entrepreneurship education are required in order to fill the women entrepreneur pipeline which will flourish our economy in future.

For the future research, the author suggests an investigating the influencing social environment to women when they choose entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities.

A notable limitation of this study is missing data. IPEDS data was gathered from 1996 to 2008 academic year, but 1999 and 2002 data were not included. The 1999 data was not available at IPEDS and the 2002 data significantly outlying from other data. Therefore, 2002 data was purposefully excluded for hypothesis testing analysis. In addition there were several minor code changes during those periods, which varied the numbers of degrees/certificates in different levels and institution types. These data fluctuations might limit the power of hypothesis testing for growth rates of entrepreneurship education.

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Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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This lesson plan is for developing creativity and for managing stress at science and engineering workplaces.

Based on Kouksundo (Korean self-discipline practice), I designed a workshop.

All materials are copyrighted. 2007 Integral Leadership Center, Jeonghwan Choi

 

Checklist for Training Package

1

Background

1.1

Needs Assessment Document

1.2

Design Document

1.3

Story Board

2

Administration/Planning

2.1

Goal Statement and Performance Objectives

2.2

Instructor Background/Qualification

2.3

A list of questions to guide the needs assessment process

2.4

Lesson Outline and Training Times

2.5

Media Master List

2.6

Handout Master List

2.7

Workshop Agenda

2.8

Post-Course Evaluation Form

2.9

Other Workshop Supplies

2.10

Delivery Preparation Checklist (think about this in terms of 2-6 months, two weeks, one week, and one day before training as well as day of)

2.11

Reference for all materials used in training manual (APA format)

3.

Media Master

This section includes all of the masters for all media used during the workshop. If a PowerPoint presentation will be used, simply include a printout (6 per page) of the slides. Be sure slides are appropriately referenced to the lesson plan and ordered in the way they would be used during the workshop. Include mock-ups of any flipcharts, blackboard, etc. that should be developed.

4.

Handout Masters / Students Materials

 

This section includes all of the masters for all handouts used during the workshop. Be sure the handouts are appropriately referenced to the lesson plan and ordered in the way they would be used during the workshop. Suggestions for student materials include learner direction, agenda, problem statement, goal statement, terminal objectives, text, activity guide sheets or worksheets, handouts, overhead masters, inventories, self-assessment, tests, definition of terms, and references

5.

Lesson Plans

5.1

All lesson plans for 6-8 hours worth of instruction

5.2

Any content (i.e. instructor’s notes, reading materials, etc.) information needed to deliver instruction

Checklist for Instructional System Design

1

Need Assessment Document

   

1.1

Problem Statement

   

Brief narrative describing the background or history of the performance

   

Description of potential learners

   

Description of the current and desired state of performance

   

Symptoms and probable root causes of performance gap

   

Description of type of problem the performance gap represents

   

1.2

Need Assessment

   

A list of questions to guide the needs assessment process

   

Description of from whom the data will be collected

   

Description of data collection methods to be used

   

     

2

Design Document

   

Work setting is described in enough detail to understand the constraints, resources and culture of the development, delivery, and application environments

   

Learner analysis includes description of learner-related characteristics

   

Contents analysis is complete and relevant to instructional purpose

   

Goal statement is clear, appropriate to the level of instruction, and identifies an instructional need

   

Terminal/Concluding objectives are clearly stated, are grammatically consistent/parallel, and can be achieved and measured through instruction

   

Terminal/Concluding objectives serve as a basis for achieving the workshop goal

   

Enabling/During objectives identify component skills or knowledge needed to achieve terminal/concluding objectives

   

Enabling/During objectives are clearly stated, are grammatically consistent/parallel and serve as a basis for learning activities

   

Storyboard outlines major sections and instructional events of the training program

   

     

3

Administration/Planning Section

   

Goal statement and performance objectives are listed

   

Instructor background/qualification is described

   

Learner background/qualification is described

   

Overview of the lesson outline and training times is included

   

A list of media master is included

   

A list of the handouts is included

   

Media and handout masters/files are included

   

Workshop agenda is included

   

Other workshop supplies are identified

   

Delivery preparation checklist identifies things to do 2-6 months, 2 weeks, 1 week, and one day before training as well as the day of training

   

A post-course reaction evaluation is developed to elicit useful information from the learners and serves as the basis for continuous improvement

   

Reference are provided in APA format

   

     

4

Development Document

   

All lesson plans outline a sequence of instructional strategies and is referenced to performance objectives

   

A variety of instructional strategies is used to address trainees’ various learning styles

   

Instructional support materials (transparency master, handout masters, and related materials are included as required for each lesson

   

Time estimates for each instructional strategy are estimated in the lesson plan

   

Equipment to support instruction is included in the lesson plan

   

Methods to facilitate practice include directions on how to set up and debrief the activity

   

During and after performance assessments are appropriate for the instruction and objectives

   

Instructional design program has sufficient information to be used by another instructor with a similar background to the developer

   

Information in learner’s material is easy to use and clearly presented

   

Information in learner’s materials serves as a job aid back in the application environment

   

     

5

Overall organization and writing style is consistent and well-structured

   

Organization is proper and consistent

   

Writing style is proper and consistent

   

     

Section I: Background

Stress Management Skill Up for Scientists & Engineers

1. Problem Statement

1. 1 Background and History of the Performance Problem

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KIST (Korean Institute of Science & Technology) is the oldest and top-ranked national funded research institute in Korea. The institute has 1,700 staff including 422 core researchers[1]. In 2007, one research division manager died of sudden heart attack which is believed come from excessive stress. In addition, four general researchers quitted their job. Dr. Kum, the president of KIST, hopes to know the root cause of low retention rate of this year, and he also hopes to make a strategy for keeping invaluable human resources as long as it possible.

When Dr. Kum consulted this problem with Healthcare department manger[2], he heard that many researchers are revealed on the highly stressful job environments since 2004, the year of changing project funding system. PBS (Project Based funding System) is a newly adopted managerial cost controlling system in Science & Engineering field: Researchers are 100% funded by Head Quarter, based on their performance. Only project performances and qualified reports are two criteria for funding.

The Healthcare department manager said that furious competition and ton’s of reporting works drive scientists and engineers getting tired. In addition, cutting the budget of healthcare programs induced 60% off of regular counseling and healthcare training. She continued that if KIST cannot provide the proper stress management program as well as amendment of PBS, many researchers will leave in near future.

Since the PBS system is a national wide policy, the president can not change it. Then he decides providing stress management skill-up program for Scientists & Engineers in optional bases by supplying on-line education. However, all researchers (including 9 division managers and 33 research project managers) should complete the 4 hour stress management workshop, but Core researchers can participate the program voluntarily.

1.2 Description of Potential Learners

1. 9 Division project managers

2. 33 Research project managers

1.3 Description of Current and Desired State of Performance

Current

- Unaware of importance of stress management

- Possess a low level of stress management skills

- Unfamiliar with dealing mental & physical stress

- Skeptical to taking counseling or training

Desired State of Performance

- Understanding the importance of stress management

- Effectively managing mentally and physically stressed subordinates

- Having abilities to manage stress in various situations

- Coaching their subordinates to take counseling and mental training with ease

1.4 Symptoms and Probable Root Causes of Performance Gap

1.4.1 Knowledge

- Potential learners do not know the importance of stress management

- Potential learners are not familiar with dealing mental stress

- Potential learners are not familiar with dealing physical stress

- Potential learners do not have enough knowledge about relationship with health and performance

- Potential learners do not know how they can coach to get help from healthcare department

1.4.2 Skills

- Potential learners are not practicing mental training for dealing with psychological stress

- Potential learners are not practicing physical training for reducing stress

- Potential learners do not take any counseling from healthcare department

1.4.3 Motivation / Attitudes

- Potential learners feel that they do not need improving their stress management skills

- Potential learners are reluctant for taking counseling with healthcare professionals

- Potential learners may have previous negative experiences that prevent them taking mental & physical training

- Potential learners do not want to agree to their subordinates have health problem

- Potential learners do not want to spend time to train their subordinates

- Potential learners are skeptical to the effectiveness of the stress management skill-up program

1.4.4 Environment

- Potential learners are exposed to the highly competitive environment (PBS)

- KIST has limited budget/resources for healthcare activities

- Many research labs are running in 24hrs/7days process work environment, researchers cannot leave labs during the process is ongoing

1.5 Description of Type of Problem the Performance Gap Represents

Even though root causes can be founded in four different categories, the biggest two problematic factors are Motivation and Environment. But the performance gap represents a motivation/attitude problem from the beginning.

Concerning to motivation factor, although the healthcare manager of KIST provides the knowledge of stress management techniques through internal networking system, many Scientists and Engineers are reluctant to take counseling or training for improving stress management capability because of negative reinforcement from managers.

Moreover the reluctant attitude of project managers is the most challenging one for Scientists & Engineers to participate stress management counseling or training. Although project managers are also exposed in stressful work environments, they have to focus on utilizing their human resources to achieve assigned goals. They are seriously worrying about absenting key researchers from experiments and researches regularly.

In sum, the performance gap stem from motivation/attitude best represents the root cause because KIST provides general knowledge of stress preventing and learning environment for improving stress management skills. But may research project managers do not understand the importance of stress management and their lack of knowledge lessen the motivation of practicing stress management program.

This workshop focuses on improving potential learners’ knowledge which addressing knowing importance of stress management for Scientists & Engineers, practicing Creativity performance enhancing program (C-PEP) and recognizing the procedure of stress management counseling in KIST.

2. Need Assessment

Needs Assessment Questions

(What do you want to know about your performance problem?)

Data Sources

(From whom or what will you collect these data?)

Methods

(What methods will you use to collect the needs assessment information?)

How Scientists & Engineers manage their stress?

- Scientists & Engineers in KIST

- Journals of Healthcare for Scientists & Engineers

- National Scientists & Engineers Association

- Newspaper, Magazine, and Special articles

- Literature review of S&E workforce health care research

- Analysis of Websites

- Survey analysis

- Interview with Scientists & Engineers in KIST

Why Scientists & Engineers cannot practice stress management skills? (What is the most serious barrier?)

- Healthcare manager at KIST

- Counselor at Healthcare department

- Scientists & Engineers in KIST

- Patients who visited counselor

- Project Managers of R&D department

- Key informant Interview (Patients)

- Focused Group Interview (Healthcare manager, , Counselors)

- Interview with Project Managers

- Survey analysis of Scientists & Engineers

What are the most wanted stress management practice?

- Scientists & Engineers in KIST

- Project Managers

- Trainees at physical education program

- Physical or Mental Trainers in KIST

- Professionals of stress management

- Nominal Group Technique (incumbent trainees)

- Survey analysis of Scientists & Engineers

- Interview with Project Managers

- Focused Group interview (Professionals of stress management,

What are the desired outcomes of stress management?

- President of KIST

- Project Managers at R&D department

- Scientists & Engineers

- Healthcare manager

- Counselor

- Interview with President

- Interview with Project Managers

- Focused Group Interview with Healthcare manager and /Counselor

- Survey analysis of Scientists & Engineers

3. Design Document

3.1 Learner Analysis

Demographic

(Age, gender, race)

1) 9 Division project managers

A. Average age: 53 years old

B. All male

2) 33 Research project managers

A. Average age: 47 years old

B. 97% male

C. All have Ph. D. degree of related field.

Physiological

(Heart condition, lung capacity, general physical condition)

3. One division manager has a diabetic problem, and another has high blood pressure problem

4. 25% of Research project managers are overweight

5. 65% of project managers reports ‘over-stressed’

6. During the workshop special care is required for who may have a physical or psychological disorder.

Experience

(Length of service, time on job, similar experience)

1. Division project managers average work experience: 18 years

2. Research project managers average work experience: 11 years

Although the length of experience may vary, not many participants have experienced taking systematic stress management course.

Learning Style

Potential learners have very strong analytical skills, and they are mostly practical. They prefer hand-on activities, practicing the new knowledge and skill, and learning by doing.

Aptitude

(special talents or skills)

They have strong analytical skills and problem solving techniques in a scientific manner. But they are not good at understanding “soft skills” such as emotions, intangible knowledge, and psychological approach.

Knowledge

(Education, basic skills, specialized training)

Potential learners have enough knowledge about the importance of Key researchers, and they are required how to manage the key researchers’ stress to prevent the burn-out syndrome.

Attitude

(feelings about topics, training, job organization)

The workshop is mandatory for potential learners, and they may have lower motivation. Meanwhile core researchers’ expectation level about the program will be higher because they will be highly influenced by the potential learner behavior. It is important for trainer to understand there are two different groups which have different attitudes.

3.2 Setting Analysis

3.2.1 Development Environment

Resources

· There is an available network of professionals with experience in stress management, clinical counseling, meditation, physical education, and health care use when developing the course.

· The instructor has a certification of meditation coach, and 10 years experience of dealing stress management issues.

· The developers possess a general overarching desire to provide the real value for Scientists & Engineers

· The president of the institute strongly support the program

Constraints

· There is a lack of a physical location where all people involved in the development of the course are together.

· Some developers can participate contingently (Max. 2 hours/day, 2 weeks)

· Time is limited (2 weeks to deliver)

· Organization regulations:

o Limitations to S&E workforce profiles

o Limitations to have meeting or research them

o Limitations to facilities

Culture

· Those involved in the development of the course are passionate about stress management and helping scientists & engineers

· Developers have graduate degree about their field, and they have strong sense to catch the clients needs

· All developers have enough experiences in their profession, and they are tend to be constructive in a team

3.2.2 Delivery Environment

Resources

· Instructor has more than 3 years experience of teaching stress management, clinical counseling and physical, mental training

· Training materials (Video, Projector, and Document)

· Licensed video training program (“Meditation for Stress Management”)

· Internal networks (Wireless ADSL Internet connection)

· Facilities which are capable max. 50 people with full audio-visual equipments

Constraints

· The potential learners are very protective of their time and hard to find a time slot for delivering the workshop.

· During the workshop, two participants may not participate in physical training session

· The facility is not enough to conduct physical training session, so contents should be customized to fit in a limited space

Culture

· This is a voluntary course for core scientists & engineers, many participants have a desire to improve their skills, knowledge and attitude about stress management.

· This is a mandatory course for divisional project managers and research project managers, they are skeptical to the course. In addition, they worry about absenting from their normal works

· Because all participants are scientists & engineers they tend to have strong interests about scientific and analytic communications

· Because of the desire to have potential learners assimilate a practical experience with stress management, the course will be designed to be ‘learning by doing’ and hands-on.

3.2.3 Application Environment

Resources

· Healthcare department will setup a webpage for providing “Stress management” on-line program in KIST Intranet

· ‘Stress management practice’ will be broadcasted on regular time (30 min.) through KIST Intranet

· On-line counseling will be provided in the website, all private issues will be confidentially treated and scientists & engineers can ask any questions anonymously

· Reference guides and tools to refer back to as a refresher when the skills and knowledge are needed will be provided

· Scientists & Engineers who hope to take regular stress management program will be guided by healthcare department

Constraints

· Although the participants will have new knowledge and skills to employ, there is still a risk of a regression in attitude. There is no guarantee of taking on-line stress management program and practicing it

· On-the-job pressures that do not let Scientists & Engineers’ apply what they learned in the workshop

· Same ‘stress management practice’ will be perceived as an boredom sooner or later

Culture

· Because participants are all returning to their own laboratory and businesses, their situations may vary greatly. Especially Bio-tech, Chemical, and Process Engineering related managers and workforces are not easy to take off their regular 24 hours/7days work environment. So, special auditing or supporting is required.

· If participants can feel the value of the program, they can share the material and the program with other Scientists & Engineers in the nation which can make a big impact to the culture of their workplace

· Colleagues, subordinates, family and other peer group members may have an influence on the learners. There may be pressure to participate, perform stress management program in regular bases

3.3 Job/Task and Content Analysis

Job Categories

Tasks

Contents

World Leading Scientists & Engineers

Understanding the mega-trends of science & engineering field

Introduction

· Understanding the change of the world

· What is the key “Driver” of 4th Wave?

· Understanding contemporary issues of the world

· Why the science & engineering are important?

· What are the core components of innovation?

Understanding the innovation mechanism

Cases of Creativity

· Archimedes of Syracuse

· Sir Isaac Newton

· Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz

· Alert Einsten

Mechanism of Creativity

· The Flow (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi)

· Intuition from rest

· Sharpen the Saw?

Being an Innovator

Keeping & Improving Creative Competencies

Stress & Healthcare

· What is Health?

· Key components of healthcare

· Where disease comes from?

· Find your inner voice

Stress & Meditation

· What is meditation?

· Science of Mind & Meditation

· Effectiveness of meditation

· Practices of meditation

Stress Management through Meditation

· History of mind control

· Categories of mind control

· Mechanism of mind control

o Psychological training

o Physical training

o Integrative practice

· Strategic Scientists & Engineers?

o Strategic thinking

o Creative leadership

o The Breathing

Stress management

Practicing the C-PEP

Practice of Meditation for Stress Management

· Components of mind control practice

· Principles of mind control

· C-PEP (Creativity Performance Enhancing Program) for Scientists & Engineers

Facilitating & sharing C-PEP

Summary & Suggestion

· Creativity is the mother of innovation

· Scientists & Engineers are key talents for innovation

· The flow (concentration) & stress management can promote creativity

· Mind control can help stress management

· Find your inner voice and create a new mental DNA

Apply the stress management coach

Procedure of coaching

· How to evaluate stress level

· How to use healthcare program

· How to take on-line stress management program

· How to get help

o Visit professionals

o On-line Q&A

4. Storyboard outlines of Stress Management Program for KIST Scientists & Engineers

Introduction

· Understanding the change of the world

· What is the key “Driver” of 4th Wave?

· Understanding contemporary issues of the world

· Why the science & engineering are important?

· What is the core competency for innovation?

Experiences of Creativity

· Archimedes of Syracuse

· Sir Isaac Newton

· Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz

· Albert Einstein

Mechanism of Creativity

· The Flow (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi)

· Intuition from rest

· Sharpen the Saw?

Stress & Healthcare

· What is Health?

· Key components of healthcare

· Where disease comes from?

· Find your inner voice

Video (“The Mind, session 5: Comfortable mind”)

· What is mind control?

· Science of Mind & Meditation

· Effectiveness of mind control

· Practices of mind control

Mind control & Stress Management

· History of mind control

· Categories of mind control

· Mechanism of mind control

o Psychological training

o Physical training

o Integrative practice

· Strategic Scientists & Engineers?

o Strategic thinking

o Creative leadership

o The breathing

Practice of Mind Control & Stress Management

· Components of mind control practice

· Principles of mind control

· C-PEP (Creativity Performance Enhancing Program) for Scientists & Engineers

Summary & Suggestion

· Creativity is the mother of innovation

· Scientists & Engineers are key talents for innovation

· The flow (concentration) & stress management can promote creativity

· Mind control can help stress management

· Find your inner voice and create a new mental DNA

Procedure of stress management coaching

· How to evaluate stress level

· How to use healthcare program

· How to take on-line stress management program

· How to get help

o How to make a feedback

o Visit professionals

o On-line Q&A

Section II: Administration / Planning

Goal Statement and Performance objectives

The goal of this training program is to teach participants to understand the importance of stress management skills, to practice the customized stress management program(C-PEP) regularly, and to take counseling without hesitation.

Terminal Goals

(After completing the workshop, participants will be able to…)

Level

Enabling Goals

(During the workshop, participants will…)

Level

Identify the mega-trend of science & engineering field

II

· Discuss the next key driver of 4th wave

· Recognize contemporary challenges to scientists & engineers

· Describe three major components of innovation

II

II

II

Describe the creativity and it’s components

II

· Discuss the cases of creative scientists

· Identify two factors of creativity

· Define the flow, and the intuition

II

II

I

Recognize the importance of stress management

II

· Define the mind control

· Tell the relationship between stress and healthcare

· Discuss scientific evidence of mind control (Meditation)

· Review the history and the category of mind control (Meditation)

· Explain the importance of breathing

I

II

II

II

II

Practice the stress management program

III

· Define C-PEP

· Memorize structure of the C-PEP

· Recall the sequence of the C-PEP

· Recognize the principles of mind control

· Explain effects of each posture

· Demonstrate the C-PEP

I

I

I

II

II

III

Recall the stress management and

C-PEP

I

· Recognize the change of healthcare concept

· Memorize the importance of stress management

· Order the C-PEP

I

I

I

Apply the stress management coaching

III

· Name the responsible department and professionals

· Describe the procedures of counseling

· Apply the counseling process on KIST Intranet

I

I

III

Instructor Background / Qualification

Instructors

Background

Qualification

Jeong-Hwan Choi, MBA

- Current: Doctoral Student at HRE of UIUC

- Contact: jchoi52@uiuc.edu

- Professional:

n Senior Business Strategy Consultant (EON group, Korea, Dow Chemical & Vita 34, Germany)

n Project Manager & Research (BOSCH)

- Education:

n MBAs (Germany, Korea)

n ME (Mechanical Engineering)

- Co-developer of C-PEP

- 2 years Experience in Business Strategy Consulting (Specialized in high-tech business growth strategy)

- 5 years Experience in Project Management & Research at Automotive Industry

- Certificated instructor of Meditation

- Have specialty in developing “Creativity” for scientists & engineers

Gum Nam (Black Belt)

- Current: Instructor of Mental training at KIST

- Contact: namgeum@hanmail.net

- Professional:

n Mental Trainer in KIST (since 2001)

n Mental Trainer in Korean Tax Bureau (since 2000)

n Manager of Instructor Development Program at Kouksundo

- Education:

n Certification Program of Mental Trainer (2002)

n Instructor development Program of Mental Trainers (2001~2003)

n XXX College at Civil Engineering

- Co-developer of C-PEP

- 12 years mental training (Kouksundo Meditation)

- Have specialty in developing Creativity for Scientists & Engineers

- Certificated instructor of Meditation (Black belt)

Geum-Ok Lee, MD

- Current: Healthcare manager at KIST

- Professional:

n 12 years health care experiences at KIST

n MD at Public Healthcare Sites (1992~1993)

- Education:

n XXX medical school (1991)

- Certificated Medical Doctor

- Conducted many managerial projects of health care improvement for Scientists & engineers

Learner Background / Qualification

Demographic

(Age, gender, race)

1) 9 Division project managers

D. Average age: 53 years old

E. All male

2) 33 Research project managers

F. Average age: 47 years old

G. 97% male

H. All have Ph. D. degree of related field.

Physiological

(Heart condition, lung capacity, general physical condition)

1) One division manager has a diabetic problem, and another has high blood pressure problem

2) 25% of Research project managers are overweight

3) 65% of project managers reports ‘over-stressed’

4) During the workshop special care is required for who may have a physical or psychological disorder.

Experience

(Length of service, time on job, similar experience)

1) Division project managers average work experience: 18 years

2) Research project managers average work experience: 11 years

Although the length of experience may vary, not many participants have experienced taking systematic stress management course.

Learning Style

Potential learners have very strong analytical skills, and they are mostly practical. They prefer hand-on activities, practicing the new knowledge and skill, and learning by doing.

Aptitude & Qualification

(special talents or skills)

Potential learners have strong analytical skills and problem solving techniques in a scientific manner. But they are not good at understanding “soft skills” such as emotions, intangible knowledge, and psychological approach. However, they are required having a non-special geriatric diseases such as high blood-pressure or metal disorder.

Knowledge

(Education, basic skills, specialized training)

Potential learners have enough knowledge about the importance of Key researchers, and they are required how to manage the key researchers’ stress to prevent the burn-out syndrome.

Attitude

(feelings about topics, training, job organization)

The workshop is mandatory for potential learners, and they may have lower motivation. Meanwhile core researchers’ expectation level about the program will be higher because they will be highly influenced by the potential learner behavior. It is important for trainer to understand there are two different groups which have different attitudes.

Lesson Outline and Training Times

Workshop Sessions

Lesson Outline

Training Time

Session 1

Identify mega-trends of science & technology field and describe the innovation mechanism

Introduction

· Understanding the change of the world

· What is the key “Driver” of 4th Wave?

· Understanding contemporary issues of the world

· Why the science & engineering are important?

· What is the core competency for innovation?

Experiences of Creativity

· Archimedes of Syracuse

· Sir Isaac Newton

· Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz

· Albert Einstein

Mechanism of Creativity

· The Flow (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi)

· Intuition from rest

· Sharpen the Saw?

Total: 2 hours 50 min.

Greeting: 20 min.

Introduction: 30 min.

Experiences of creativity & mechanism of creativity: 50 min.

Session 2

Recognize importance of stress management & practice/recall the stress management program

Stress & Healthcare

· What is Health?

· Key components of healthcare

· Where disease comes from?

· Find your inner voice

Video (“The Mind, session 5: Comfortable mind”)

· What is mind control?

· Science of Mind & Meditation

· Effectiveness of mind control

· Practices of mind control

Mind control & Stress Management

· History of mind control

· Categories of mind control

· Mechanism of mind control

o Psychological training

o Physical training

o Integrative practice

· Strategic Scientists & Engineers?

o Strategic thinking

o Creative leadership

o The breathing

Practice of Mind Control & Stress Management

· Components of mind control practice

· Principles of mind control

· C-PEP (Creativity Performance Enhancing Program) for Scientists & Engineers

Summary & Suggestion

· Creativity is the mother of innovation

· Scientists & Engineers are key talents for innovation

· The flow (concentration) & stress management can promote creativity

· Mind control can help stress management

· Find your inner voice and create a new mental DNA

Total: 3 hours 50 min.

Importance of stress management: 1 hour

Video watching: 30 min.

Principles of Mind control & Stress: 1 hour

Practicing C-PEP & Summary: 1 hour 10 min.

Session 3

Apply the stress management coaching program

Procedure of stress management coaching

· How to evaluate stress level

· How to use healthcare program

· How to take on-line stress management program

· How to get help

o How to make a feedback

o Visit professionals

o On-line Q&A

Total: 1 hour

Introduction of KIST Stress Management Program: 20 min.

Practicing the coaching program: 30 min.

Wrap-up Workshop: 10 min.

Media Master List

Workshop Sessions

Media

Description

Session 1

Identify mega-trends of science & technology field and describe the innovation mechanism

PPT #1

Powerpoint Slides

Introduction

Experiences of Creativity

Mechanism of Creativity

Session 2

Recognize importance of stress management & practice/recall the stress management program

PPT #2,

Video Clip (the Mind)

Powerpoint Slides

Stress & Healthcare

Mind control & Stress Management

Practice of Mind Control & Stress Management

Summary & Suggestion

Video (“The Mind, session 5: Comfortable mind”)

(Source: KBS)

Session 3

Apply the stress management coaching program

PPT #3

Powerpoint Slides

Procedure of stress management coaching


Handout Master List

Workshop Sessions

Handout

Description

Session 1

Identify mega-trends of science & technology field and describe the innovation mechanism

Draft of speech

KIST President Dr. Kum’s Speech

workshop outline

Outlines of the workshop

Handout #1-1

Group discussion (Team Resume)

Handout #1-2

Summary of World Economic Forum report

Handout #1-3

Handout for Group discussion of WEF & Session questions

Handout #1-4

Creativity experience sharing & Session questions

Handout #1-5

Evaluation Sheet for Session 1

Session 2

Recognize importance of stress management & practice/recall the stress management program

Handout #2-1

Individual diagnosis of stress & session questions

Handout #2-2

Group inquiry & Identification of breath style

Handout #2-3

Recalling C-PEP

Handout #2-4

Evaluation Sheet for Session 2

Session 3

Apply the stress management coaching program

Handout #3-1

Procedure of Stress management Program in KIST & Role playing evaluation

Handout #3-2

Evaluation Sheet for Session 3

Handout #3-3

Workshop Evaluation Sheet


Workshop Agenda

Sessions

Agenda

Details

Session1

Identify the mega-trend of science & engineering field

· Discuss the next key driver of 4th wave

· Recognize contemporary challenges to scientists & engineers

· Describe three major components of innovation

Describe the creativity and it’s components

· Discuss the cases of creative scientists

· Identify two factors of creativity

· Define the flow, and the intuition

Session2

Recognize the importance of stress management

· Define the mind control

· Tell the relationship between stress and healthcare

· Discuss scientific evidence of mind control (Meditation)

· Review the history and the category of mind control (Meditation)

· Explain the importance of breathing

Practice the stress management program

· Define C-PEP

· Memorize structure of the C-PEP

· Recall the sequence of the C-PEP

· Recognize the principles of mind control

· Explain effects of each posture

· Demonstrate the C-PEP

Recall the stress management and

C-PEP

· Recognize the change of healthcare concept

· Memorize the importance of stress management

· Order the C-PEP

Session3

Apply the stress management coaching

· Name the responsible department and professionals

· Describe the procedures of counseling

· Apply the counseling process on KIST Intranet


Post-Course Evaluation Form

This is the evaluation sheet for the workshop. Please indicate your opinion by scale or answer some open questions. Your opinion will be referred to improve instruction and feedback to instructors. You can identify yourself to get the results of this survey or to support future instruction design. Your kind help is very appreciative. (Grey: Mandatory)

Department:

 

Age:

 

Name:

 

ID number:

 
 

Questionnaire

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

Overall, the workshop was useful

1

2

3

4

2

Instructors prepared well and delivered valuable knowledge

1

2

3

4

3

The Workshop was well structured

1

2

3

4

4

The workshop was timely and appropriate at the contemporary issues

1

2

3

4

4

The workshop’s objectives were clear

1

2

3

4

5

Instructor delivered contents effectively

1

2

3

4

6

Time is enough to understand and practice

1

2

3

4

7

The presentation materials were proper to understand

1

2

3

4

8

The handouts were proper to enhance knowledge about topics

1

2

3

4

9

The attitude of instructors were proper

1

2

3

4

10

Instructor did not show any discrimination to participants

1

2

3

4

11

Instruction methods is proper and effective

1

2

3

4

12

Facilities for workshop were good and well-organized

1

2

3

4

13

Equipments for workshop were functioned well

1

2

3

4

14

Coordination were effective and smoothly conducted

1

2

3

4

15

Do you want to recommend this workshop to your colleagues?

1

2

3

4

16. What is the most valuable thing in this workshop, and why?

_______________________________________________________________________________________

17. If you have any suggestion to improve this workshop, please describe.

________________________________________________________________________________________

- Thank you for your participation -


Other workshop Supplies

CD for the workshop

1. Presentation Materials

2. Video Clip (the Mind, source: KBS 2006)

Presentation Equipments

1. Projector

2. Computer (Desk top or Notebook)

3. Pointer

4. Catering for Presenter

Facilities

1. Table & Chair

2. Stationary (Flip Chart, Papers, Marker, Pencil, Tape, Post-it)

3. Clock

4. Catering for Participants

5. Audio Visual System (Recording)

Delivery Preparation Checklist (think about his in terms of 2-6 months, two weeks, one week, and one day before training as well as day of)

Schematic Diagram of Delivery Preparation Process

clip_image003

Checklist for Delivery

1

Proposal Review

1.1

Contact to Responsible Person / Manager

1.2

Feasibility Study (Learner, Resources, Capabilities, Experiences, Strategies)

1.3

Recruit Instructors

1.4

Proposal review

1.3

Suggesting proposal

2

RFQ Review

2.1

Client Requests Reports

2.2

Need Assessment Report

2.3

Freeze Research Methods

2.4

Resource Analysis Report

2.5

Feasibility Study Report

3

Contract Review

3.1

Contract Review (Terms, Instructor, Payment, Contracts documents)

3.2

Development Document Review

3.3

Contents Review (Feedback from Clients)

3.4

Research or Survey to Potential Learners

4

Proto Review

4.1

Simulation Report

4.2

Freeze Contents

4.3

Lesson Plan Report (Announce to Clients)

5

Final Review

5.1

Check Facilities

5.2

Check Equipment

5.3

Final Review of Contents

6.

Post Review (Between 1 week)

6.1

Evaluation Report

6.2

Feedback from Clients

6.3

Contract Revision

References for all materials used in training manual (APA format)

Bibliography

References for Session 1

Bierly, P. E., Kessler, E. H., & Christensen, E. W. (2000). Organizational learning, knowledge, and wisdom. Journal of Organization Change Management, 13(6), 596-618.

Clemence, R. V. (Ed.). (1951). Essays. "the creative response in economic history (reprinted from journal of ecnomic history, nov. 1947, 149~159)", edited by richard V. clemence. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley Press.

Covey, S. R. (1989). The seven habits of highly effective people, Free Press.

Covey, S. R. (2004). The 8th habit: From effectiveness to greatness (29 Nov 2005 reprint ed.)Free Press.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1992). Flow: The psychology of happiness, Rider.

World Economic Forum. Annual report 2006/7. Retrieved Nov.08, 2007, from http://www.weforum.org/pdf/AnnualReport/2007/

References for Session 2

Bok, S. Rethinking the WHO definition of health. http://www.globalhealth.harvard.edu/hcpds/wpweb/Bok_wp1407_3.pdf

Davis, R. (2003, July 27). The science of meditation. Time,

Hassan, S. (2000). Releasing the bonds: Empowering people to think for themselvesAitan Publishing Company.

Kim, H. (2003). The tao of life. Saybrook University.

Ko, G. (1973). Kouksundo. Seoul, Korea: JongRo.

Lee, Y. (2006, Feb. 12). The Mind , [Motion Picture] Korean Broadcasting System (KBS).

Lim, K. (1998). The breathing story. Seoul, Korea: MyongSang.

Lim, S. (1986). History of ancient asia (han dan go ki). Seoul, Korea: Mindvision.com.

Ryu, G. (2005, July 02). Journey to fantasy. Message posted to http://www.dailyseop.com/section/article_view.aspx?at_id=29240#

WHO. Retrieved Nov. 25, 2007, from http://www.who.int/suggestions/faq/en/index.html

References (Lesson Plan 3)

Mindtools Website, Retrieved Nov. 25, 2007, from http://mindtools.com/stress/ps/StressPlan.htm

KIST Website, Retrieved Nov. 25, 2007, from http://www.kist.re.kr

Section V: Lesson Plans

Checklist of Evaluating Lesson Plans (5. 1)

Use this checklist to evaluate all of your lessons plans as you complete them. You may want to make multiple copies of this checklist

Lesson Plan Number/Title:

5.1 Identify mega-trends of science & technology field and describe the innovation mechanism

Does your lesson plan include

Description of Participants (optional)

Population addressed

Duration of lesson

2 hours 50 minutes

Topic to be covered/trained by lesson plan

Two Topics

Enabling objectives

Described

A list of all media needed to teach this lesson

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of all other materials needed to teach this lesson including participant materials

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of actual facilitation questions for all activities

Addressed at the end of each session

Does you lesson plan:

Reference all media where it is to be used?

See bibliography

Reference all other materials including participant materials where they are to be used?

See bibliography

Include enough detail so that someone with a similar background to yourself could teach the course with minimal preparation? (Keep in mind a cookbook or other procedural manual)

Describe processes as detail as it can be easily reproduced

Have you

Developed all media needed to teach this lesson?

See the PPT #1

Developed all other materials needed to teach this lesson (where appropriate) including participants materials?

See draft of speech, workshop outline, reference #1-1, #1-2, #1-3, #1-4, #1-5

5. 1 Lesson Plan for Session 1

Title: Identify mega-trends of science & technology field and describe the innovation mechanism

Population

Total 37, President, Divisional managers, Research project managers

1. President of KIST (Dr. Kum)

2. Potential learner group1: 9 Division project managers

3. Potential learner group2: 33 Research project managers

4. 6 managers are not available for their business trip/vacation

Duration of Lesson

2 hours 50 minutes

Trainer

Jeong-Hwan Choi, MBA

- Ph. D. Student at UIUC Human Resource Education

- Former EON group strategy consultant, BOSCH research Engineer (6+ years)

- Experienced developing innovation leaders in Europe and Korea

- Co-developer of C-PEP Program

Topics

· Mega-trends of science & technology

· Creativity and innovation mechanism

Enabling objectives

During this lesson, trainees will:

· Discuss the next key driver of 4th wave

· Recognize contemporary challenges to scientists & engineers

· Describe three major components of innovation

· Discuss the creative scientists’ experiences

· Identify two factors of creativity

· Define the flow, and the intuition

Time

Activity

09:00 ~ 09:20 AM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Greeting

1) Introduction (by President)

2) Ice Breaking

- Divide class into six groups

- Direct for making a group resume

- Decide name of each group and explain the rationale

1) Make a group (6 members)

2) Decide Group Name

3) Make a group resume

- What are the group’s characteristics?

- Background of group members?

- What the group want to learn?

Media, Material

A draft of speech, Workshop Outline, Name card, Marker, Reference #1-1

Facilitation Question

- What is the main objective of this workshop (from Dr. Kum’s speech)?

- What are the learners’ most wanting topic in this workshop?

09:20~09:50 AM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Mega-trends in Science & Engineering

1) Introduce agenda for the session and explain the key “Driver” of 4th wave

2) Explain the contemporary challenges for science & engineering field

3) Explain Contemporary Mega-Trends in Science & Engineering

4) Guide doing Group discussion by using WEF report

1) Realize agenda for this session

2) Tell the “Key Driver of 4th wave”

3) Group discussion: the 2007 WEF report

- Recognize current challenges in science and engineering field

- Indicate the contemporary solutions for making innovation

- Describe the limitation of knowledge

09:50~10:40 AM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Creativity & Mechanism of Creativity

1. Introduce Scientists’ experiences of generating Creative ideas

2. Ask group to list their experiences of generating creative ideas

3. Explain the mechanism of creative thinking

4. Explain the Seven habits & 8th habit

5. Guide groups to identifying possible alternatives for promoting creativity

1) List minimum One experience of “Creative thinking” with saying time, condition

2) Find out the similarity & difference of creative thinking generation with cases and other members

3) Describe three major components of innovation

4) Discuss the two factors of creativity (Agree or not, if not what other should be included)

5) Indicate possible alternatives for promoting creativity

Media, Material

PPT #1

Reference #1-2 (Summary of WEF report)

Reference #1-3

Reference #1-4

Facilitation Question

- What are the mega-trends in Science & Engineering field?

- What are the challenges to Scientists & Engineers?

- How world leading organizations are making innovations?

- What is the mechanism of innovation?

- What are the two main factors for creativity?

- How can participants apply your understandings in this session to motivate your subordinate’s creativity?

10:40~10:50AM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Session Evaluation

1) Prepare the evaluation sheet for the Session

2) Distribute the evaluation sheet

3) Give 5 minutes to complete evaluation sheet

4) Gather evaluation sheet

1) Take the evaluations sheet

2) Complete 6 scale questions for evaluating the session

3) Complete open end suggestion

4) Hand on the evaluation sheet

Media, Material

 

Reference #1-5 (Evaluation Sheet)

Facilitation Question

- What are the good / bad / need improvement subjects for this session?

10:50~11:00AM

Break

Checklist of Evaluating Lesson Plans (5. 2)

Use this checklist to evaluate all of your lessons plans as you complete them. You may want to make multiple copies of this checklist

Lesson Plan Number/Title:

5.2 Recognize importance of stress management & Practice/Recall the stress management program

Does your lesson plan include

Description of Participants (optional)

Population addressed

Duration of lesson

3 hours 50 minutes

Topic to be covered/trained by lesson plan

Two Topics

Enabling objectives

Described

A list of all media needed to teach this lesson

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of all other materials needed to teach this lesson including participant materials

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of actual facilitation questions for all activities

Addressed at the end of each session

Does you lesson plan:

Reference all media where it is to be used?

See bibliography

Reference all other materials including participant materials where they are to be used?

See bibliography

Include enough detail so that someone with a similar background to yourself could teach the course with minimal preparation? (Keep in mind a cookbook or other procedural manual)

Describe processes as detail as it can be easily reproduced

Have you

Developed all media needed to teach this lesson?

See the PPT #2, Video clip #1

Developed all other materials needed to teach this lesson (where appropriate) including participants materials?

See handout #2-1, #2-2, #2-3, #2-4

5.2 Lesson Plan for Session 2

Title: Recognize importance of stress management & Practice/Recall the stress management program

Population

Total 37, President, Divisional managers, Research project managers

5. President of KIST (Dr. Kum)

6. Potential learner group1: 9 Division project managers

7. Potential learner group2: 33 Research project managers

8. 6 managers are not available for their business trip/vacation

Duration of Lesson

3 hours 50 minutes

Trainer

Jeong-Hwan Choi, MBA

- Ph. D. Student at UIUC Human Resource Education

- Former EON group strategy consultant, BOSCH research Engineer (6+ years)

- Experienced developing innovation leaders in Europe and Korea

- Co-developer of C-PEP program

Gum Nam (Certified Black Belt of Kouksundo Meditation)

- Mental Trainer in KIST

- 12 years experience in Meditation

- Co-developer of C-PEP program

Topics

· Recognize importance of stress management

· Practice/Recall the stress management program (C-PEP)

Enabling objectives

During this lesson, trainees will:

· Define the mind control

· Tell the relationship between stress and healthcare

· Discuss scientific evidence of mind control (Meditation)

· Review the history and the category of mind control (Meditation)

· Explain the importance of breathing

· Define C-PEP

· Memorize structure of the C-PEP

· Recall the sequence of the C-PEP

· Recognize the principles of mind control

· Explain effects of each posture

· Demonstrate the C-PEP

· Recognize the change of healthcare concepts

· Memorize the importance of stress management

· Order the C-PEP

Time

Activity

11:00 ~ 12:00 AM

Trainer Activity (Choi)

Trainee Activity

Importance of Stress Management

1) Conduct the call up questions “How the stress affect to your life?”

2) Introduce “What stress undermines”

3) Explain the relationship between stress and health

4) Explain the definition of Mind Control

5) Explain the reason why the meditation is the best mind control practice

6) Guide doing group discussion “What are the pros/cons of meditation”

1) Answer the question “How the stress affect to my life” (List 3)

2) Tell the definition of mind control

3) Discuss the pros/cons of meditation with group members

4) Complete the handout # 2-1

01:00~02:30 PM

Trainer Activity (Choi)

Trainee Activity

Mind Control & Stress Management

5) Show the Video Clip (Scientific evidences of Meditation)

6) Guide doing group inquiry (gather and answer questions)

7) Explain the history of mind control

8) Explain the categories of mind control (meditation)

9) Guide doing “Identifying breadth status”

10) Describe the relationship between mind control and breathing

4) List more than three group questions about video clip

5) Follow the instruction of “Identifying breath status”

6) Tell the participants’ own breathing style

7) Complete the handout #2-2

Media, Material

PPT #2, Video Clip (the Mind)

Handout #2-1, #2-2

Facilitation Question

- Why stress management is important?

- What is the BITE model? (definition of mind control)

- How the mind control decrease stress ?

- What is the relationship between breath and mind control

02:30 ~ 3:40 AM

Trainer Activity (Nam)

Trainee Activity

Practicing/Recalling C-PEP (Creativity Performance Enhancing Program)

1) Introduce the C-PEP

2) Explain the principles of C-PEP

3) Demonstrate C-PEP and explain the effect of each posture

n Whole body stretching

n Pelvis stretching

n Ankle stretching

n Waist stretching

n Back stretching

n Side stretching

n Neck stretching

n Shoulder stretching

n Big breathing

n Meditation

4) Explain the changing of the concept of health

5) Review the C-PEP

n Importance of stress management

n Principles of C-PEP

n Order of C-PEP

1) Follow the instruction of trainer

2) Memorize the order of C-PEP and effects of each posture

3) Demonstrate C-PEP

4) Complete the handout #2-3

Media, Material

PPT #2

Handout #2-3

Facilitation Question

- Why the C-PEP is developed?

- What is the order of C-PEP and effects of each postures?

- What is the changing concept of health?

3:40~3:50PM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Session Evaluation

1) Prepare the evaluation sheet for the Session

2) Distribute the evaluation sheet

3) Give 5 minutes to complete evaluation sheet

4) Gather evaluation sheet

1) Take the evaluations sheet

2) Complete 6 scale questions for evaluating the session

3) Complete open end suggestion

4) Hand on the evaluation sheet

Media, Material

 

Handout #2-4 (Evaluation Sheet)

03:50~4:00 PM

Break

Checklist of Evaluating Lesson Plans (5.3)

Use this checklist to evaluate all of your lessons plans as you complete them. You may want to make multiple copies of this checklist

Lesson Plan Number/Title:

5.3 Apply the stress management coaching program

Does your lesson plan include

Description of Participants (optional)

Population addressed

Duration of lesson

1 hour

Topic to be covered/trained by lesson plan

Apply coaching program

Enabling objectives

Described

A list of all media needed to teach this lesson

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of all other materials needed to teach this lesson including participant materials

Addressed at the end of each session

A list of actual facilitation questions for all activities

Addressed at the end of each session

Does you lesson plan:

Reference all media where it is to be used?

See bibliography

Reference all other materials including participant materials where they are to be used?

See bibliography

Include enough detail so that someone with a similar background to yourself could teach the course with minimal preparation? (Keep in mind a cookbook or other procedural manual)

Describe processes as detail as it can be easily reproduced

Have you

Developed all media needed to teach this lesson?

See the PPT #3

Developed all other materials needed to teach this lesson (where appropriate) including participants materials?

See handout #3-1, #3-2, #3-3

5.3 Lesson Plan for Session 3

Title: Apply the stress management coaching program

Population

Total 37, President, Divisional managers, Research project managers

9. President of KIST (Dr. Kum)

10. Potential learner group1: 9 Division project managers

11. Potential learner group2: 33 Research project managers

12. 6 managers are not available for their business trip/vacation

Duration of Lesson

1 hour

Trainer

Geum-Ok Lee, MD

- Experienced 12 years at Healthcare Department

- Certificated Medical Doctor

Topics

· Apply the stress management coaching program

Enabling objectives

During this lesson, trainees will:

· Name the responsible department and professionals

· Discuss the procedures of coaching

· Apply the coaching process on KIST Intranet

Time

Activity

4:00 ~ 4:20 PM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Introduction of KIST Stress Management Coaching Program

1) Introduce the procedure of stress managing coaching program of KIST

2) Explain the stress evaluation method

3) Introduce the healthcare organization & professionals

4) Explain the professional stress management service of healthcare department

1) Answer the question “What is the procedure of stress management coaching program

2) Describe the stress evaluation tools

3) Memorize the health care professionals

4) Recall the available service from healthcare department

5) Complete the handout # 3-1

04:20~04:50 PM

Trainer Activity (Choi)

Trainee Activity

Practicing Coaching Process by Role Playing

1) Assign numbers to each group members (1~6)

2) Instruct the Role Play

3) Distribute cards which contain the role

4) Guide doing role play game

5) Guide completing evaluation sheet

6) Wrap up the role play

7) Ask what participants experienced

8) Recall the procedure of coaching & tools

1) Define numbers

2) Identify role

3) Consult with coach with the role

4) Evaluate the coaching

5) Listen/Identify/Give solutions to group members

6) Complete the handout #3-1 (evaluation of coaching)

7) Tell the experiences of role playing

Media, Material

PPT #3

Handout #3-1

Facilitation Question

- What is the procedure of stress management program?

- Who is the responsible person for stress management program in KIST?

- What can health department provide?

- How can apply coaching stress management program on the job?

4:50~5:00PM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Session Evaluation

1) Prepare the evaluation sheet for the Session

2) Distribute the evaluation sheet

3) Give 5 minutes to complete evaluation sheet

4) Gather evaluation sheet

1) Take the evaluations sheet

2) Complete 6 scale questions for evaluating the session

3) Complete open end suggestion

4) Hand on the evaluation sheet

Media, Material

 

Handout #2-4 (Evaluation Sheet)

05:00~05:10 PM

Trainer Activity

Trainee Activity

Wrap-up Workshop

1) Prepare the program evaluation sheet for the Workshop

2) Distribute the evaluation sheet

3) Give 10 minutes to complete evaluation sheet

4) Gather evaluation sheet

1) Take the evaluations sheet

2) Complete 6 scale questions for evaluating the session

3) Complete open end suggestion

4) Hand on the evaluation sheet

Media, Material

 

Handout #3 (Workshop Evaluation)

Draft of Speech

As a “research institute to represent the dreams and futures of science and technology in the 21st century,” KIST also works hard as a major contributor to the creation of a science and technology-oriented society.
Since its foundation in 1966, KIST has led the national growth and development of Korea as the home of Korea’s scientific and technological renaissance. Now making the utmost use of its accumulated capabilities and accomplishments, it is determined to take the leading role in making Korea “an advanced powerhouse of science and technology” and building “a science and technology-based society” in the 21st century. Part of its proud history involves its creation of a foundation for Korea’s growth in industry and economy and solidifying it further with its scientific and technological attainments.

Now KIST will also devote itself to discovering and addressing the national agenda in early stages in addition to leading the efforts to create the next generation's driving force for growth. It will mobilize all of its abilities and authorities to upgrade the entire elements of organizational operation and research activities to global standards in order to reinforce its roles of advising scientific and technological solutions to the national agenda and establish itself as a “research institute to represent the dreams and future of science and technology in the 21st century.”
However we are confronting the various challenges such as globalization competition, tremendous technical innovation, and diversification of research environment. The only one way to countermeasure these challenges is developing innovative scientists & engineers. But we have experienced that losing two outstanding researchers a few months ago, and I know many of key researchers are departing our institute for their unaffordable stress. We, managers, should responsible for this unexpected high turnover. In this workshop, we hope to learn advanced stress management skills but the more important learning objectives is aware ourselves. I hope this workshop can be a turning point of changing our minds and starting point of addressing our invaluable people’s wellness and happiness.

clip_image005 Finally I hope KIST can be a best workplace which generate world-leading technology but also provide the best research environment for all scientists and engineers in the world,. Let’s try together to achieve this wonderful vision.

Thank you.

President of KIST

Dongwha Kum, Ph. D.

Workshop Outline

Greeting

· Speech of President Kum

· Ice Breaking

Introduction

· Understanding the change of the world

· What is the key “Driver” of 4th Wave?

· Understanding contemporary Mega-trends in Science & Engineering

· Why the science & engineering are important?

· What is the core competency for innovation?

Creativity Experiences

· Archimedes of Syracuse

· Sir Isaac Newton

· Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz

· Albert Einstein

Mechanism of Creativity

· The Flow (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi)

· Intuition from rest

· Sharpen the Saw? (Seven habits & 8th habit, Steven Covey Ph.D.)

Stress & Healthcare

· What is Health?

· Key components of healthcare

· Where disease comes from?

· Find your inner voice

Video (“The Mind, session 5: Comfortable mind”)

· What is mind control?

· Science of Mind & Meditation

· Effectiveness of mind control

· Practices of mind control

Mind control & Stress Management

· History of mind control

· Categories of mind control

· Mechanism of mind control

o Psychological training

o Physical training

o Integrative practice

· Strategic Scientists & Engineers?

o Strategic thinking

o Creative leadership

o The breathing

Practice of Mind Control & Stress Management

· Components of mind control practice

· Principles of mind control

· C-PEP (Creativity Performance Enhancing Program) for Scientists & Engineers

Summary & Suggestion

· Creativity is the mother of innovation

· Scientists & Engineers are key talents for innovation

· The flow (concentration) & stress management can promote creativity

· Mind control can help stress management

· Find your inner voice and create a new mental DNA

Procedure of stress management coaching

· How to evaluate stress level

· How to use healthcare program

· How to take on-line stress management program

· How to get help

o How to make a feedback

o Visit professionals

o On-line Q&A

Handout #1-1

Group Discussion

1) Make a group (6 members)

2) Decide Group Name

3) Make a group resume

- What are the group’s characteristics?

- Background of group members?

- What the group want to learn?

Handout #1-3

Introduction

1. Agenda for this session

2. Tell the “Key Driver of 4th wave”

3. Group discussion: the 2007 WEF report

- Recognize current challenges in science and engineering field

- Indicate the contemporary solutions for making innovation

- Describe the limitation of knowledge

Handout #1-4

Cases of Creativity & Mechanism of Creativity

1. List minimum One experience of “Creative thinking” with saying time, condition

2. Find out the similarity & difference of creative thinking generation with cases and other members

3. Describe three major components of innovation

4. Discuss the two factors of creativity (Agree or not, if not what other should be included)

5. Indicate possible alternatives for promoting creativity

Handout #1-5

Evaluation of Session 1

Evaluation Subject

Very Bad

Poor

Good

Very Good

Trainer is well prepared for this session?

1

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4

Subjects are valuable for the topics?

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Training methods is effective?

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Time is enough to understand presented topics?

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Session materials are well prepared?

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If you have any suggestion for improving this session, please describe

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Handout #2-1

Individual Questions

1) How stress affects my life? (List 3)

1.

2.

3.

2) What is the BITE Model?

3) How can you score below questions?

 

No 1

2

3

4

5 Yes

I have big stress on my job

         

I have clear and organized thinking ability

         

I have stable emotions

         

I have flexible & strong minds

         

I am enjoying total wellness

         

4) What are the Pros/Cons of Mediation Practice to practice it on your job?

Pros:

Cons:

Handout #2-2

1. Group inquiry (List more than three group question about the Video Clip: Scientific evidences of Meditation)

1)

2)

3)

2. Instruction of “Identifying breath status”

1) Close your eyes

2) Calm down for 30 seconds

3) Try to feel your own breathing

4) Sketch your breathing style

5) Tell the your own style

My breathing style is _______________________________________________________

3. What is the relationship between Breathing and Mind Control

Handout #2-3

Practicing & Recall C-PEP

1. What are the principles of C-PEP?

2. List the order of C-PEP and describe the effect of each posture

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)

11)

12)

3. How the concept of health is changing (Describe two added concepts)

1)

2)

Handout #2-4

Evaluation Subject

Very Bad

Poor

Good

Very Good

Trainer (Choi) is well prepared for this session?

1

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Trainer (Nam) is well prepared for this session?

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Subjects are valuable for the topics?

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Training methods is effective?

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Time is enough to understand presented topics?

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Facilities are well organized?

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Coordination is well provided?

1

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Session materials are well prepared?

1

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If you have any suggestion for improving this session, please describe

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Handout #3-1

1) Describe the procedure of Stress Management Program in KIST

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

2) Who can help me to conduct the stress management coaching program?

1)

2)

3) What professional programs are available at Healthcare department?

4) Evaluate the coaching performance? (Score 1 ~ 10 from bad to good)

 

Listening

Communication

Identifying

root cause

Solution

Total

#1

         

#2

         

#3

         

#4

         

#5

         

#6

         

4) What are the Pros/Cons of Mediation Practice to practice it on your job?

Handout #3-2

Evaluation Subject

Very Bad

Poor

Good

Very Good

Trainer is well prepared for this session?

1

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Subjects are valuable for the topics?

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Training methods is effective?

1

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Time is enough to understand presented topics?

1

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Facilities are well organized?

1

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Coordination is well provided?

1

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4

Session materials are well prepared?

1

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If you have any suggestion for improving this session, please describe

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Handout#3-3

Post-Course Evaluation Form

This is the evaluation sheet for the workshop. Please indicate your opinion by scale or answer some open questions. Your opinion will be referred to improve instruction and feedback to instructors. You can identify yourself to get the results of this survey or to support future instruction design. Your kind help is very appreciative. (Grey: Mandatory)

Department:

 

Age:

 

Name:

 

ID number:

 
 

Questionnaire

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

Overall, the workshop was useful

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Instructors prepared well and delivered valuable knowledge

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The Workshop was well structured

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The workshop was timely and appropriate at the contemporary issues

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The workshop’s objectives were clear

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Instructor delivered contents effectively

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Time is enough to understand and practice

1

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The presentation materials were proper to understand

1

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8

The handouts were proper to enhance knowledge about topics

1

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9

The attitude of instructors were proper

1

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10

Instructor did not show any discrimination to participants

1

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11

Instruction methods is proper and effective

1

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Facilities for workshop were good and well-organized

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Equipments for workshop were functioned well

1

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Coordination were effective and smoothly conducted

1

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15

Do you want to recommend this workshop to your colleagues?

1

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16. What is the most valuable thing in this workshop, and why?

_______________________________________________________________________________________

17. If you have any suggestion to improve this workshop, please describe.

________________________________________________________________________________________

- Thank you for your participation -


[1] KIST Website: www.kist.re.kr

[2] Interview with HealthCare Department Manager at KIST on 06/20/2007

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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 Redefine Innovation: Foundation for Strategic Innovation Leadership Development

(Unpublished, but copyright to Jeonghwan Choi 2008)

Jeong Hwan Choi, MBA, Doctorate Student, Human Resource Education

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 351 Education, 1310 South Sixth Street, IL 61810

Abstract:

New Definition of Innovation?

Innovation is leader(s)’s strategic activities of 1) integrating and practicing people, 2) exploiting knowledge of science & technology , 3) creating and transforming new ideas, products, processes, services and mindsets to achieve economic values, sustainable competitive advantages as well as self-realization in a complex, non-linear and dynamic social system along with discontinuous time set.
 

Introduction

Innovation creates economic values, sustainable competitive advantages and growth (Kuczmarski, 2003; Lee, 2005; Romer, 1990). But the term “Innovation” is frequently accepted as a normative rhetoric or slogan without clear definition though it is widely used to explain many business activities. When the term emerged in early 20th century, it was much focused on economic functions (Lange, 1943; Schumpeter, 1934; Schumpeter, 1939). As the economic activities became diversified and complex, the definition of innovation expanded and now it is difficult grasp the exact meaning of it. Thus, a new and more rigorous definition of innovation is necessary to conduct academic and practical research for innovation.

Currently, many business leaders agree that innovation is one of the crucial activities to achieve business performance and strategy, but the companies’ approach to innovation is often informal and less confident in decision-making (McKinsey & Company, 2008). In one survey, many business leaders pointed out that the biggest challenge for innovation is “talent.”

Schumpeter (1947), the godfather of innovation, described the quality of personnel in innovation process to be a critical factor, which could determine its success or not.

Creative response - the frequency of its occurrence in a group, its intensity and success or failure - has obviously something, be that much or little, to do (a) with quality of personnel available in a society, (b) with relative quality of personnel, that is, with quality available to a particular field of activity relative to quality available, at the same time, to other, and (c) with individual decision, actions, and patterns of behavior.

Kanter (1983) stressed the importance of human resources in innovation as “Innovation, whether in products, market strategies, technological processes, or work practices are designed not by machines but by people.” Venture capitalists commonly decide their investment to a new venture company not because the company has a good business plan, but because that company is run by people with passion for realizing innovative ideas (Hender, 2004). Although the quality of human resources in innovation process is important, too little attention has been paid to developing human resources for innovation.

On the other hand, many researchers investigated the key role of strategic leadership in various innovation contexts and processes. In comparing innovative Telecommunication companies in the United States and Germany, Kuchinke (1999) found that leadership was important because it leads to a number of desired outcomes of innovation among individuals, groups, and organizational levels. Vera & Crossan (2004) suggested a conceptual model to describe how strategic leaders influenced learning systems believed to be the key element of knowledge generation for innovation, and Vicere (1992) proposed that strategic leadership could be developed in multi-staged innovation process, and the development of strategic leadership had reciprocal cycles. But these researches did not address the human factors such as identification of innovation makers, roles of innovation leaders in innovation process and the required competencies.

Therefore, this paper focuses on four key questions:

1. How can we define “Innovation?”

2. Who makes innovation and what are their roles in innovation?

3. What capabilities are required from innovation makers and how they can be developed in a strategic way?

In this explorative research, academic literature review was conducted as a research methodology to address these questions.

Literature Review

Purpose of Defining Innovation

Even though “Innovation” is widely used in general, there seems to be no universally accepted definitive statements that the meaning of innovation exists. Kuczmarski (2003) pointed out the problem of having no clear definition of innovation that “Perhaps innovation has been misunderstood and therefore its full potential not realized.… Now more than ever, companies need to be cultivating innovation within their organizations and implementing systems that will ensure its success and longevity. This begs the question, what is innovation really, and why are not more companies doing it?”

In order to define the term “innovation” in a rigorous way and possibly widely accepted in academy and practice, contemporary dictionaries and academic literatures are investigated with 5W+1H framework.

Framework. The conventional 5W+1H framework is commonly used to conceptualize a problem (Ha, Jung, & Oh, 2006; Lee, 2004). The frame will be applied to compare different definitions of innovation in six different categories. As shown in Table 1, categories for analyzing definitions of innovation are presented with key questions. The purpose of using the framework is to analyze various definitions in a systemic way and in multi-facet point of views.

Table 1.

Framework for Analyzing Innovation Definition

Categories

Key Questions

Person

Who makes innovation?

Object

What are the objectives of innovation?

Reason / Purpose

Why is innovation practiced?

Space / Domain

Where does innovation occur?

Time

When can innovation occur?

Action / Method

What activities can make innovation and which methods are used?

Definitions from Dictionaries. Table 2 shows analyses of various definitions from contemporary dictionaries in the suggested framework. In general, dictionaries define the innovation in a very simple way without person, reason, and time. According to contemporary dictionaries, the objects of innovation are, “something new: idea, method (process), device, invention” by means of “improving, using, introducing, and creating.” Only two dictionaries define the domain of innovation: one is technology domain (Britanica, 2008), and the other is mind (Webster Online, 2008).

By synthesizing proposed definitions from contemporary dictionaries, innovation can be defined as “activities to improve, use, introduce and create something new idea, method, process, device and invention in technology domain or in mind.”

However, according to the definitions, there are no clear definitions about person, time, and reason in innovation, which means it is hard to utilize it academic research or practice of business rigorously.

Table 2.

Definitions of Innovation in Dictionaries

Dictionary

Definition

Person

Object

Reason / Purpose

Space / Domain

Time

Action / Method

Britanica

In technology, an improvement to something already existing

Something already existing

Technology

Improve

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

(the use of) a new idea or method

New idea

New method

Use

Meriam-Webster Online

1. the introduction of something new

2. a new idea, method, or device

Something new

New idea

New method

New device

Introduce

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online

1.[countable] a new idea, method, or invention

2.[uncountable] the introduction of new ideas or methods:

New idea

New method

New invention

Introduce

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language:

1. The act of introducing something new.

2. Something newly introduced

Something new

Introduce

Webster's Online Dictionary

with Multilingual Thesaurus Translation

1. A creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentation.

2. The creation of something in the mind.

New device

New Process Something

In the mind

Create by studying and experimenting

Synthesized definition of innovation from contemporary dictionaries:

‘Innovation is creating, improving or introducing new ideas, new method or something new in technology or mind domain’

Remarks: All dictionaries are accessed by online and retrieved on April 01 2008.

Definitions from Literatures. Since the emergence of the term ‘innovation’ in Schumpeter’s prominent article of ‘Theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle (Schumpeter, 1934),’ many scholars, institutes, and practitioners have defined it in various way. Table 4 shows various definitions of innovation from literatures in chronological order.

When the terminology of innovation was introduced in the academic field, it was an economic one. Economists commonly defined innovation as: commercialization or industrialization activity to change ‘production function’ to increase discounted value of maximum effective profit. (Lange, 1943; Schumpeter, 1934; Schumpeter, 1939). And the concept of innovation was expanded to ‘entrepreneur’s function’ such as: ‘doing of new things or doing something that has already been done in a new way’ (Schumpeter, 1947).

During the 1950’s, Drucker (1954) applied management concepts to innovation study. Marketing, technology change, and knowledge were adopted to explain the innovation activities. He explained that the purposes of innovation were to attain marketing objective, to keep up with technology change and to gain knowledge & skills to satisfy market goal. Then, his definition of innovation was widely accepted in the business field.

Rogers (1962 pp. 206~207) definition: “An innovation is an idea perceived as new by the individual…Innovation might include, for example, social movement, clothing fads, the twist, compact cars, and the steel ax….Most, but not all, innovations discussed here are technological innovations.” He suggested four elements of diffusion of innovation: 1) the innovation, 2) its communication from one individual to another, 3) in a social system, and 4) over time and these were elevated by deviation. He also explained innovation makers as “the first individuals in a social system to adopt new ideas, who are necessarily deviant in their time of adoption.”

1980’s was an era of ‘In search of excellence’ (Peters & Waterman, 1982). Peters and Waterman suggested eight themes to achieve ‘excellence,’ especially they focused on the importance of innovation activities, of entrepreneurs, and productivity improvement through people. The importance of people or human resources in innovation was supported by Kanter and Drucker as well. .

Kanter (1983) stated the importance of people in innovation process as ‘Innovation - whether in products, market strategies, technological processes, or work practices, are designed not by machines but by people.’ On the other hand, Drucker (2002) pointed out the importance of ‘capability’ of entrepreneurs in innovation and he suggested that the concept of ‘innovation is an economic or social than a technical term’.

Meanwhile, some scholars focused on the role of science and technology in innovation process. Freeman (as cited in Tidd, Bessant, & Pavitt, 1997 p.66) researched importance of science and technology capability in innovation process, and he defined the innovation as “technical, design, manufacturing, management and commercial activities involved in the marketing of a new product or commercial use of a new process or equipment.” However, Rothwell and Gardiner (as cited in Tidd et al., 1997 p.66) claimed that commercialization of a major advance in the technological state of the art not only in innovation, but small scale changes in technological know-how was also an output of innovation. They expanded their innovation study into a national level, and it explored researches on the national policy of innovation, especially in Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) Science and Technology Policy Research. In sum, during the 1980’s, two major themes of innovation arose: one was people centric innovation and the other was science and technology centric innovation.

Since the 1990’s, competitive advantage is a keyword in the business field. Porter (1990) insisted that the competitive advantage could be achieved by innovation, and this concept of innovation was supported by many business strategists. Lee (1999) stated that innovation was the primary basis for competitive advantage and Tidd (1997) specified it as ‘entrepreneurs will seek to use technological innovation to get strategic advantage.’

In parallel with the competitive advantage, a concept of learning organization was presented by Senge (1992). He explained innovation as “Engineers say that a new idea has been ‘invented’ when it is proven to work in the laboratory. The idea becomes an ‘innovation’ only when it can be replicated reliably on a meaningful scale at practical costs. If the idea is sufficiently important it is called ‘basic innovation’ and it creates a new industry or transforms an existing industry.” Then he suggested five disciplines for learning organization for innovation: systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, building shared vision, and team learning.

A new theme in innovation also emerged during 1990’s. Mindset of people involved in innovation was addressed. Kuczmarski (2003) defined innovation as “a mindset of welcoming risks to gaining competitive advantage” by referring to the statement ‘motivated staff’ and ‘instinctive understanding of customer want’ should be combined with good ideas to achieve innovation.

Meanwhile, a longitudinal and integrative approach for innovation study started in 1983 at University of Minnesota, named as Minnesota Innovation Research Program (MIRP). Van de Ven & Angle (2000) suggested a framework to conduct innovation researches in an integrative way, and summarized MIRP observations as Table 3. They defined innovation as “Innovation requires more than the creative capacities to invent new ideas; it requires managerial skills and talents to transform good ideas into practice.” Then, they suggested interdisciplinary process model for innovation study (p. 3). The final research output of MIRP was published in 2000.

Table 3.

A Comparison of the conventional wisdom and MIRP observations

Literature Implicitly Assumes:

But We See This:

Idea

One invention, operational

Reinvention, proliferation, reimplementation, discarding, and termination

People

An entrepreneur with fixed set of full-time people over time

Many entrepreneurs, distracted, fluidly engaging and disengaging over time in a variety of organizational roles

Transactions

Fixed network of people/firms working out details of an idea

Expanding and contracting network of partisan stakeholders diverging and converging on ideas

Context

Environment provides opportunities and constraints on innovation process

Innovation process constrained by and creates multiple enacted environments

Outcomes

Final result orientation; a stable new order comes into being

Final result may be indeterminate; multiple in-process assessments and spinoffs; integration of new orders with old

Process

Simple, cumulative sequence of stages or phases

From simple to multiple progressions of divergent, parallel, and convergent paths, some of which are related and cumulative, others not

Hatcher & Guerdat (2008 p. 1) defines the innovation as

Innovation can be thought of as an embodiment or synthesis of knowledge within an original and valued new approach, practice, service, product, or even theory. Innovation can be a breakthrough that is immediate, revolutionary, or radical, resulting in something that is absolutely new, departing from what is or is. Or it can take a long time to accomplish, be it evolutionary and incremental in nature, improving and building on existing knowledge. In either case, innovation is all about change. Technology-based organizations view innovative advances through the number of patents or expenditure on R&D as ways to account for innovation.

As shown in definitions of Kuczmarski, Van de Van & Angel and Hatcher & Guerdat, recent definition of innovation becomes more complex and interdisciplinary terminology.

The chronological change of innovation definitions and schools of innovation study are summarized in Table 5. It shows that the definition of innovation has historical interconnections, and it has evolved in various ways.

Table 4.

Definitions of Innovation in Literatures

Literature (Year)

Definition

Person

Object

Reason / Purpose

Space / Domain

Time

Action / Method

Schumpeter (1934, p. xix)

Commercial or industrial application of something new - a new product, process, or method of production; a new market or source of supply; a new form of commercial, business, or financial organization

Something new

New product, process method of production

New market

New source of supply

New form

Commercialize

Industrialize

Schumpeter (1939)

We will simply define an innovation as the setting up of a new production function

New production function

Setup

Lange (1943)

Innovations are such changes in production function, i.e., in the schedules indicating the relation between the input of factors of production and the output of products, which make it possible for the firm to increase the discounted value of the maximum effective profit obtainable under given market condition

Production function

Increase discounted value of profit

Market

Change

Schumpeter (1947)

The entrepreneur and his function are not difficult to conceptualize: the defining characteristic is simply the doing of new things or the doing of things that are already being done in a new way (innovation)

Entrepreneur

New things or New way

Do

Drucker (1954)

1. New products or services that are needed to attain marketing objectives

2. New products or services that will be needed because of technological changes that may make present products obsolete

3. Product improvements needed both to attain market objectives and to anticipate expected technological changes

4. New processes and improvements in old processes needed to satisfy market goals

5. Innovations and improvements in all major areas of activity so as to keep up with the advances in knowledge and skill

New product or services

Activities

Attain marketing objectives

Keep up with technology change, and

Knowledge and skill

Satisfy market goal

Improve

Satisfy

Keep up with

Continued

Literature (Year)

Definition

Person

Object

Reason / Purpose

Space / Domain

Time

Action / Method

Rogers (1962)

An innovation is an idea perceived as new by the individual…Innovation might include, for example, social movement, clothing fads, the twist, compact cars, and the steel ax….Most, but not all, innovations discussed here are technological innovations.

Freeman C. (1982)

Industrial innovation includes the technical, design, manufacturing, management and commercial activities involved in the marketing of a new (or improved) product or the first commercial use of a new (or improved) process or equipment

New (improved) product,

New (improved) process

Activities (technical, design, manufacturing, management, commercial)

Marketing

Kanter (1984)

Innovations, whether in products, market strategies, technological processes, or work practices, are designed not by machines but by people

People (not machines)

Product, market strategies, technological processes, work practices

Design

Drucker (1985)

Innovation is the specific tool of entrepreneurs, the means by which they exploit change as an opportunity for a different business or service. It is capable of being presented as a discipline, capable of being learned, capable of being practiced. Innovation, then, is an economic or social rather than a technical term. Innovation is a practice not science or arts

Entrepreneur

Different business or service

Exploit

Change

Learn

Practice

Rothwell & Gardiner (1985)

Innovation does not necessarily imply the commercialization of only a major advance in the technological state of the art (a radical innovation) but it includes also the utilization of even small-scale changes in technological know-how (an improvement or incremental innovation)

Technological state of the art

Technological know-how

Commercialize

Utilize

Porter (1990)

Companies achieve competitive advantage through acts of innovation. They approach innovation in its broadest sense, including both new technologies and new ways of doing things

Companies

Activity

New technology

New way of doing things

Achieve competitive advantage

Act, Approach

Continued

Literature (Year)

Definition

Person

Object

Reason / Purpose

Space / Domain

Time

Action / Method

Senge (1992)

Engineers say that a new idea has been “invented” when it is proven to work in the laboratory. The idea becomes an “innovation” only when it can be replicated reliably on a meaningful scale at practical costs. If the idea is sufficiently important it is called a “basic innovation,” and it creates a new industry or transforms an existing industry.

(Engineer – invention)

New idea

New industry

Existing industry

Replicated on a meaning scale at practical cost

Create

Transform

Lee S. (1999)

Innovation is the successful development and commercialization of new product, services, or business system. In many industries, innovation is the primary basis for competitive advantage and the principal driving force of industry structural change

New product, New service, business system

Develop, commercialize

Van de Ven & Angle (2000), p.3

Innovation requires more than the creative capacities to invent new ideas; it requires managerial skills and talents to transform good ideas into practice

Good ideas into practice

transform

Armstrong et al (2001)

The creation, development and introduction of new products/services or product/service components, or a new procedure or process for doing things to benefit one or more of the stakeholders in the organization. The product, service, procedure, or process need not be completely novel, but it must be new to the organization itself

New product

New service

New procedure

New process

Benefit of stakeholders

Create, develop, introduce

Kuczmarski (2003)

Innovation is a mindset. Innovation is the art of welcoming risk. Innovation is a key to gaining competitive advantage

Mindset

Gaining competitive advantage

Welcoming risk

Hender (2004)

The product, service, procedure, or process need not be completely novel, but it must be new to the organization itself

Product, service, procedure, process

New to the organization itself

UK department of trade and industry (2004)

Innovation is the successful exploitation of new ideas

New idea

Exploit

Continued

Literature (Year)

Definition

Person

Object

Reason / Purpose

Space / Domain

Time

Action / Method

Tidd (2005, p 7)

Entrepreneurs will seek to use technological innovation (a new product/service or a new process for making it) to get strategic advantage For a while this may be the only example of the innovation so the entrepreneur can expect to make a lot of money – what Schumpeter calls ‘monopoly profits’

Entrepreneurs

New product

New service

New process

Get strategic advantage

Discontinuous, but imperative

Hatcher & Guerdat (2008)

Innovation can be though of as an embodiment or synthesis of knowledge within an original and valued new approach, practice, service, product, or even theory. Innovation can be a breakthrough that is immediate, revolutionary, or radical, resulting in something that is absolutely new, departing from what is or is. Or it can take a long time to accomplish, be evolutionary and incremental in nature, improving and building on existing knowledge. In either case, innovation is all about change. Technology-based organizations view innovative advances through the number of patents or expenditure on R&D as ways to account for innovation.

New approach, practice, service, product, or even theory.

Knowledge

Patent

Expenditure of R&D

Immediate, revolutionary, radical or take long time

Improve

Build

* Remarks: UK department of Trade and industry (2004), Freeman (1982), Rothwell & Gardiner (1985), Drucker (1985), Porter (1990), Branson (1998) are excerpted from the book of Tidd’s ‘Managing Innovation’ (2005, P. 66)

Table 5.

Chronological Change of Innovation Definition and Schools of Innovation Study

Period

1930~40s

1950s

1960s

1980s

1990s

2000~

Schools

Economics

Management

Socio-technical change

Excellence

Competitive advantage

Integrative approach

Chronological Changes

Key phrase

Innovation is to get economic gain

Innovation is a management practice by integrating people, technical change, and knowledge

Innovation is a socio-technical change

Innovation is to achieve excellence through people and science & technology

Innovation is strategic approach to guarantee competitive advantage by learning and knowledge management

Innovation is an integrative approach , including psychological factor

New definition of innovation

A new definition of innovation can help utilize the full potential of people or an organization in achieving successful innovation.

From the definition of contemporary dictionaries, innovation is summarized as: creating, improving or introducing new ideas, new method or something new in technology or mind domain. However, it seems quite limited to utilize or address the whole potential of people or an organization in innovation processes or activities.

On the other hand, from the definitions of academic literatures, innovation can be synthesized as purposeful human activities of creating, synthesizing, and changing ideas, products, processes and services to achieve economic incentive or competitive advantages. But, still, this definition is not vividly addressing the strategic utilization of potential resources such as people, science & technology, social system, knowledge, environment and mind power.

Based on the proposed frame work (5W+1H), elements of new definition is suggested as Table 6.

Table 6

Elements of New Definition of Innovation

Categories

Key Elements

Person

Innovation leaders (e.g. Entrepreneur, Intrapreneur, Extrapreneur, Change agent, Change masters)

Object

New idea, product, process, service, and mindset

Reason / Purpose

To achieve economic value, sustainable competitive advantage, self-realization

Space / Domain

In a complex, non-linear, dynamic social system

Time

Discontinuous (disruptive innovation)

Action / Method

By strategic integrating and practicing people, knowledge, and Science & Technology

Person. Innovation is practiced by dedicated innovation leaders such as entrepreneurs, intrapreneurs, extrapreneurs, change agents, or change masters (Hender, 2004; Kanter, 1983; Rogers, 1962). As Pinchot & Pellman (1999 p. 16) suggested, innovation could not happen unless someone took on the innovation leadership role. Even though many people participates in the innovation activity, there is at least one dedicated innovation leader who persists it at the end and it is a necessary condition to realize innovation. Therefore, we can say that innovation is made by innovation leader(s).

Object and Action / Method. Innovation is strategic activities of integrating and practicing people, knowledge and science & technology to exploiting, creating or transforming new ideas, products, processes, services and mindsets. As Kuczmarki insisted (2003) that “a truly innovative organization has developed a mindset that permeates every aspect of its business. That is because innovation is a pervasive attitude, a feeling, an emotional state, an ongoing commitment to newness. It is a set of values that represents a belief in seeing beyond the present and making that vision a reality.” Therefore, objects of innovation are not only tangible or intangible resources such as new ideas, products, processes or services but also the mindset.

Reason / Purpose. The purpose of innovation is gaining economic value, sustainable competitive advantage and self-realization of innovation leaders. According to Lee (2005 p. 210), many entrepreneurs started their business not only for tracing economic incentives but also for realizing the ‘self’ or achieving the dream. So, self-realization is one of the critical reasons of innovation.

Space (Domain) and Time. Innovation occurs in a complex, non-linear and dynamic social system along with discontinuous time set. In Van de Ven’s article, Foster (2008) he summarized the domain of innovation as “a complex, non-linear, dynamic process.”

Meanwhile, Hatcher & Guerdat (2008) presented the time of innovation as immediate, revolutionary, radical or takes long time, and it can be translated into “discontinuity” which is the major source of innovation(1997 pp. 18~40).

In sum, innovation can be newly defined as Innovation leader(s)’s strategic activities of integrating and practicing people, knowledge and science & technology of exploiting, creating or transforming new ideas, products, processes, servicse and mindsets to achieve economic values, sustainable competitive advantages as well as self-realization in a complex, non-linear and dynamic social system along with discontinuous time set.

Discussion

Role of HRD for Innovation

According to the new definition of innovation, developing innovation capability and innovation leaders are two crucial factors in achieving innovation success.

Hender (2004) categorized the types of innovation leader(s) into 1) Intrapreneur, 2) Entrepreneur, and 3) Extrapreneur. Intrapreneurs turn ideas into realities inside the organization. Entrepreneur develops the product or service into a money-making proposition. Extrapreneurs are leaders of venture process team or individual venture, who places externally-generated ideas into business. She also characterized seven imperative capabilities of innovation leaders: creating a climate for innovation; recruiting for innovation; team building; managing innovation teams; developing skills; and finding and working with supporters. Then we have to ask the question, “How can we develop innovation capabilities in people?

McLean & McLean (2001) defined human resource development (HRD) as: “HRD is any process or activity that, either initially or over the long-term, has the potential to develop adults, work-based knowledge, expertise, productivity, and satisfaction, whether for personal or group/team gain, or for the benefit of an organization, community, nation, or, ultimately, the whole of humanity.” McLean (2005) identified the importance of organization culture which can be developed or moderated by HRD to foster creativity and innovation performance. Foster (2008) stated, “The role of HRD in innovation includes developing human capacity and cultivating an organization environment conducive to innovation.” He then suggested HRD interventions to promote efficiency of innovation process based on Van de Ven’s MIRP innovation journey model.

Therefore, HRD can take a crucial role for innovation by developing innovation capabilities, innovation leader(s) in an organization, and cultivating new organizational culture that are conductive to innovation.

Systems Approach of HRD for Innovation

A systems approach of HRD can be applied to developing innovation capability and innovation leader(s).

According to Swanson (2001), “systems theory captures the complex and dynamic interactions of environments, organization, work process and group/individual variables operating at any point in time and over time.” Instead of defining systems theory, he described it in scope and meaning. The scope of systems theory is composed of four fields: general systems theory, cybernetics, chaos theory and complex adaptive systems. He also categorized the meaning into ontology: the nature of the world and systems; and an epistemology: a way to view the world; a unifying theory (R. A. Swanson & Holton, 2001 pp. 114~116). Swanson insisted that if HRD professionals or researchers agreed that they serve those in organizations, they should adopt the science of systems.

In addition, a systems approach can provide more rigorous and practical evaluation and measurement of HRD interventions for innovation (Wang, Dou, & Li, 2002). In comparison with the systems model, process model lacks empirical research to substantiate their validity, and have simple unitary progression of phases or stages of development over time (Van de Ven et al., 2000 pp. 108~113). As Cheng (1996) said a systems approach was appropriate to analyze non-linear and dynamic patterns of innovation, and it was effective to study a complex, nonlinear and dynamic HRD for innovation.

According to the proposed new definition of innovation and roles of HRD, innovation capability and innovation leaders should be developed by HRD professionals and researchers to help achieve innovation goals in a dynamic social system.

By the way, we have to ask how the system based HRD study can contribute to promoting innovation. A cross-section of the systems leg of the three-legged stool was proposed by Swanson & Holton (2001 pp. 117~118). The model was composed of: 1) information-knowledge or data about systems, 2) capabilities – the potential to act, and 3) direction-guidance for fields’ activities and development. They described systems theory for HRD as, “the primary goal of systems theory is to uncover information about systems.” The systems approach can provide HRD with capabilities - the potential to act as well as serve as a guiding force that offers direction for a discipline’s activities and future.

Therefore, systems approach HRD can be said to be capable of addressing the development of innovation capability and leadership as well as change organizational culture.

Innovation Capability Model

Lawson & Sampson (2001) defined innovation capability as “the ability to continuously transform knowledge and ideas into new products, processes and systems for the benefit of the firm and its stakeholders,” and they explained dynamic innovation capability as, “a higher-order integration capability, that is, the ability to mold and manage multiple capabilities. Organizations possessing this innovation capability have the ability to integrate key capabilities and resources of their firm to successfully stimulate innovation.”

They adopted the resource base view (RBV) approach of strategic management of innovation capability and explained it as “RBV assumes that performance differences across firms are due to differences arising from valuable, rent-generating, firm specific resources and capabilities that cannot be easily imitated or substituted.” By combining resource base view of strategic management and dynamic capability model, an integrated model of innovation capability was proposed as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Model of Innovation Capability

Although the model of innovation capability comes from the empirical case study of CISCO, it has some limitations with regards to HRD point of view.

First, the model did not explain the mechanism of learning for innovation in an organization. Authors proposed that learning occurs when an organization interact with customers and competitors. But learning for innovation does not only occur by communicating externally but also interacting internally. Internalization of learning is as important as external learning.

Second, the model did not specifically address the motivation and psychological factors in innovation process. Authors addressed the motivation with respect to extrinsic compensation approach. But intrinsic motivation or psychological compensation should be addressed to explain the motivation of innovation.

Third, authors did not explain the relationship between innovation capability and applying it into the real world. Innovation capability can not guarantee the success of innovation. Innovation leaders should be counted on the most critical factor of practicing or realizing innovation by integrating and utilizing innovation capabilities. In this sense, new innovation capability model which has strong bases of theoretical bases and empirical studies is required to address HRD for innovation.

According to expectancy theory (Vroom, 1964), performance can be described as the function of ability and motivation.

The relationship between ability and motivation is multiplication, which means both of them are necessary for performance.

Lewin (1951) proposed the field theory to explain the human behavior. According to Lewin’s model, human behavior can be described as a function of the person and the environment.

DeSimone et al (1998) described the trainability in HRD as function of motivation, ability and perceptions of the work environment.

However, socio-technical theory proposed the socio-technical system which have two fundamental premises: 1) organization/work unit is combined with social and technical system 2) socio-technical system is open in relation to its environment. (Cummings & Worley, 2004 pp. 340~341). The socio-technical system (or STS) is applied to improving organizational performances by integrating social context of people and technical work design. The importance of socialization is supported by Korte’s empirical research (2008). He described that “socialization is an important development strategy for organizations looking to increase the capacity of their work, improve their competitive advantage and develop future capabilities by bringing new talents into the organization in the form of current and potential expertise.”

In sum, innovation capability is a function of technical skills of people, motivation, social ability and perception of environment.

A new systems approach model of HRD for innovation, then, is proposed as Figure 2. As Drucker (2002) proposed, the inputs of innovation were three outside factors and four inside factors. In addition to the Drucker’s innovation source, initial innovation capability is included the model. A firm’s outputs are divided into four elements: economic performances, competitive advantage, self-realization, and reinforced innovation capability. Innovation leadership is also included the model to explain the transformation of innovation capability into real innovation. Feedback process is also crucial for innovation process to reinforce innovation capability.

Figure 2.

A Systems Approach Model of HRD for Innovation

Conclusions and further researches

This paper proposed 1) a new definition of innovation for HRD study, 2) roles of HRD for innovation, and 3) the construct of a systems approach model of HRD study for innovation.

The new definition of innovation addressed cultivating new opportunities for HRD professionals and researchers by providing multi facets of HRD study in innovation. Suggested HRD roles for innovation were anticipated that it would be useful to deepen the knowledge of HRD capability for studying innovation.

The proposed systems approach model of HRD for innovation requires further research in identifying and refining measures for different forms or degrees of innovation capability. For example, there may be different emphasis on elements required for innovation capability development versus innovation leadership development. This would provide a fuller picture of innovation within organizations and more specific strategies for developing human resources. The innovation capability construct has the potential to be developed to make a significant contribution in furthering the knowledge of human resource development of innovation.

Next step, the researcher will address 1) constructing a refined model, 2) developing hypotheses and instrument to evaluation validity and effectiveness of the model, and 3) conducting an empirical study to address strategic innovation leadership development.

Reference

Cheng, Y., & van de Ven,Andrew H. (1996). Learning the innovation journey: Order out of chaos? Organization Science, 7(6), 593-614.

Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2004). Organization development and change Thomson South-Western.

DeSimone, R. L., Werner, J. M., & Harris, D. M. (1998). Human resource development Dryden Press Fort Worth.

Drucker, P. F. (1954). The practice of management. NY 10022: HarperCollins Publisher, Inc.

Drucker, P. F. (2002). The discipline of innovation. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80(Issue 8), 95-101.

Foster, R. D. (2008). Role of HRD in the innovation journey.(Midwest Academy of Management), Retrieved from http://www.midwestacademy.org/Proceedings/2006/papers/paper28.pdf

Ha, T. S., Jung, J. H., & Oh, S. Y. (2006). Method to analyze user behavior in home environment. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 10(2), 110-121.

Hatcher, T., & Guerdat, K. (2008). Where is innovation in HRD research? Human Resource Development Quarterly, 19(1), 1.

Hender, J. (2004). Innovation leadership: Key roles in context., http://www.portfoliocomms.co.uk/userfiles/Innovation%20Leadership.pdf.

Kanter, R. M. (1983). The change masters: Innovations for productivity in the american corporation (1st ed.). NY: Simon and Schuster.

Korte, R. (2008). A case study of the socialization of newly hired engineers: How new engineers learn the social norms of an organization. Academy of Human Resource Development, Proceeding, 973.

Kuchinke, K. P. (1999). Leadership and culture: Work-related values and leadership styles among one company's U.S. and german telecommunication employees. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 10(2), 135.

Kuczmarski, T. D. (2003). What is innovation? and why aren’t companies doing more of it? Journal of Consumer Marketing, 20(6), 536-541.

Lange, O. (1943). A note on innovations. The Review of Economic Statistics, 25(1), 19-25.

Lawson, B., & Samson, D. (2001). Developing innovation capability in organisations: A dynamic capabilities approach. International Journal of Innovation Management, 5(3), 377.

Lee, S. J. (1999). Corporate strategy (9th ed.). Seoul, Korea: Sigma Insight Group.

Lee, S. J. (2004). Growth strategy: A conceptual framework KDI, School of Public Policy and Management.

Lee, S. J. (2005). Strategic leadership (1st ed.). Seoul, Korea: Sigma Insight Group.

Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers (D. cartwright, ed.). New York: Harpers,

McKinsey & Company. (2008). How companies approach innovation: A McKinsey global survey.(April 01), 04/01/2008. Retrieved from http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Strategy/Innovation/How_companies_approach_innovation_A_McKinsey_Global_Survey_2069

McLean, G., & McLean, L. (2001). If we can't define HRD in one country, how can we define it in another? Human Resource Development International, 4(3)

McLean, L. D. (2005). Organizational culture's influence on creativity and innovation: A review of the literature and implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(2), 226.

Peters, T. J., & Waterman, R. H. (1982). In search of excellence. New York, 1, 982.

Pinchot, G., & Pellman, R. (1999). Intrapreneuring in action: A handbook for business innovation Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. New York, 896

Rogers, E. M. (1962). Diffusion of innovations The Free Press of Glencoe.

Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous technological change. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), S71-102.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). Theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle. Half-Title: Harvard Economic Studies, (46)

Schumpeter, J. A. (1939). Business cycles: A theoretical, historical, and statistical analysis of the capitalist process McGraw-Hill.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1947). The creative response in economic history. The Journal of Economic History, 7(2), 149-159.

Senge, P. M. (1992). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization Century Business.

Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F. (2001). Foundations of human resource development Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Swanson, R. A. (2001). Human resource development and its underlying theory. Human Resource Development International, 4(3), 299.

Tidd, J., Bessant, J. R., & Pavitt, K. (1997). Managing innovation: Integrating technological, market and organizational change Wiley.

Van de Ven, A. H., Angle, H. L., & Poole, M. S. (2000). Research on the management of innovation: The minnesota studies Oxford University Press, USA.

Vera, D., & Crossan, M. (2004). Strategic leadership and organizational learning. Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 222-240.

Vicere, A. A. (1992). The strategic leadership imperative for executive development. Human Resource Planning, 15(1), 15-31.

Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation Wiley New York.

Wang, G. G., Dou, Z., & Li, N. (2002). A systems approach to measuring return on investment for HRD interventions. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13(2), 203-224.

Dictionaries (Online dictionaries, retrieved on April 01 2008):

Britanica: http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9367999

Meriam-Webster: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/innovation

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?dict=CALD&key=40920&ph=on

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English online http://www.ldoceonline.com/

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: http://www.bartleby.com/61/32/I0153200.html

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    Your blog is really helps for my search and i really like it.. Thanks a lot..:)

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Reaction Paper #3

 

Japan: S&T Strength and weaknesses in the 21st century (Ed Lincoln, NYU)

Perspective on technology innovation: Korean experience (Yongrak Choi, KORP)

Anticarcinogenic function of selenium (An-Sik Chung, KAIST)

April 24, 2008


 

Identical Twin or Fraternal Twin?

 

(Comparative study of National Innovation Strategy of Japan, S. Korea, Taiwan and Singapore)

 

National innovation systems (NIS) of Asian countries have many similarities. Wong (1999) described the similarities of these countries that 1) political stability during their economic developing stage, 2) prudent macroeconomic policies, 3) export-orientation industrial policy, 4) public policies leading to high savings rate and 5) heavy investment in human resource development. Especially, these countries’ high R&D expenditure rate and strong human capital in science & technology fields are taking a top position in the world as shown in the figure 1.

사용자 삽입 이미지

Figure 1  Comparison of R&D among OECD countries

Source: World Bank (http://www1.worldbank.org/devoutreach/january07/article.asp?id=395)

 

However, are there any differences among these countries’ NIS? How can we categorize them in groups based on their similarities and differences?

According to Wong (1999)’s analyses of Japan and newly industrialized economy (NIE) countries in Asia, two main stream of technological capability development routes are implemented in these countries: 1) reverse product life cycle and 2) reverse value chain (refer to table 1).

Table 1 Comparison of National Innovation Strategy of Japan and NIE

 

Japan

Korea

Taiwan

Singapore

Period of rapid growth

1980s

1990s

1990s

1990s

NIS model

Large Firm Vertical Integration Model

Large Firm Internalization

Model

SME-PRI Innovation Network

Model

DFI-Leveraging Model

Technology Catch-up strategy

Reverse Product Life Cycle (1960s~70s)

Reverse Product Life Cycle (1980s~90s)

Reverse Value Chain Strategy, followed by Process Specialist

Process Specialist Strategy, followed by Reverse Value Chain Strategy on a

smaller scale

 

Identical Twin (Japan and Korea: reverse product life cycle)

The reverse product life cycle strategy for national innovation system is focusing on developing technology capability of “supplying new end products” by cultivating human capital of applied science and engineering. For example, Japan and Korea have focused on developing engineering capability than basic science capability for innovation (Lincoln & Choi’s lecture, 2008), in consequence, they have very similar industrial structure. Vertically integrated industrial structure and national champion strategy were practiced to develop new “competitive products” which are marketable in developed countries. The advantages of this industrial structure are reducing transaction cost and prevent unnecessary competition in domestic market and focusing on international market. By protecting their domestic market with high tariff and trade barriers, Japanese and Korean national champions (e.g. Chaebol) were guaranteed their monopoly or oligopoly benefit in their domestic market for their ‘end products’ and based on this sustainable and high benefits, they have focused on cultivating their technical competencies for developing new products for international market. For example, electronic industry was cultivated in this ways. During 1970’s Japanese electronic companies (e.g. Matushida, Sharp, Toshiba) shared exclusive benefits in domestic market with transistor radio, tape recorder, color TV, and white home appliances. Based on accumulated capital in domestic market, these national champions collaborated with government to develop a new generation end-product: Memory and high-tech electronic devices. Japanese government took an important role to develop new generation technology by providing exclusive patent policy for global competitor and moderating knowledge transferring to domestic players. Then, Japanese electronic corporations developed new generation of memory and they started selling this new ‘end-product’ to global market with great success.

On the other hand, Korea also practiced very similar innovation strategy during 1980’s and early 1990’s in electronic industry. Samsung, Goldstar (currently LG), Daewoo, and Hyundai took over electronic technology from governmental research centers (e.g. ETRI) and started their laboratory level research. However, by collaborating with Japanese companies and Korean government supports, these Korean chaebols concentrated implementing “new generation of production line.” Due to the lacks of technological capability for developing end products, Korean companies invested to new production line to catch up with the production technology based on their “reverse product life cycle” strategy. Instead of developing whole product life cycle, they focused on the “production” itself since they have cheap and skilled engineers and labor workers. Similar to the Japanese case, or somewhat more actively, Korean government also helped national champions to cultivate their technology competences for developing new end-products. For instance, during the economic crisis on 1998, Korean government forced to merging and restructuring electronic industry. LG & Hyundai merged and became Hynix and Samsung should move their automotive plants to keep memory plants, and Daewoo electronics were sold out to foreign investors. From these chaotic restructuring processes, Korean government built up two major memory producers (Samsung & Hynix), LCD producers (Samsung & LG-Philips), Mobile producers (Samsung & LG), and Telecommunication companies (SK & KT). Consequently, these newly dressed up national champions developed their own products by utilizing their production line technology and merged into global market.

 

Fraternal Twin (Taiwan and Singapore: reverse value chain)

             Compared with large vertically integrated industry development with reverse product life cycle strategy of Japan and Korea, Taiwan and Singapore have developed their innovation capability by focusing on reverse value chain strategy.

             Wong (1998) described Taiwan industrialization process as evolving OEM, ODM, OBM and OIM which can explain the effort of developing reverse value chain strategy and innovation capability for developing it. .

It is by now well known that Taiwanese firms were among the first and largest OEM subcontractors to many firms from the advanced countries in a wide range of industries, ranging from bicycle assembly to electronics and computer assembly. Over time, Taiwanese OEM firms had also made significant progress into ODM activities, particularly in the PC-related industries. An increasing number of Taiwanese ODM firms had also gone on to become OBMs, good examples being ACER in PCs, and Giant in bicycles. It is indeed fair to say that it is the Taiwanese that have invented the ODM and OBM concept, and more recently, the concept of OIM as well. A significant number of Taiwanese firms have also pursued the Process Specialist route.

Nowadays, this reverse value chain strategy is widely adopted in China. China is a world largest OEM, ODM provider and the effectiveness of the strategy is proven. The advantages of this strategy are 1) developing innovation capability in a short time, 2) hedging risks of developing end products (e.g. sales & marketing) and 3) less initial investment for innovation.

             In Singapore, the reverse value chain strategy is more directly controlled by government. Singapore government encouraged Multi-national-companies (MNC) to install their manufacturing line in Singapore than get OEM or OEM product itself. The encouragement of subcontract with MNC is to develop Process Specialists among local firms.

 

Challenges of Identical Twin and Fraternal Twin

             In a vertically integrated national champion system, the most challenging thing for developing innovation capability is limitation of cultivating innovative human capital. As Dr. Choi pointed out during the lecture, Korean government and Chaebols almost monopolize the valuable resources and human capital for innovation. New technology entrepreneurs frequently encounter a lot of regulations which are not favor to them. For example, the Keiretzu system deters the free competition in high technology products in domestic market. Many small and medium sized MP3 player manufacturers had to abandon their business for dumping practice of national champion’s keiretzu company, and they had to turn their eyes to global market where they don’t have strong specialization. In addition, many valuable technology researchers and engineers don’t want to go SME or start their own business for the unfairness of domestic market. Eventually, this national champion and keiretzu supply chain strategy is harmful to leap up the innovation capability of the country. This can be proved by the small number of enterprising activities in research institute or universities in Japan and Korea. Even though they spend a lot of money to develop and drive enterprising activities, the innovation activities in research and high tech engineering field would not be increased, if the industrial structure would not be flattened and the rules of competition would not be fair in domestic market.

             The biggest challenge for reverse value chain strategy is hard to get “economy of scale” advantage. The practice of OEM/ODM/OBM/OIM means highly dependent on large MNCs. The specialized value chain means ‘fragmentation’ of industrial structure. In this situation, it is not easy to consolidate the resources for innovation. In an under-structured industry, human capital development for large scale innovation is not easy to achieve for its limitation of resources.

 

Time to balance

             Reverse product life cycle and reverse value chain strategy for innovation have their own strengths and weaknesses. However, those systems have common pitfall in developing human capital for sustainable innovation. In product life cycle strategy practicing countries like Japan and Korea, vertically integrated and oligopoly industrial structure prohibits the creative activities of potential innovators, meanwhile reverse value chain strategy practicing countries (Taiwan and Singapore) have limitation of resource allocation for innovators.

             Recently, these identical twin and fraternal twin is evolving into integration innovation strategy. Japan & Korea is investing a lot to developing new frontier technology as well as they promote fair competition in their domestic market and global market. Taiwan and Singapore is trying to develop their own technological capability by adopting many foreign educated human resources. Then, we can say that it’s time to balancing their national innovation system to leap up again as a global innovator.

             A healthy forest is composed with diverse plants. Big trees (national champions), small and medium size plants (SMEs) and grasses (Entrepreneurs) are altogether making a healthy forest. Even though Japan and Asian NIE countries strategy were different, their objective is only one: Developing their country as holistically healthy one as a healthy forest.

             Through the CAS 587 classes and lectures, I have learned that innovation is very hard and tough one but it deserve to study and practice to develop a country. Although there are lots of different strategies with according to different resource limitation in each different countries, their objective of practicing innovation is only one that developing a country, an organization or a person as a holistically healthy one, then we have to continue learning from others to develop and keep our healthy economy.

 

References

 

Wong, P.K., 1999. National Innovation Systems for Rapid Technological Catch-up: An analytical framework and a comparative analysis of Korea, Taiwan and Singapore, Centre for Management of Innovation & Technopreneurship, National University of Singapore


Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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Reaction Paper #2

 

Starting a biomedical research institute in Korea

(KAIST Improvement of Biological Science in Korea)

 

Mar. 06 2008


 

“Pali-Pali”: Passion or Hastiness

(Fast Improvement of Biological Science in Korea)

 

Social and cultural factors, such as the aggressive mentality of the Korean people, high awareness of the challenges of globalization and political as well as historical contexts played the decisive role in its dynamic acceptance of new technologies (Aizu, 2002). The term “Pali-Pali: fast-fast”, explains the basic psychological and behavioral pattern of Korean people. In addition, Korean homogeneous and group oriented social context lead them into pursuing or catching up a certain trend. In the realm of innovation diffusion, these mentalities induce the fierce competition or fast reproduction in the society (Lau, 2005).

 

As one of returning sea-turtles from the U.S. (Biology Ph.D. degree from Chicago University on 1982), Dr. Ook-Jun Yoo has made a successful innovation of biology science in Korea. Chronologically his innovation activities can be categorized into five different stages: Burgeoning, Knowledge transfer, From quantity to quality, From laboratory to industry, and Lucrative future.

 

Burgeoning (1982~1991)

             When Dr. Yoo returned Korea as a new and young talented faculty member at KAIST, he realized that many enemies were waiting for him. Enemies are fierce political power games with government officers who would practice science/technology policy and peer researchers in Korean academia. He also struggled with the negative perception of scientists & engineers in the society. He counterstroke these challenges with establishing basic infrastructure and renovating Korean academy of bio-medical by using his advanced knowledge in the field and collaboration with the U.S. institutes. Whenever he had a chance to visit U.S. biological institutes, he bought new equipments which were new to Korea and cultivated strong relationships with top scientists. The strong relationship with top scientists and state-of-the-arts knowledge gave him an authority in Korean academy. Then he focused on setting up a good biological laboratory and ground rules in academia.

 

Knowledge transferring (1992~1998)

             During 1990’s, Korea enjoyed economic bubble and globalization. Korean government opened the gate of trade and education to general public on 1992 and this act induced a lot of passion for foreign products and education opportunities. Koreans could compare their products and services with directly imported ones and fierce competition was started in Korean market. R&D was not apart from this wild wind. Many top talented young scientists and engineers went to foreign countries to look for better research opportunities. In parallel with this fandom, R&D budget was dramatically increasing to catch up with developed countries and beat Asian competitors like Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong (called Asian Four Dragon). Dr. Yoo established Biomedical Workshop on 1992 to meet the need of advanced foreign technology in Korea and it made a great success for diffusing the new technology not only in academia but also in bio-medical industry. He trained more than 1,120 young Korean medical doctors and they became the foundation of building up the “Bio-Medical Research Center; now the biggest biomedical research center in Korea” on 1996. According to Rogers (1962, pp 254~284), the diffusion of innovation is highly dependent on “Change Agent”

 

Through out the world, the “developing countries” are attempting in a relatively brief span of time to narrow the gap between themselves and those nations with a richer technology and a higher standard of living. To achieve this, they are launching and carrying forward nation-wide programs of change and are inviting from outside thousands of specialist to strengthen these programs… It is sometimes assumed that understanding the change-agent role in any program for social change means the ability to apply techniques of change or to speak glibly of the strategy of change. This is a part of the role, to be sure, but only a narrow part… thus far, techniques and strategy have not usually been considered in their effects upon other programs… or in their effects upon other aspects of life than the one to which action is directed

 

As a change agent of Bio-medical innovation in Korea, Dr. Yoo engaged himself into the outreach programs and built up strong consensus among researchers and his action as a change agent was compensated by the strong commitment of young talented researchers and Korean government. Then, bio-medical research was boomed in Korea during the time.

 

From Quantity to Quality (1999~2004)

On 1998, the economic bubble was burst and Korea experienced a dramatic recession. However, when Korean government assessed the root cause of it, he found out that the economic crisis comes from the poor quality of social systems. Newly elected president and leading companies had focused on improving the quality of every social system including R&D. Especially, total R&D budget from national budget was surpassed 3% on 1999, and this showed that Korean society focused on building up strong competencies in R&D field to overcome the economic crisis by using technology innovations. As a moderator of Korean biomedical academy, Dr. Yoo changed the assessment system for researchers. He emphasized the quality of publications by weighing publication scores which were published in qualified international journals like Nature, Cell and Science.

             Changing the assessment system made a corner stone for biomedical research activities, many researchers focus on not only the quantity but also the quality of their research.

 

From Laboratory to Industry (2005~2008)

Commercialization is the key activity in an innovation. Dr. Yoo established GenExel, the world largest transgenic Drosophila library on 2005 and it was listed on KOSTAQ (Korean version of NASDAQ). He believes that research outputs should be commercialized to sustain the future research capabilities. By strong support from Korean government, the company is focusing in developing new biological drugs including humanized anti-bodies and encouraging innovation activities of researchers by running animal model facility.

 

Lucrative future?

Founding the Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering in KAIST on 1999, the Korean biomedical innovation actions seems have a lucrative future. The institute gathered top bio-medical scientists and engineers from all over the world taking a role of brain sink for returning sea turtles. In addition, a research oriented hospital, named Pappalardo will be established on 2011. The hospital will be a big test bench for new anti-body drugs and it will be one of the a core research cluster at Dae-deok region. However, Dr. Yoo is not underestimating the challenges. He pointed out three major challenges of bio-medical innovation in Korea.

First, he concerned about poor research integrity in Korea. Since Dr. Hwang Woo Suk’s research misconduct on human embryo stem cell, Korea has tried building up systemic screening systems and a few months ago the system screened out big research misconducts in KAIST. However, due to the fierce competition of bio-medical research and development in Korea, the screen system usually not well functioned.

Second, unstructured grant design discourage the innovation capability. Although the R&D budget of Korea will reach more than 4.5% on 2011, Dr. Yoo is worrying about the grant structures in Korea. Many grants are provided to Promising researches but not to basic and creative ones. He is proposing a basic principle: “Opportunity for talent, Security for potential,” but the grant providers (usually Korean government) are skeptical to investing basic and creative researches.

Third, Dr. Yoo is worrying about bad perception of being a Scientist or Engineer in Korea. During the economic crisis, many R&D personnel were laid-off, and it gave a big negative impact to Korean society. Many math/science talented students don’t want to study nature science or engineering fearing about poor job security and low compensation. In addition, he confessed that it’s very hard to recruit top tier scientists and engineers who are now studying or working in developed countries. Many Korean sea turtles are abandoning returning to their home not because of their motivation but the poor chances and living conditions.

             But he is seeing a bright side. When he published a easy handbook book to spread the bio-medical knowledge for general public, he got a great amount of recognition from young students. His book motivated them and they decided to study the bio-medical science. He strongly suggests many scientists and engineers should try reducing the gap between general public and them.

 

Discussion

From Dr. Yoo’s session, I realized that Biomedical innovation activities are quite successful but it also bear some flaws. The “Pali-Pali: Fast-Fast” culture in Korea catalyzed the compact and compressed growth of innovations. Homogeneous and group oriented social context encouraged making a social consensus for innovation, which accelerates the diffusion of innovations. But this fast growth come along with 1) focusing on short-term output, 2) separation from general public, 3) inequality among researchers which can undermine future innovation capabilities.

             So, change-agent who hopes to make a successful innovation should consider their critical roles in an innovation action as well as the social impacts of their activities. Dr. Yoo’s case proves it.

 

Summary of Workshop

 

Chronology of Korean Bio-Tech Innovation

Stage

Period

Policy & Fund

Key Activities

Burgeoning

1982 ~ 1991

-        R&D budget $230 mil. (1.6% from national budget)

-        Maximum Grant for Bio scientist ($9,000 / year)

-        Limited resources (No PCR instrument, No basic understanding about DNA technology)

-        Concerned about the number of international journal publication

-      Established basic infrastructure

l      Importing basic instrument from the U.S.

l      Sustaining research networks with the U.S. University

-      Renovate Korean Bio-medical academy

l      Networking with peer researchers in the field

l      Setup rigorous academic evaluation

Knowledge transferring

1992~1998

-        R&D budget overcome 2% from national budget

-        1992, Start BMW (Biomedical Workshop)

-        1994, First grant from Government for Bio-technology

-        Concern about the number of SCI publication

-        Transferring bio-medical knowledge to Korean Medical Doctors through national-wide five day molecular biology training course workshop

-        Since 1992, more than 1,120 medical doctors participated the course and got knowledge about advanced bio-technology

-        Based on a success of this workshop, BioMedical Research center planned on 1996

From Quantity to Quality

1999~2004

-        R&D budget overcome 3% from national budget

-        Concern about the “Impact factor” of journals

-        Focused on recruiting top-tier Korean scientists and engineers

-        The BioMedical research center was established on KAIST campus on 1999

-        Encouraging publishing at qualified academic journal which have high impact factors

From laboratory to industry

2005~2008

-        R&D budget overcome 4% from national budget

-        Strengthened the research integrity after SNU’s misconduct

-        Government announced the Biotech is one of the new technology for future for Korea

 

-        Established GenExel (world’s largest transgenic Drosophila library)

-        Listed KOSDAQ

-        Developing new biologic drugs including humanized antibodies

-        Integrating research outputs from laboratory and industrial innovation

Lucrative future

 

-        2011, the R&D budget will reach 4.5% from national budget

-        Graduate School of BioMedical Science and Engineering

-        Pappalardo hospital

 

 

References

 

Aizu, I., 2002. A Comparative Study of Broadband in Asia: Deployment and Policy. RIETI, http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/events/02042201/report_1.html (retrieved October 5, 2003)

Lau, T., Kim, S. W., & Atkin, D. (2005). An examination of factors contributing to south Korea’s global leadership in broadband adoption. Telematics and Informatics, 22(4), 349-359.

Roger, E., 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Free Press, Chap IX.


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Reaction Paper #1

 

Science and Technology Studies in China: The Question of “Innovation”

Langdon Winner (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)

Jan 24 2008


 

Summary of Workshop

 

l       China is going to get own capacity of innovation

l       China’s new vision: 1) Endogenous innovation, 2) Harmonious development

l       Political constrains in Chinese schools (Curriculum and contents are restricted)

l       RPI’s “Think out of Box” education in Science & Engineering

l       Who is an Innovator?

n        Careful study of external/internal environment

n        Fine strategy

n        And then break it

l       Democratic social system is required to cultivate and sustain the innovation capacity in China

n        Innovation comes from strong interaction with “End-users”

n        Creativity and cooperation are the key “terms”

n        Participatory practice in Science & Engineering is recommendable to China

 

 

Does China Need Democratizing HRD to Improve Innovation Capability?

 

Quality of Personnel is one of the key factors in Innovation process. Drucker (2002) suggested in his article “Discipline of innovation” that innovation requires knowledge, ingenuity, and concentration. But on top of these requirements, there are prerequisites such as hard working, focused view, and purposeful vision. He pointed out if there is no diligence, persistence, and commitment, innovation can not be achieved at all. Pearson (2002) believes productive innovation – the kind that actually makes a company more competitive – arises from disciplines practiced by only human resources are more important than any other resources. Schumpeter J. (Edited by Clemson, the Essay, 1954) said whenever the economy or an industry or some firms in an industry do something else in a new way, outside of the range of existing practice, we may say it as a creative response:

 

Creative response has at least three essential characteristics. First, from the standpoint of the observer who is in full possession of all relevant facts, it can always be understood ex post; but it can practically never be understood ex ante; that is to say, it cannot be predicted by applying the ordinary rules of inference from the pre-existing fact … creative response-the frequency of its occurrence in a group, its intensity and success or failure-has obviously something, be that much or little, to do (a) with quality of the personnel available in a society, (b) with relative quality of personnel, that, with quality available to a particular field of activity relative to quality available, at the same time, to others, and (c) with individual decisions, actions, and patterns of behavior.

 

As described by Drucker, Pearson and Schumpeter, the most important resource for innovation is the human beings. Specifically the most valuable human resource for making new products or processes – more focused on the tangible innovation – is scientist and engineer. So, we can say the quality of scientists and engineers decides the level of innovation capability of organizations or countries. In this sense, cultivating qualified innovation leaders, usually who comes from various science and engineering field, is quite critical to increase the innovation capability.

 

What is the problem of Human Resource in China?

 

Economist (Aug 16th 2007) reported the most concerning thing to make a business in China is “Shortage of qualified staff.” Other Human resource issues are also listed high in business person’s worry-lists such as “Staff Turn over,” ‘Wage inflation,” “Cultural and linguistic differences,” and “Intellectual-property theft.” In the same report, the survey result of successful HR initiatives in south-east Asia was also provided. The top five successful HR practices are

             1. Increased training

             2. Mentoring System

             3. Personal-development plans

             4. Raise wages at greater than market rated

             5. Subsidized education/schooling

Except the number 4, successful Human Resource practices in Asia are highly related with education, training and development to improve the quality of human resource.

사용자 삽입 이미지

Source: Economist (Aug. 16th 2007): Capturing Talents

 

HRD, the activity for improving the quality of human resource

 

As mentioned by Dr. Langdon Winner, the education is seemed the only one method to improve the quality of human resource. Especially the education over college level and workplace has direct influence to develop innovation capability. McLean & MacLean (2001) defines the Human Resource Development (HRD) as

HRD is any process or activity that, either initially or over the long-term, has the potential to develop adults, work-based knowledge, expertise, productivity, and satisfaction, whether for personal or group/team gain, or for the benefit of an organization, community, nation or ultimately the whole of humanity.

 

Conventionally, HRD have focused on Training & Development (T&D), Organization Development (OD), and Career Development (CD). But these days, as McLean’s new definition, HRD roles are expanded into strategic and national level to help improving the quality of human resources.


Another economist reports said that the “Talent War” had started and leaders in business as well as policy makers should concern about developing human resource in their country and sustaining it as much as they can to improve innovation capability in their organization or in their country. The left graph shows that the number of returnees of China has been highly increasing since 2000. This data support the report of Hannah Beech (Oct 30, 2006: Time International – Asia’s Great Science Experiment). Hannah questioned ‘Asian countries can be home to the next scientific revolution in her report’, and she concluded that it is positive for the power of high quality of scientists and engineers like returnees and strong support from policy makers.

사용자 삽입 이미지

Source: Economist (Oct. 07th 2006): The battle for brainpower

Then we can say the importance of HRD to improve quality of people for Innovation is highly emerging not only in developed countries but also in developing country from staff level to top executives and top science and engineering talents including policy makers

 

China needs more democratizing HRD in order to improve innovation capability

 

As taking a lunch with Dr. Winner, I asked a question “What China should do to develop future innovation leaders?” Then, he exemplified a young RPI graduate who participated in Siemens Management Program. Dr. Winner suggested that targeted and focused developing for young talents might be the answer for my question. But I though that it was not wrong in short-term but in the long-run China might need more democratic education and HRD practices to develop it’s innovation capability. My rationale for supporting democratic HRD comes from my own experience at management program in Europe (German MBA) and learning from Leadership Development Program in UIUC.

 

 

Targeted and Focused HRD can discourage motivation in whole level.

When I participated a management development program in Europe, it was a great opportunity for me. I could get tons of privilege stuffs from the company and I could get a chance to promote Executive in 5~6 years after completing the program. But I found a strong negative effect at whole level of organization. Young managers who were taking management development program were commonly selected from top-tier schools with strong GPAs and high Intellectual power, but when we started a real work we could feel “Isolation” from other level of employees. They counted for us as an “Alien” who had no interests on the organization or their life, and the fact discouraged ‘normal employees” to participate innovation activities. I awoke myself that even though a top talented people might effective to make a better bottom line for an organization, it could be very harmful for all level leadership development to draw participatory learning activities which were believe the core competency in knowledge economy.

 

Innovation leaders comes from all levels in an organization

Noel M. Tichy (2005) suggested a ’Teaching Organization’ to explain what is the core competency of winning organization. Dr. Jeff Flesher, a professor at UIUC HRE department, taught this concept by using GE’s Leadership development program case. General Electric is now accepted that it is one of the strongest/richest Leadership pipeline in the world. GE was totally transformed by Jack Welch, a UIUC alumni of Chemical Engineering, who devoted himself to establish the ‘Leadership development for all level.’ Jeff said the key success factor of GE leadership development is highly based on the ‘Democratic HRD practice’ with strong drive and teaching from the top. He added that democratic practice in an organization can encourage participation and it can lead the real innovation in all level.

 
Conclusion

 

From Dr. Langdon Winner’s lecture, I have learned three things. One, China is emerging not only in manufacturing but also in every industry. Two, China is on the tip of decision making: changing social system to improve their competency for innovation. Third, education is the key for innovation in all countries.

 

Although my question “How can we develop future innovation leaders” is not yet answered from the workshop, it motivated my research interest about innovation leadership development. I hope to continue this important research topic and someday have an answer at the end of this workshop series.

  

References

 

 

Clemence, R. V. (Ed.). (1951). Essays. "the creative response in economic history (reprinted from journal of ecnomic history, nov. 1947, 149~159)", edited by richard V. clemence. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley Press.

Drucker, P. F. (Aug., 2002). The discipline of innovation. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80(Issue 8), 95-101.

Economists (Oct. 07th 2006): The battle for brainpower

Economists (Aug. 16 2007). (Aug. 16th 2007): Capturing Talents

Pearson, A. E. (2002). Tough-minded ways to get innovative.(best of HBR 1988)

Gu S. & Lundvall B. (2006), China’s Innovation System and the Move towards harmonious growth and Endogenous Innovation, Innovation: management policy & practice, Vol. 8 , Issue 1-2, July 2006

McLean G., and McLean L (2001). If We Can’ts Define HRD in One Country, How Can We Define It in an International Context?, Human Resource Development International, Volume 4, Issue 3 September 2001 , pages 313 - 326

Tichy, N (2005). , The Leadership Engine: How winning companies build leaders at every level, preface, xx~xxiii.



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Analysis of Effective Job Recruiting Tools for Chemical Engineers within Dow Chemical Europe




Andrea Ferrari, Anna Postol, Jeong-Hwan Choi, Joanna Izdebski, Philipp Frickhinger, Rustam Vagabov
Remigiusz Smolinski

Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig
Tel. (+49) 03 41/98 51 60, Fax (+49) 03 41/4 77 32 43
Internet: http://www.hhl.de

July 2005



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Increased interest in restocking corporate talent pipeline has created a “War for Talent” among employers. Companies need to attract talented and dynamic people who will become future leaders within their organizations. 
In order to do this, companies must create HR strategies that recognize the critical role played by Universities in training and providing these required talents. Organizations should also critically assess which other marketing channels, apart from direct marketing at the university level, can be used.
This paper is based on the assumptions that resources are limited and that companies can gain a substantial competitive advantage by effectively and strategically allocating their HR budgets. In fact, knowing what recruiting channels are the most efficient avoids wasting time and money on other unnecessary or unimportant marketing methods. 
A team of students from HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management, with the assistance of Dow Chemical Company, has carried out a 7 months project which is divided in 4 main phases and attempts to answer the following questions:

1. Information gathering phase: what are current trends for the relevant labor market? in which ways are other competitors in the chemicals industry trying to attract the best students? Can we identify best practices and learn from them?
2. Cost analysis phase: what are the average costs of existing marketing tools?
3. Efficiency analysis phase: what is the efficiency of these marketing tools in reaching the target students and in increasing the overall number of “quality” applications at Dow Chemical?
4. Marketing plan phase: what is the most cost-effective portfolio of marketing activities that can deliver the best results within Dow budget constraints? What is the optimal budget allocation? What is the most appropriate time frame for each marketing activity?

In phase 1, the team carried out a thorough benchmarking analysis in order to assess Dow Chemicals position in comparison with its competitors.  A special section covered an analysis of competitors’ web sites and suggested improvements for Dow’s Internet home page. In fact, as it can be seen from the results of the efficiency analysis, this is a particularly important channel for job seekers.
This benchmarking analysis serves as a valuable source of information and can help in learning from ‘best practices’.
In phase 2, the team collected offers and quotations from several sources to calculate the average cost of each marketing activity.
Phase 3 made use of the results of questionnaires which were received from 40 Dow Interns as well as 156 students from key universities. The Interns database for this study was supplied by the Dow Chemical Company while the team took care of contacting directly the students at key universities. Feedback from the questionnaires was crucial in testing the effectiveness of recruiting activities.
In phase 4, the team  came to the conclusion that HR budget should be allocated among 3 main budgeting levels (European Central budget, Country based budget, Key University based budget) and accordingly developed a portfolio of marketing tools including 2 new recommended initiatives (Dow Fellowship and European Contest). The budget was allocated taking into account the concept of maximizing return on investment with the support of a linear mathematic model.

In conclusion, the major findings of the research are:
•Having tighter and stronger relations with the universities is of strategic importance for Dow. In order to achieve this, important tools are: on-campus presentation, contacts with professors, field trips, posters at campus;
•Internet is a strong major recruiting channel and funds should be allocated for the improvement of Dow home page;
•Career books and professional magazines are not important channels and should not be used;
•There are considerable differences among different universities and countries that make necessary a ‘tailor-made’ approach.
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Tao of Innovation

(New Conceptual Framework for Answering the Question: How to improve productivity of knowledge workers in 21 century?)

Jeong-Hwan Choi

E-mail: jeonghwan.choi@gmail.com

Tel: +82-(0)16-9345-2416

 
[*This paper was presented to 2006 Kouksundo Sabum Paper Competition]




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