How can we develop talent? - Let them have your back! 

사람의 재능을 키우려면 - 앞을 보고 가르치려 하기 보단 당신의 등을 내주세요.



The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Theory by Lev Vygotsky


What Is the Zone of Proximal Development? (Reference #1)


The zone of proximal development refers to the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner.

Thus, the term “proximal” refers to those skills that the learner is “close” to mastering.

The concept, zone of proximal development was developed by Soviet psychologist and social constructivist Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934).

The zone of proximal development (ZPD) has been defined as:

"the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem-olving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers" (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86).

Vygotsky believed that when a student is in the zone of proximal development for a particular task, providing the appropriate assistance will give the student enough of a "boost" to achieve the task.


To assist a person to move through the zone of proximal development, educators are encouraged to focus on three important components which aid the learning process:

The presence of someone with knowledge and skills beyond that of the learner (a more knowledgeable other).



More Knowledgeable Other


The more knowledgeable other (MKO) is somewhat self-explanatory; it refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept.

Although the implication is that the MKO is a teacher or an older adult, this is not necessarily the case. Many times, a child's peers or an adult's children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience.




Social Interaction


Social interactions with a skillful tutor that allow the learner to observe and practice their skills.


According to Vygotsky (1978), much important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with a skillful tutor. The tutor may model behaviors and/or provide verbal instructions for the child. Vygotsky refers to this as cooperative or collaborative dialogue.

The child seeks to understand the actions or instructions provided by the tutor (often the parent or teacher) then internalizes the information, using it to guide or regulate their own performance.


Scaffolding, or supportive activities provided by the educator, or more competent peer to support the student as he or she is led through the ZPD.



A coward cannot raise a warrior!  


In order to develop the next generation talent, we need to let a cup have our back to secure and grow itself behind our back. 


This means that we need to confront many threats and challenges from the outside to protect our apprentice. 







Image source: 본초비담







McLeod, S. A. (2019). What Is the zone of proximal development?. Simply psychology.



Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.





by Jeonghwan (Jerry) Choi, PhD, MBA, ME


Nov. 30, 2020

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요



Dr. Choi's Lemmas for Social Relation as Energy Exchange!


Lemma1: People have no interest in you.


Lemma2: If people show you interest, that is for your energy.


Lemma3: A social interaction is becoming the multiplication relations of Energy levels, not adding.


(e.g. If a partnership's energy levels are 0.5 and 0.5, the energy level becomes 0.25 - getting poorer. And the relation is getting broken).





11 Ways To Block An Energy Vampire

An energy vampire literally feeds off the energies of those around them. In order to protect yourself, use these tips to block energy vampires...


2020. 07. 13

Copyright Dr. Choi's Integral Leadership Center


Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

Luke Chapter 10: 25~ 28

The Greatest Commandment.

There was a scholar of the law* who stood up to test him and said, “Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?”x

Jesus said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you read it?”

He said in reply, “You shall love the Lord, your God, with all your heart, with all your being, with all your strength, and with all your mind, and your neighbor as yourself.”

He replied to him, “You have answered correctly; do this and you will live.”

But because he wished to justify himself, he said to Jesus, “And who is my neighbor?”


After this, the Parable of the Good Samaritan is following.

Then, How to "Treat my neighbors with mercy?"

A Catholic Father of Church elaborates it with Buddha's parable of "Seven ways how to be kind when you have nothing!".

1. Make a kind face;

2. Say kind words;

3. Share your good heart;

4. Look with love;

5. Help with your body

6. Give your way to the needy;

7. Help with no reason.


어떤 가난한 사람이 석가모니 부처님을 찾아뵙고 여쭈었다.

“저는 하는 일마다 되는 일이 없습니다. 이것은 무슨 까닭입니까?“

부처님이 말씀하셨다.

“그것은 네가 남에게 베풀지 않았기 때문이니라.”

가난한 사람이 말하였다.

“저는 아무 것도 가진 게 없는 빈 털털이입니다. 남에게 줄 것이 있어야 주지 뭘 준단 말입니까?”

부처님이 조용히 말씀하셨다.

“그렇지 않느니라. 아무리 재산이 없더라도 줄 수 있는 일곱 가지는 누구나 다 갖추고 있느니라.


첫째는 화안시(和顔施)니라.

얼굴에 화색을 띠고 부드럽고 정다운 얼굴로 남을 대하는 것이니라.


둘째는 언시(言施)니라.

말로써 얼마든지 베풀 수 있으니 사랑의 말, 칭찬의 말, 위로의 말, 격려의 말, 양보의 말, 부드러운 말이니라.


셋째는 심시(心施)니라.

마음의 문을 열고 따뜻한 마음을 주는 것이니라.


넷째는 안시(眼施)니라.

호의를 담은 눈으로 사람을 보아 눈으로 베푸는 것이니라.


다섯째는 신시(身施)니라.

몸으로 때우는 것으로 남의 짐을 들어준다거나 일을 돕는 것이니라.


여섯째는 좌시(座施)니라.

때와 장소에 맞게 자리를 내주어 양보하는 것이니라.


일곱째는 찰시(察施)니라.

굳이 묻지 않고 상대의 마음을 헤아려 알아서 도와주는 것이니라.


이 일곱 가지를 행하여 습관이 붙으면 너에게 행운이 따를 것이니라.”


Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

How to develop Grit, Self-esteeem, and Empathy? See this Dad! 

A person raised in love can love the others! 


Dad motivates his little girl before school
What a great dad!

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

The Our Father, 

Our Father, Who art in Heaven, 

Hallowed be Thy name; 

Thy Kingdom come, 

Thy will be done on earth as it is in Heaven. 

Give us this day our daily bread; and

Forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and 

Lead us not into temptation, but 

Deliver us from evil. 


주님의 기도, 

(내 가운데, 참) 하늘에 계신 우리 아버지,

(마태오 5:43-48: 하늘을 사랑하는 것과 같이 죄인을 포함하여 모든 사람을 사랑한다는 깊은 믿음을 바탕으로 세상에 나아가) 아버지의 이름이 거룩히 빛나시며

(마태오 13:31-32: 작디 작은 겨자씨같이 잉태된 너희 가운데 있는 따뜻하고 정의롭고 평화롭고 참된) 아버지의 나라가 오시며

(티모테오 2:4: 모든 사람이 구원을 받고 진리를 깨닳게 한다는 것과 당신께서 우리를 사랑하는 것과 같이 우리도 서로 사랑하라는) 아버지의 뜻이 하늘에서와 같이 땅에서도 이루어지소서!

(귀한 영적 존재이지만 또한 작고 약한 존재로의 ‘사람’인 저희에게) 오늘 저희에게 일용할 (物的, 心的, 靈的) 양식을 주시고

(우리 스스로를 속이는 것을 모르고 죄를 짓고 있으므로, 우리 스스로를 좀 너그러이 용서하도록) 저희에게 잘못한 이를 저희가 용서하오니, 저희 죄를 용서하시고

(욕심은 많으나 용기가 없어 참된 용서를 구하기 어려워하게되어 결국은 절망과 미움으로 빠지기 쉬운) 저희를 유혹에 빠지지 않게 하시고 

(요한계시록 22-21: ‘마라나타’ 아버지께서 속히 오셔서 저희를) 악에서 구하소서.


2015년 7월 21일, 최 정환 Thomas Jeremiah.

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

10 Inspirational Quotes from Navy SEAL Training

1. It Pays to be a Winner. 

2. It May, or May Not, Pay to be a Winner. 

3. We’re Not going to Stop Until We Get at Least One Quitter. 

4. Nothing Lasts Forever. 

5. You Don’t Have to Like It, You Just Have to Do It. 

6. Push ‘Em Out. 

7. If You're Gonna Be Stupid, You Better Be Hard

8. There Are Two Ways to Do Something ... the Right Way, and Again.

9. It’s All Mind Over Matter, If I Don't Mind, Then it Doesn't Matter. 

10. On Your Backs, on Your Bellies, on Your Backs, on Your Bellies. Feet!

Bonus: Anybody Want to Quit?


Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

“We are what we repeatedly do. ~ Aristotle”

Very inspiring article by Tony Schwartz about how to mindfully pursue excellence.

Six Keys to Being Excellent at Anything

1. Pursue what you love.

2. Do the hardest work first

3. Practice intensely, without interruption for short periods of no longer than 90 minutes and then take a break.

4. Seek expert feedback, in intermittent doses.

5. Take regular renewal breaks.

6. Ritualize practice.


One tip for this practice: In order to recharge your energy in a short time (15min.), I strongly suggest "Focus on Deep Breathing" for 5~10 times.  

1. Close your eyes; Relax your Brain, Shoulder, Stomach: And Straighten your Back. 

2. Breathe out fully, and take a deep breathing for a while (5~10 times).  

3. Open your eyes; Slowly wake up; And Go to Work again. 

Jeonghwan Choi, 

모든 것에 뛰어나게 하는 에너지 관리 6가지 방법

1. 진정으로 사랑하는 것을 추구하라 (Pursue what you love)

2. 힘든 일 먼저 해라 (Do the hardest work first)

3. 90분동안 집중적으로 일하고, 반드시 에너지를 충전하라 (Practice intensely, without interruption for short periods of no longer than 90 minutes and then take a break.)

4. 중간 중간 전문가로부터 피드백을 받아라 (Seek expert feedback, in intermittent doses.)

5. 정기적으로 기분전환을 하라 (Take regular renewal breaks.)

6. 이와같이 일하는 것을 습관화하라 (Ritualize practice.)

Figure: Four Human Energy Domains of Excellency.

깊은 호흡을 통한 에너지 충전법: 

위와 같이 몸과 마음, 정신, 영혼의 에너지를 관리하는 핵심은 "에너지 재충전" 입니다. 

이를 위해 90분간 집중하고 일한 다음 중간 중간 쉬는 시간에 "깊은 숨쉬기"를 통해 보다 적극적으로 에너지를 재충전 하는 방법을 소개합니다. 

1. 먼저 눈을 쏙 감고; 머리, 어깨, 뱃속의 긴장을 완전히 풉니다; 그리고 척추를 바로 세워놓습니다. 

2. 먼저 숨을 완전히 내쉬어봅니다. 그리고 숨이 들어올 수 있는 만큼 콧구멍, 목구멍, 기도, 폐, 가슴, 배를 완전히 열어놓습니다: 몸 아래 가장 깊은 곳 (엉덩이 아래) 부터 물이 차오르 듯 에너지가 차도록 그대로 두고, 배꼽 위까지 넘치기 전에 내쉽니다; 이것을 5~10회 정도 합니다. 

3. 천천히 눈을 뜨고 의식을 가다듬습니다: 그리고는 다시 일에 집중합니다. 



Reduce Your Stress in Two Minutes a Day

by Greg McKeown  |   1:00 PM November 25, 2013

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

A leader is a person who can define "enough is enough" ! 

There is no greater sin than desire,
No greater curse than discontent,
No greater misfortune than wanting something for oneself.
Therefore he who knows that enough is enough will always have enough.

Tao Te Ching, Chapter 46. 

P.S.) Letters in the coin mean "I only know it's enough (吾唯知足)" - The final words of Buddha.

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

If there is a God, My God is ... 

My God is the “God of Choice”. 

: He wants me to make a good choice

My God is the “God of Observation”. 

: He wants to see me happy

My God is the “God of Breath”. 

: He wants me to breathe well

My God is the “God of Kindness”. 

: He wants me to be kind to his creatures

My God is the “God of Friend”. 

: He wants me to walk along with my friends”. 

My God is the “God of Joy”. 

: He wants me to make smiles.

My God is the “God of Question”. 

: He wants me to answer his questions. 

Jan. 30, 2014 by Jeonghwan Choi

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

Respecting a menial but professional worker creates a good workplace! 

(작지만 소중한 일을 하는 사람들을 존경하는 것이 좋은 직장을 만드는 첫걸음이다!) 

'A cleaner became a life-time MVP at a prestigious Football Club in Germany. '

Anton (Tony) Huefler had worked at Eiintracht Frankfurt Football Club as a facility management worker. His work was clearing, cleaning, and managing players' uniforms and shoes. In memory of Cha Boom, a Korean soccer superstar, everyone including soccer players, high rank officers at the Football club, and fans respect Tony for his authentic attitude for his work. Tony is in the list of Hall of Fame and a member of life-time MVP at the Frankfurt Football Club. 

A good workplace can be built with a respecting people who take occupation with heart. 

"Every occupation deserves respect"

P.S.) In the US, I commonly observe the school administrators are these type of respectful personnels. 

Source: 차범근의 따뜻한 축구이야기 (retrieved, Jan 28, 2014)

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

"Feel Good": This is the only order from God. 

Neale Donald Walsh wrote a sentence in his book of "Conversations with God". 

"Your soul is the sum-total of every feeling you've ever had 


When you feel good doing something, your soul as though shouts “This is who I am!”. When you, however, entrap your soul by feeling shameful about things that are supposed to feel good, you as though kill your soul. Therefore you should always do what feels good because doing what feels good is the road to heaven and not to hell, as some unaware people think." 

Thus, 'feel good' is the only order from God that a person should comply. 

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요


I’ve Learned

-  Omer B Washington

I've learned that you cannot make someone love you.
All you can do is be someone who can be loved.
The rest is up to them.
I’ve learned that no matter how much I care,
some people just don’t care back.
And it’s not the end of the world.
I’ve learned that it takes years to build up trust,
and only seconds to destroy it.
I’ve learned that it’s not what you have in your life,
but who you have in your life that counts.
I’ve learned that you can get by on charm for about fifteen minutes.
After that, you’d better know something. 

I’ve learned that you shouldn’t compare yourself to the best others can do,
but to the best you can do.
I’ve learned that it’s not what happens to people,
It’s what they do about it.
I’ve learned that no matter how thin you slice it,
there are always two sides.
I’ve learned that you should always leave loved ones with loving words.
It may be the last time you see them.
I’ve learned that you can keep going
long after you think you can’t.

I’ve learned that heroes are the people who do what has to be done
When it needs to be done
regardless of the consequences.
I’ve learned that there are people who love you dearly,
but just don’t know how to show it.
I’ve learned that sometimes when I’m angry I have the right to be angry,
but that doesn’t give me the right to be cruel.
I’ve learned that true friendship continues to grow even over the longest distance.
Same goes for true love.
I’ve learned that just because someone doesn’t love you the way you want them to
doesn’t mean they don’t love you with all they have.

I’ve learned that no matter how good a friend is,
they’re going to hurt you every once in a while
and you must forgive them for that.
I’ve learned that it isn’t always enough to be forgiven by others.
Sometimes you have to learn to forgive yourself.
I’ve learned that no matter how bad your heart is broken,
the world doesn’t stop for your grief.
I’ve learned that our background and circumstances may have influenced who we are,
but we are responsible for who we become.
I’ve learned that just because two people argue, it doesn’t mean that they don’t love each other.
And just because they don’t argue, it doesn’t mean they do.

I’ve learned that sometimes you have to put the individual
ahead of their actions.
I’ve learned that two people can look at the exact same thing
and see something totally different.
I’ve learned that no matter the consequences,
those who are honest with themselves get farther in life.
I’ve learned that your life can be changed in a matter of hours
by people who don’t even know you.
I’ve learned that even when you think you have no more to give,
when a friend cries out to you,
you will find the strength to help.

I’ve learned that writing, as well as talking,
can ease emotional pains.
I’ve learned that the people you care most about in life
are taken from you too soon.
I’ve learned that it’s hard to determine where to draw the line between being nice
and not hurting people’s feelings and standing up for what you believe.
I’ve learned to love and be loved.
I’ve learned…


나는 배웠다


<글 : 오마르 워싱턴(시인)> 


다른 사람으로 하여금나를 사랑하게 만들 수 없다는 것을 나는 배웠다.내가 할 수 있는 일이 있다면 사랑받을 만한 사람이 되는 것뿐이다.


사랑은 사랑하는 사람의 선택이다.내가 아무리 마음을 쏟아 다른 사람을 돌보아도그들은 때로 보답도 반응도 하지 않는다는 것을 나는 배웠다.


신뢰를 쌓는데는 여러 해가 걸려도무너지는 것은 순식간이라는 것을 배웠다.


인생은 무엇을 손에 쥐고 있는가에 달린 것이 아니라믿을 만한 사람이 누구인가에 달려있음을 나는 배웠다.


우리의 매력이라는 것은 15분을 넘지 못하고그 다음은 무엇을 알고 있느냐가 문제임도 나는 배웠다.


다른 사람의 최대치에 나 자신을 비교하기보다는내 자신의 최대치에 나를 비교해야 한다는 것을 나는 배웠다.


그리고 또 나는 배웠다.인생은 무슨 사건이 일어났는가에 달린 것이 아니라일어난 사건에 어떻게 대처하느냐에 달려 있다는 것을..무엇을 아무리 얇게 베어낸다 해도거기에는 언제나 양면이 있다는 것을 나는 배웠다.


나는 배웠다.사랑하는 사람들에게는언제나 사랑의 말을 남겨 놓아야 한다는 것을..어느 순간이 우리의 마지막의 만남이 될지 아는 사람은 아무도 없다.해야 할 일을 하면서도 그 결과에 대해서는마음을 비우는 자들이 진정한 의미에서의 영웅임을 나는 배웠다.


사랑을 가슴 속에 넘치게 담고 있으면서도이를 나타낼 줄을 모르는 사람들이 있음을 나는 배웠다.


나에게도 분노할 권리는 있으나타인에 대해 몰인정하고 잔인하게 대할 권리는 없다는 것을 나는 배웠다.


우리가 아무리 멀리 떨어져 있어도진정한 우정은 끊임없이 두터워진다는 것을 나는 배웠다.


그리고 사랑도 이와 같다는 것을..내가 바라는 방식대로 나를 사랑하지 않는다 해서나의 모든 것을 다해 당신을 사랑하지 않아도 좋다는 것이 아님을 나는 배웠다.


또 나는 배웠다.아무리 좋은 친구라고 해도 때때로 그들이 나를 아프게 하고그렇다고 하더라도 그들을 용서해야 한다는 것을..


그리고 타인으로부터 용서를 받는 것만으로는 충분하지 못하고내가 내 자신을 때로 용서해야 한다는 것을 나는 배웠다.


나는 배웠다.아무리 내 마음이 아프다고 하더라도이 세상은 내 슬픔 때문에 운행을 중단하지 않는다는 것을 나는 배웠다.


환경이 영향을 미친다고 하더라도 내가 어떤 사람이 되는가 하는 것은오로지 나 자신의 책임인 것을 나는 배웠다.


나는 배웠다.우리 둘이 서로 다툰다고 해서 서로가 사랑하지 않는 게 아님을..


그리고 우리 둘이 서로 다투지 않는다고 해서서로 사랑하는 게 아니라는 것도 나는 배웠다.


밖으로 드러나는 행위보다 인간 자신이 먼저임을 나는 배웠다.


두 사람이 한가지 사물을 바라보면서도보는 것은 완전히 다르다는 것도 나는 배웠다.


그리고 또 나는 배웠다.앞과 뒤를 계산하지 않고 자신에게 정직한 사람이결국은 우리가 살아가는 데서 앞선다는 것을..


내가 알지도 보지도 못한 사람에 의하여내 인생의 진로가 변할 수도 있다는 것을 나는 배웠다.


나는 배웠다.이제는 더 이상 친구를 도울 힘이 내게 없다고 생각할 때에도친구가 내게 울면서 매달릴 때에는여전히 그를 도울 힘이 나에게 남아 있음을 나는 배웠다.


글을 쓰는 일이 대화를 하는 것과 마찬가지로내 마음의 아픔을 덜어준다는 것을 나는 배웠다.


나는 배웠다.내가 너무나 아끼는 사람들이 너무나 빨리이 세상을 떠난다는 것을..


그리고 정말 나는 배웠다.타인의 마음을 상하게 하지 않는다는 것과나의 믿는 바를 위해 내 입장을 분명히 한다는 것.


그러나 이 두 가지 일을 엄격하게 구분하는 것이얼마나 어렵다는 것을 나는 배웠다.


나는 배웠다.


사랑하는 것과사랑을 받는 것의 그 모두를..


Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

Here are a few cases: unusually human oriented workplaces achieve extraordinary successes. 

1. Give Your Employees Unlimited Vacation Days

Will it improve company culture? Sure. But can giving workers all the time off they want also increase their productivity?

  1. It treats employees like the adults they are. If they’re incapable of handling the responsibility that comes along with having unlimited vacation days, they're probably incapable of handling other responsibilities too, so don't hire them.
  2. It reduces costs by not having to track vacation time. Tracking and accounting for vacation days can be cumbersome work. This policy eliminates those headaches.
  3. It shows appreciation. Your employees will need unexpected time off and some need more vacation than others. By giving them what they need when they need it, you show your employees how much you appreciate them and they reciprocate by producing more great work.
  4. It's a great recruitment tool. We hire a mere one out of every 750 applicants at Red Frog. When you combine fantastic benefits with a positive culture, it's noticed.

2. Success Story of Mirai Industry

CEO Akio Yamada's Employee-Oriented Management 

"I have made steady effort to touch my employees' heart. It seems that I am successful in it in some degree. So, now I deserve to tell them, "Get enough rest! Don't work for others! Do things you like!"


3. Lessons from Semco on Structure, Growth and Change

"Rather than force our people to expand a business beyond its natural limits, we encourage them to start new businesses."

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

You have suffered enough, and warred with yourself,
It`s time that you won! 

Falling Slowly
- Glen Hansard  and  Marketa Irglova


I don`t know you But I want you All the more for that

당신을 모르지만 그래서 더욱이 당신을 원해요

Words fall through me And always fool me And I can`t react

난 늘 할말을 잃고 바보가 되어 어쩔 줄 몰라하죠

And games that never amount To more than they`re meant Will play themselves out

어쩔 수 할 수가 없네요 그냥 그저 하는 말이 아니라 정말 가게 되질 않아요


Take this sinking boat and point it home We`ve still got time

이 가라앉는 배를 붙잡아 고향으로 이끌어줘요, 아직은 시간이 있어요

Raise your hopeful voice you have a choice You`ve made it now

희망의 목소릴 높여요, 당신에게 달렸어요. 이제 하는 거에요


Falling slowly eyes that know me And I can`t go back

천천히 내려와요 친근히 바라보며, 난 돌아갈 순 없어요.


Moods that take me and erase me And I`m painted black

날 사로잡는 분위기에 난 백치가 되버려요

You have suffered enough And warred with yourself It`s time that you won

너무나 고통을 겪으며 자신과 싸웠던 당신, 이젠 승리할 때에요


Take this sinking boat and point it home We`ve still got time

이 가라앉는 배를 붙잡아 고향으로 이끌어줘요, 아직은 시간이 있어요.

Raise your hopeful voice you had a choice You`ve made it now

희망의 목소릴 높여요, 당신에게 달렸어요. 이제 하는 거에요.

Falling slowly sing your melody I`ll sing along

천천히 내려와요 노래를 부르며 나도 따라 부를게요. 


Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요

On 1980, Steve Jobs practiced meditation in an empty apartment. Reflection and focusing on 'Apple' at that time enabled him to keep innovating. What we may need in our lives is 'a simple and calm space, a cup of tea, and nice music' for meditation to find a meaning of life as Steve Jobs. 

"Stay Hungry, and Stay Foolish"

Steve Jobs 


Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

댓글을 달아 주세요