Several friends of mine told me, "In order to change an organization or a society, we need to attain sufficient power to do it regardless of by means" 

But I replied back "We don't need to, even we should not be a monster to fight again it." 
Because once we beat a monster as a monster, we would just replace the monster which we beat for a virtue. 

Keeping Legitimacy power is more important than beating a monster. 

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Mindfulness is a state of being fully present, aware of oneself and other people, and sensitive to one's reactions to stressful situations. Leaders who are mindful tend to be more effective in understanding and relating to others, and motivating them toward shared goals. Hence, they become more effective in leadership roles.

by Bill George. 

Q: How does one become mindfully aware?

Bill: I would not claim to be an expert in this area. Our Mindful Leadership seminar focused on the practice of meditation as one of those ways, with a variety of meditation techniques taught by Rinpoche. This was strictly a secular teaching, not a Buddhist one. In my experience I have observed people become more mindful through prayer, introspective discussions, therapy, and the use of reflective techniques and exercises.

full text: refer to source1

Prof. Bill George suggested an 'innovative' approach to leadership development by using 'mindful leadership.' However, he wanted to know 'How leaders can achieve mindful leadership.' 

As a professional mediatator of Kouksundo (a Korean meditation), I hope to address this question in Kouksundo way. 

1. There are six ways of practice for achieving mindfulness. 

Nevertheless, there are huge amount of various meditation practices, we can categorize them into six keywords. 

1. Focusing on breathing. 
2. Fasting. 
3. Self-mortification.
4. Isolating.
5. Chanting (Sining, Dancing). 
6. Using mind-altering substances. 

First of all, focusing on breathing is the most widely accepted and generally perceived as most secure practice for mindfulness. This practice can be found all over the world, however, this is mostly known as 'Buddhist meditation or Taoist meditation.' 

Fasting, self-mortification, isolating can be seen in 'one God' disciplines such as Christianity, Islam, and Russian orthodox. Monks of these disciplines frequently isolate themselves from the world and practice fasting or sometimes torturing to approach 'Wholeness with God.' 

Chanting is one of the most popular practices in Eastern areas. Buddhism in India, China, Korea, Japan, and East Asian countries are commonly 'chant' to focus on developing 'mindfulness and enlightenment.' Sufism in Turkey is another practice for mindfulness by dancing. 

Using mind-altering substances practices are not popular but they still exists in China, Greece, and Islam. These practices are used seldom for its anti-social characteristics, but a few practitioners still try it to achieve 'fast' mindfulness. 

Overall, focusing on breathing is most popular practice for mindfulness both in East and West since it is most safe and transferable. 

Remarks: The terms: self-mortification and using mind-altering substances come from Deborah Knox's suggestion, and gratefully appreciate her contribution. 

2. Evidences of mindfulness: Sweet Saliva and Heat. 

Do you remember when did you leak saliva like a baby? 
When is your last time to have saliva during your sleeping? 
Because you're a gentleman or a lady, you don't have 'saliva' like baby? 


You lost your saliva (naturally abundant and sweet) because you lost your power of 'Relaxation.' 
Tons of stress and anxiety dried your mouth. 

When a meditator reaches to a 'deep relaxation,' he/she has a lot of saliva in his/her mouth. 

Thus, (Sweet) abundant saliva is the evidence of 'relaxation' which represents the level of reducing and eliminating 'stress.' 

The less stress (like baby), the more saliva. 

Another critical evidence of mindfulness is 'Heat.' 

Regardless of different meditation practices, one can feel '(internal) heat or flame' when he/she perfectly focused and fully engaged in mind. This outcomes (heat) is the crucial evidence of 'Energization.' 

The biggest difference between 'normal heat' and 'mindfulness heat' is the disciplined flow. Mindfulness heat, generated in the center of body, flows in a certain way (commonly from center - tail bone - spine - neck - brain - front body - center, as depicted in following figure) while the normal heat flows or popped-up in scatter regions or places of body. 

In sum, leaders can achieve mindfulness through six different methods of practice. But the most popular one is 'focusing in breathing.' 

Mindfulness can be measured by two critical evidences: (Sweet) abundant saliva and heat. Sweet saliva represent leaders' ability of "relaxation - stress management." And Heat is the critical evidence of "Energization." 

Conclusion: Effective leadership can be trained and developed by practicing mindfulness. Mindfulness is not a magic nor an alchemy, but common sense. Leaders' ability of 'relaxation' and 'energization' affects to followers with regards to 'logics from relaxation' and 'energy from focused energization.' This is the reason why mindfulness is crucial to leadership. 

Remarks: Introduction of Kouksundo Meditation is followed. 
Kouksudno Lecture1 Ver1.0 Show


#1 Kouksundo, (page 26)

#2Journey to fantasy (Ryu Ga Mi) (Jul 02, 2005)


Jeonghwan (Philip) Choi, 

Kouksundo Sabum (master),
Ph.D. student, Human Resource Education, 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 


Harvard Business School Working Knowledge

Mindful Leadership: When East Meets West

Executive Summary:

Harvard Business School professor William George is fusing Western understanding about leadership with Eastern wisdom about the mind to develop leaders who are self-aware and self-compassionate. An interview about his recent Mindful Leadership conference taught with a Buddhist meditation master. Key concepts include:

  • People who are mindful—fully present and aware—can become more effective leaders.
  • Leaders with low emotional intelligence often lack self-awareness and self-compassion, which can lead to a lack of self-regulation.
  • Authenticity is developed by becoming more self-aware and having compassion for oneself.
  • Group support provides nonjudgmental feedback in order to recognize blind spots, accept shortcomings, and gain confidence.


1. Mindful leadership. 

2. Reflections on Mindful Leadership Retreat. 

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Vor allem aber stößt man auf einen detaillierten Bericht des Deutschlandradios aus dem Jahr 2005 darüber, wann und wo der Ruf "Wir sind ein Volk" das erste mal gebraucht wurde. Offenbar war er zunächst dazu benutzt worden, um während der Demonstrationszüge Anfang Oktober in Leipzig gegenüber bedrohlichen NVA-Soldaten und Stasi-Mitarbeitern auf die Gemeinsamkeiten hinzuweisen, die zwischen Demonstranten und Bewaffneten bestehen. (Siehe im angeführten Bericht "Kapitel 2".)

DDR - die Montagsdemo_heute 10-10-1989.
The Monday demonstrations.

Wir sind das Volk

Wir werden geboren.
Wir gehen zur Schule.
Wir finden Arbeit.
Und warten auf den Tod.

Wir sind das Volk!

Wir hören.
Wir glauben.
Wir wählen.
Wir sind enttäuscht.

Wir sind das Volk!

Wir wohnen in sauberen Häusern.
Für Sauberkeit sind wir bekannt.
In unseren sauberen Städten,
ja, wir sind ein sauberes Land.
Wir können die besten Zäune bauen.
Wir sind sehr gut mit Draht.
Immer 110%ig
und dabei so akkurat.

Wir sind das Volk!

We Are The People

We're born.
We go to school.
We find a job.
We wait to die.

We are the people.

We listen.
We believe.
We vote.
We're disappointed.

We are the people.

We live in tidy houses.
We're famous for cleanliness.
In our clean cities.
Yes, we are a clean country.
We can build the best fences.
We're very good with wire.
We always put out 110 percent.
And on top of that we're precise.

We are the people.

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Why Magic Number is 7 plus/minus 2 ?

Because human (short-term) memory sustained till number 7 plus/minus 2, we manage 'works' well till number 7. 

Thus, we need to 'control' out work number as seven plus/minus 2. 

The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information

by George A. Miller

originally published in The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp. 81-97
(reproduced here, with the author's permission, by Stephen Malinowski)

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I took many pictures when I was in Handelshochschule Leipzig during 2005. These pictures are masterpieces which I have taken at Europe. Inspired by aesthetic enlightenment, I would like to share my thoughts and memories at there with some pictures. 

Jeonghwan Choi

Do you know "Leipzig," the city of Bach at Germany? 

Photo: Statue of Johann Sebastian Bach at St. Thomas Church.

Johann Sebastian Bach worked as cantor at St. Thomas Church (1723-1750) in the city. Baptized by profound 'spirit of Leipzig,' he developed music as an art. 

Photo: St. Thomas Church.

The birth place of "Music as an art," the St. Thomas Church was damaged during the World War II, and it was reestablished just after the war. However the statue of Felix Mendelssohn, another great musician, located in front of the church, destroyed by NAZI for his Jewish background, was rebuilt after 54 years later after the war.  

Photo: Statue of Faust in front of Keller.
Young Goethe was inspired by the city, and got a venue of a scene for 'FAUST.' A professor at University of Leipzig was the model of Faust. The city nurtured Goethe's deep thinking and understanding about 'human.' 

Photo: STASI Museum at Leipzig.
Yes, the human as a free creature...  

But the cultural citizens were suffered from severe and harsh restriction of human right during Communistic East German Regime, represented by STASI (the secret police). 

Photo: Statue at Altes Rathaus (old city hall) Leipzig.
The citizens could not make smile or talking with their friends, which was the most unbearable thing for these delightful, social, and cultural people. 

Photo: Cross at Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin.
Under the communistic regime, many citizens were arrested and killed for their conscience. 

Photo: Star in the St. Thomas Church, Leipzig. 
One day on May 1968, a young physics student (Harald Fritsch) at University of Leipzig protested the regime and flagged a 'freedom' and 'stop killing culture' in front of Gewanthaus (Opera house) at the center of the city during a big communist ritual.  

He had nothing but escaping the city with his friends. He could not expect it would take more than 30 years to come back to the city again. 

Photo: Candles in Notre Dame at Paris. 
On 1989, the seed of fire vitalize a big 'fire.'  

Every Monday, Leipzig people came together in front of a church and prayed for peace and human right. They felt like they were reborn as true 'Leipziger,' who loved people and respected culture. 

Photo: Berlin central train station. 
Candles, lightened up by Leipziger, spread out whole German areas and all European countries. 

Photo: Bear, th Mascot of Berlin, Berlin. 
The light finally reached to heart of the country, and people talked about 'Be the one.' 

Photo: Brandenburg, Berlin. 
On 1990, the separated country became 'one.' 

Photo: Statues of Angels, Versaille, Paris. 
Leipzigers (citizens of Leipzig) trumpeted their recovering 'cultural human beings.' 

Photo: Bugatti, Berlin. 
The city is now accommodating many top notched companies like BMW, Porsche, DHL, and 

But their proud of Leipzigers' 'culture' is just started. 

They are aiming to nurturing the second Bach, Mendelssohn, Goethe, Leipniz, Nitsche, and great business people as well. 

A seed of fire, though it seems very weak and humble, can change a world only if it is for 'human right.' 


City of Leipzig: 

Thomas Church: 

Harald Fritzsch: 

Copyleft: All photos are taken by Jeonghwan choi, I cordially do not request any copyright once it is correctly referred.

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Prof. Zhang, assistant professor at Arizona State University, said: 

Family violence, physical abuse or parents divorcing can play a role in keeping a girl from becoming an entrepreneur later in life. 

“Childhood trauma might impede girls’ natural genetic inclination to become entrepreneurs,” Zhang said. “But environmental factors such as peer support, mentor programs, positive internships, and other activities where kids learn about financial independence and being a business owner can help mediate that. In the end, if girls get enough social and environmental support, their chances of becoming entrepreneurs can remain the same. 

Even though DNA is fixed, it needs human behavior to manifest itself,” Zhang said. “It’s the same thing for someone genetically inclined to be a scientist or an artist – they still need to be nurtured through social and environmental factors. Girls who have a supportive environment during adolescence will be more likely to reach their full genetic potential as entrepreneurs, while those affected by negative, stressful events can have their natural genetic disposition weakened.” [Source1] 

I agree with Prof. Zhang's findings and assertions for female entrepreneurs, and I want to support it with my researches of entrepreneurship education degree/certificate in college and university. 

I hypothesized that the growth rate of entrepreneurship education degree/certificate granting to female is higher than male. 

Reasons of my hypothesis are: Women entrepreneurs have emerged in unprecedented numbers past decade (Gundry & Welsch, 2001; Kuratko & Hodgetts, 2004). Although female entrepreneurs’ level and quality of education were not different from male entrepreneurs (Fischer, Reuber, & Dyke, 1993), many female entrepreneurs suffer from skills gap derived from their segmented participation in the workforce and, to a lesser degree, the education system. As a result, female entrepreneurs may lack skills, experience and self-confidence (Fielden & Davidson, 2006). 

According to precedent research, besides of the early childhood abuse to girls, there are many suffers for female entrepreneurs. So, I though many females would like to join entrepreneurship education than male in college and university in order to get supports or cultivate knowledge, skills and ability to start a business. 

My finding is as below. 

Number of entrepreneurship education degree/certificate in college/university for female (270%) and male (182%) has dramatically increased for last 13 years (1996-2008 academic years). These data was synthesized with the IPEDS (Institute of Postsecondary Education Data System, U.S. Department of Education). 

The annual growth rate of entrepreneurship education degree/certificate for female is 12.156% and 10.442% for male. These growth rates for entrepreneurship education in college/university are quite higher than business education and non-business education at the same period (less than 2%). 

By the way, I have found two interesting incongruent facts for entrepreneurship education degree/certificate for female. 

First, the growth rates of entrepreneurship education degree/certificate for female and male has no statistical difference during the period. Although the difference of annual growth rate seems big enough (1.714%: 12.156 to 10.442), statistically (t-test for equality of means, p-value (2-tails): 0.680) there is no mean difference between female and male. 

Second, males get more entrepreneurship education degree/certificate in college/university than female while females get more business education degree/certificate in college/university than male as following figure. 

My tentative conclusion for these findings is "Entrepreneurship education for female is underdeveloped in college and university though we are experiencing unprecedented growth of female entrepreneurs." 

As prof. Zhang said, providing supportive environments for female is important to nurture female entrepreneurship. And my question is who should provide entrepreneurship friendly environment for female? 
Everybody or every sectors may not be the answer. However, college and university, especially public institutions, need to take the role for potential female entrepreneurs since they can provide non-competition, less risky, and supportive social capital cultivation environments than any other sectors in a society. 

We cannot manipulate Genes for entrepreneurship yet, but we can change Memes (socio-spiritual DNA) by providing appropriate environment for potential female entrepreneurs. 

J. Philip Choi, 
Aug. 05 2010


Childhood trauma could hurt girls' goals of entrepreneurship

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Dead or Alive of Entrepreneurship in the U.S.: A Helicoptered Entrepreneur?

by J. Philip Choi (Aug. 03 2010) 

Helicopter parents are seemed to taking an important role for booming up small business creation as Wall Street Journal article said [1]. 

Is it good for promoting entrepreneurship in a society? 

Babara did not agree with this helicoptering small business since a real business education can be achieved with 'tough' experiences as she experienced during 1990s as a English major graduate in Seattle [2].  

For me, emerging helicoptered entrepreneurship seems a symptom of dying entrepreneurship in a society with three reasons. 

First, a helicoptered entrepreneur do not understanding the key concept of entrepreneurship. Though there are many different definitions of entrepreneurship, one of the core concepts of entrepreneurship is 'taking risks.' A helicoptered entrepreneur may not need to worry about 'taking risks' since a business is fully supported by his/her parents. Similar to a smart words "No pains, No gains," "No risks, No entrepreneurship" is a common sense, especially in the U.S. society. 

Second, a helicoptered entrepreneur cannot learn entrepreneurship from his/her helicoptered business since he/she cannot have enough commitment for the business. What will be the consequence if the helicoptered business turns to fail for the entrepreneur? Nothing! since the business is not initiated by him/herself but his/her parents. Lower commitment makes lower responsible, lower responsibility makes lower learning. 

Finally, entrepreneurial competences cannot be developed at a helicoptered business. As I already described, no risk taking makes no commitment and no commitment makes no learning. No learning means entrepreneurial competences are unable to be developed by a doing helicoptered business.  

With these reasons, I am asserting the helicoptered business is killing entrepreneurship in a society. 
According to the signaling effect theory, popularizing helicoptered businesses in a society make a undesirable signals to it, and in consequence entrepreneurship is become dead. 

So, I hope to recommend many helicopter parents stopping over-parenting for new college graduates not only for promoting independence of their kids, but also not for killing entrepreneurship in our society. 

A lion is grown up with many challenges, not with caring. 

Give your kids an opportunity confronting challenges by themselves.

[1] When the Folks Give You the Business

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Here is a situation you may have now or you will have soon. 

There is a large herd of horses. 
Six to ten horses are grouped by themselves and each group has a leading horse.  

You're aiming to a certain place to get pay offs. 

Weather is unpredictable. 
Terrain is so harsh. 
Wild animals approach to preys. 

In a midway of a long journey, a sudden thunderstorm has begun. 

Some horses are becoming crazy to run away !  
Some horses are out of your control.  
Some horses are under your perfect control. 

How you can manage this situation? 

I present this case as an example of contemporary situation of 'leading a large organization in a chaos.' And I ask how you can manage a large organization in a totally unpredictable situation?  

Does leadership is proper to managing this situation? 

Leadership is defined as "a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal [Northhouse, 2007, p3]

However if you cannot practice 'influence' to large groups of people, how you can manage them? 

Enforce every single horses? Maybe it's not possible. 

We may get some insights from the greatest shepherd, Jesus.  

[Holy Bible: John 10, 11 & ~14]
1. I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep.
14 I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine.

[Holy Bible: Mathew 18, 12~14]
12 How think ye? if a man have an hundred sheep, and one of them be gone astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into the mountains, and seeketh that which is gone astray?
13 And if so be that he find it, verily I say unto you, he rejoiceth more of that sheep, than of the ninety and nine which went not astray.
14 Even so it is not the will of your Father which is in heaven, that one of these little ones should perish.

He did not say "lead" but say "give life, know, and care" 
I call this "Guidership" rather than Leadership. 

Guidership, then, can be defined as "a process whereby an individual or a group know, care, and give life a group of individuals to achieve a common goal." 

The concept of Guidership can be understood by flipping traditional organization chart as following figure. 

President of an organization is located in the most below position as following statement.  

[Holy Bible: Jeremiah 13, 18]
18 Say unto the king and to the queen, Humble yourselves, sit down: for your principalities shall come down, even the crown of your glory.

He or She who want to lead a large organization should practice "Guidership" under whole body of groups and individuals, not leading or administrating them. 

1) Northouse (2007), Leadership Theory and Practice, Sage Publication. 
2) Inverted Pyramid Structure:

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  1. Favicon of BlogIcon MBA Dissertation 2011.06.21 21:17  댓글주소  수정/삭제  댓글쓰기

    이 게시물에이 정보를 만나서 반가워, 난 같은 찾고 있지만 적절한 자원이 아니었 고맙습니다 이제 내 연구 찾던 링크를 거십시오.

I found a small sparrow's dead body in a small trail near to a campus library. All by walkers stepped away it and did nothing but walked away. 

I felt the sparrow should not be treated as a trash for it's losing life. It must be respected. 

I brought some paper towels, kneed on the trail, wrapped the sparrow's dead body with paper towels, and laid it in trash box. I had no other option but I should lay it in trash box at the moment. However, I prayed to God may guide it to peace.  

Almost every single day, I can see at least one road-kill in Champaign-Urbana. Squirrels, rabbits, dogs, cats, and unidentifiable animals are killed by car accident. 

Maybe we can not protect road kill, but I hope to ask people for doing something to treat dead body well. Even minor thing, I wish people can pray for the road killed animal just a second. 

A small dead sparrow inspired my deep sorrow for human 'less mindfulness to small life.' Sorry to every small lives whom I ignored since. I would wake up and try keeping mindful for whole lives.

Jeonghwan (Philip) Choi, 

July 22 2010, 
A Very humid Summer Day at Champaign-Urbana

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The most stupid parent is who tries making children respected by people.
But, the best parent is who tries making its life respected by children.

- Anonymous, Korean 'Father' -

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