The Purpose of Life is ... ! 

The purpose of life is to create 'HUM - 힘, 氣, Force, Energy

to be Happy; 

to be Utilizable;  

to be Meaningful. 

인생의 목적은 

행복하기 위해; 쓸모있기 위해; 의미있기 위해, 

"HUM - 힘, 氣, Force, Energy" 을 만드는 것이다 

Jan. 2019

Jeonghwan Choi, PhD, MBA, ME

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A Life Irony - Ernest Hemingway

The best people possess 

a feeling for beauty, 

the courage to take risks, 

the discipline to tell the truth, 

the capacity for sacrifice. 

Ironically, their virtues make them vulnerable; they are often wounded, sometimes destroyed."

- Ernest Hemingway

This is a Life Irony.

I thought a lot about this and my tentative idea is 'This world is an 'experimental silo' to harden a good human soul for another purpose.

Without falling, we cannot learn how to stand. 
Without hurting, we cannot learn how to heal. 
Without disgusting, we cannot learn what is the beauty. 
Without paradox, we cannot transform.

A beautiful soul just needs to be persistent in this ironic experimental silo. Once the soul is sufficiently hardened, a mission awaits for it.

Jeonghwan (Jerry) Choi, PhD, MBA, ME

Nov. 19, 2017

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A New Management Paradigm: From CD to LP. 

Recently, the CD (compact disc) is disappearing while the LP is emerging as a luxury good in MP3 era.


In management field of study, the traditional CD paradigm (Control & Demand) is transforming to LP paradigm (Listen and Persuade) in recent Industry 4.0 era.

As technology advances, "Humanistic Management" is becoming more essential. 

Dr. Jeonghwan (Jerry) Choi,   

April 22, 2017. 

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"Management by Active Listening" practice in KFC, Chashan, Wenzhou, China.

Recently, I am enjoying my morning ritual at KFC, Chashan, Wenzhou, China. I enjoy a fresh-brewed coffee and a morning menu at the store.

Today (Oct. 20, 2016), I can hear a loud voice of an employee. She looks quite upset and almost shouts to her manager just beside my place. The manager, however, listens and listens and listens her furious voices with a great patience. 

After 10~15 minutes, the upset voice gets smaller and smaller. Then, the manager started persuading her with a gentle and attentive tone. Gradually, the employee makes a few nods and she starts making laugh and smile. 

I think it takes around 30 minutes that the manager listens first; persuades the angry employee; gets her back to her place with a smile.

Impressively again, I can observe that "Management by Active Listening" is working in anywhere in the world. ^^

Jeonghwan (Jerry) Choi, PhD, MBA, ME

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Three Natural Laws for Excellent Leaders

I. Law of Attraction

“Feel Good, this is the only order from the Universe” 

Positive thinking and feeling attract positive consequences. 

“Don’t be afraid of taking good things. Simply appreciate it.” 

Be thankful to what you are and what you have now. 

“Attractiveness rather than Competitiveness” 

Be bright, gentle, confident, and disciplined. 

II. Law of Action-Reaction

“Act rather than react” 

20% current investment in the first thing (important / not-urgent) draws 80% of desirable consequences. 

“Be a Master of Every Situation”

Be Self-directed: 

        • Bring a new idea; 
        • Take initiative; 
        • Redesign works; 
        • Go against established rules if necessary. 

“Dominate the initial 30 minutes”: 

Solely focus on a task for 30 minutes. 

Win over the ‘Frame War’ with R. S. C.  

        • Relevancy
        • Simple
        • Constructive

III. Law of Energy Creation

“Create Energy Waves to Perform”

Manage your ‘Energy’ not your Time 

        • Physical: Sleep well and Exercise  
        • Emotional: Act without expectations
        • Mental: Control distractions 
        • Spiritual: Do what you can perform well

“Create Multiple Capitals”

        • Financial capital: Increase revenue; Reduce expense. 
        • Communal capital: Practice the “Tit-for-Tat” to build a trust. 
        • Relational capital: Give positive and developmental feedback.
        • Human capital: Perform to learn / Learn to perform. 
        • Psychological capital: Self-efficacy, Hope, Optimism, Resiliency. 
        • Physiological capital: Create brain and muscle power.
        • Spiritual capital: Sharpen your sense of purpose. 


1. The Multiple Capitals Model:

2. Toward Integrated Reporting: Communicating Value in the 21st Century.

3. Five Capitals:

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Why do we need to invest in people development? 

This is the exact answer. 

왜 인재개발에 투자해야하나? 

CFO가 CEO에게 물었습니다. 

"만약 우리가 직원 개발에 투자를 했는데, 그 사람이 떠나버리면 어떡합니까??" 

CEO가 답했습니다. 

"만약 우리가 직원 개발에 투자를 안했는데, 그 사람이 계속 우리 조직에 남아있으면 어떨까요?" 

Source: Marcus Buckham:

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Leader like a tiger: 

In normal days, the leader give us a freedom to play and grow in front of him/her. 

But in a critical situation, the leader put us back behind him/her and confront enemies.

Tiger Figure source: Boncho Bidam,

범(호랑이)같은 리더란… 

보통땐 우리를 앞에두고 맘껏 놀면서 성장하게하고, 
위험할 땐 우리를 뒤에 두고 목숨걸고 지킨다. 

보통때 우릴 겁박하는데 능하고, 

위험할 때 우리를 내팽개치고 도망하는데 능한 자들은, 

남의 앞잡이일 뿐이다. 

Tiger Figure source: Boncho Bidam,

May 15, 2014,

Jeonghwan Choi, PhD, MBA, ME

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  1. BlogIcon 한상수 2014.05.16 21:51 신고  댓글주소  수정/삭제  댓글쓰기

    이걸 읽노라니 한숨만 나오네...

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Sundo Tea Ceremony: A Reflective Practice for Deep Learning (국선도 행다법).

A tea ceremony is a ritualized form of making tea practiced in the East Asian cultural sphere by the Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese tea ceremony. The tea ceremony, also called the Way of Tea (다도, 茶道), is a cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of tea. The manner in which it is performed, or the art of its performance, is called Tea ceremony [Reference 1]

One can also refer to the whole set of rituals, tools, gestures, etc. used in such ceremonies as tea culture. All of these tea ceremonies and rituals contain "an adoration of the beautiful among the sordid facts of everyday life", as well as refinement, an inner spiritual content, humility, restraint and simplicity "as all arts that partake the extraordinary, an artistic artificiality, abstractness, symbolism and formalism" to one degree or another. 

Korean tea ceremony is relatively unknown while the Chinese and Japanese tea ceremony are better known. The Korean tea ceremony or Darye (다례, 茶禮) is a traditional form of tea ceremony practiced in Korea. Darye literally refers to "etiquette for tea" or "day tea rite" and has been kept among Korean people for an over a thousand years. The chief element of the Korean tea ceremony is the ease and naturalness of enjoying tea within an easy formal setting.

Central to the Korean approach to tea is an easy and natural coherence, with fewer formal rituals, fewer absolutes, greater freedom for relaxation, and more creativity in enjoying a wider variety of teas, services, and conversation [Reference 2].

This 'focus on natural being' of Korean tea ceremony has stemmed from the combination of multiple spiritual and cultural heritages such as Sundoism (Taoism), Shamanism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. While Korean Buddhism and Confucianism are relatively well-known in  the perspective of cultural understandings, the Sundoism is little known. But the Korean authentic Sundoism is the root gene of  the Korean culture for more than 9,700 years, and it embraced foreign philosophy and religion like Buddhism, Confucianism, and Christianity [Reference 3]. 

Sundoism (called Kouksundo, Sundo, Bark-Dol-Beop, Chung-Gak-Do, Hwa-Rang-Do) is a holistic self-development practice system which aims to develop the ultimate physical-strength, the ultimate mental-power, and the ultimate spiritual-enlightenment. 

The core feature of Kouksundo practice is "deep abdominal energy center breathing" known as Danjeon (Dol-dan) Breathing which enables the practitioners to breathe in the universal life energy, Ki, into the body. Through the practice, the practitioners are gradually able to accumulate the Ki in the Danjeon and learn how to circulate the Ki throughout the 365 Ki channels in the body, that was opened by Chung-San [Reference 3].

Simply, Sundosim aims to gain ultimate Energy (Ki, 氣) through a special breathing. And the purpose can be achieved through a deep reflective learning by doing. 

In this article, the author wants to introduce Sundo Tea Ceremony: A reflective practice for deep learning by interwinding the Sundoism, Nonwestern Learning, and Modern Learning Theories.  

Nonwestern learning can be characterized by its 'interdependent, communal, holistic, and informal' approach to learning. While western learning focuses on learning knowledge, nonwestern learning encourage people to have collective, indigenous, and deep learning that emphasizes 'understanding and enlightenment'.  

Self-reflection is the core practice in nonwestern learning. In Confucianism, Buddhism, Sundoism, Hindusim, and Sufism, or even in the eastern Christianity heritage, Self-reflection is the essential learning practice to achieve 'deep learning'.  

Dewey defined reflective thought as ‘active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends’ (Dewey 1933: 118). In the modern  theory of learning, self-reflection is descried as an important human activity in which people recapture their experience think about it, mull it over and evaluate it. Argyris and Schön (1978) proposed two levels of learning: single-loop-learning & double-loop-learning. Argyris and Schoen described 

When the error detected and corrected permits the organization to carry on its present policies or achieve its presents objectives, then that error-and-correction process is single-loop learning. 

Single-loop learning is like a thermostat that learns when it is too hot or too cold and turns the heat on or off. The thermostat can perform this task because it can receive information (the temperature of the room) and take corrective action. Double-loop learning occurs when error is detected and corrected in ways that involve the modification of an organization’s underlying norms, policies and objectives [Reference 4].

Single-loop learning occurs when an individual/organization conducts a Reflection-in-action. The individual reflects their routine job or action, and tries to reduced the gap between purpose and outcome. Then retune his/her behavior/mindset/cognition to reduce the gap. On the other hand, an individual/organization should ask a question about fundamental assumptions or predefined norms when the single-loop learning cannot resolve the gap. 

The work of Chris Argyris (1923-2013) describes the concept of double-loop learning (DLL) in which an individual, organization or entity is able, having attempted to achieve a goal on different occasions, to modify the goal in the light of experience or possibly even reject the goal. 

In both single-loop-learning and double-loop-learning, the reflection is the core practice for learning. 

There are many tea ceremony practice methods that encourage people to have a reflection moment. Sundo Tea Ceremony focuses on "Reflection in Life-Span" in order to search and tune a life meaning, goal, or mission. 

The necessary equipments for practicing Sundo Tea Ceremony are 'tea', 'tea pots', 'warm water',  and a 'self-being'. No more no less. There is no fixed or sophisticated rules or manners to conduct a Sundo tea ceremony, and try to feel freedom of being. 

If one is experiencing a significant 'disoriented life dilemma', write it down on a paper and put it aside. Then forget it during a tea ceremony.  

In Sundoism, there are nine levels of physical/mental/spiritual enlightenment. 

First three levels (1~3) represent physical enlightenment. 

Next three levels  (4~6) represent mental enlightenment. 

Final three levels (7~9) represent integration of physical and mental enlightenments to evolve a higher level spiritual enlightenment. 

Replicating the nine levels of enlightenment levels, tea ceremony participant enjoys nine cups of tea that represent the age stages. 

At the beginning, wash a tea leaf. This is a replication of wash a new born baby. In Buddhism and Christianity, there is a special ritual of 'Washing the new born Buddha or Washing the New born Jesus'. We must welcome a holy divine 'self' to a new world by washing tea leafs with warm water. 

Put warm water (160 ~ 180 degree F or 70~80 degree Celsius) on a tea pot, and wait for three minutes with deep breathings. Please do practice, 'think without thinking' but focus on 'breathing'.  And try to feel fragrance, color, and taste of each cup of tea. You may feel... 

1. Age 1-9: Strong fragrance, color, and Bitter taste like a kid's experiencing. 

2. Age 10-19: Strong fragrance, color, and strong taste like a teenager. 

3. Age 20-29: Full flavor of tea like early adult. 

4. Age 30-39: Matured fragrance, color, and mild taste like thirties. 

5. Age 40-49: Stable fragrance, color, and taste but emergent of a new energy. 

6. Age 50-59: Mild fragrance, color, and taste but strong energy. 

7. Age 60-69: Very balanced fragrance, color, and taste with a fulfilled energy. 

8. Age 70-79: A subtle feeling of harmonization of fragrance, color, and taste.  

9. Age 80 ~ : Feeling of 'energy' fulfillment without Fragrance, color, and taste. 

One can put a dried flower (e.g. Chrysanthemum, Cherry blossom) to experience a 'transformation' in the fifth or sixth cups of tea (age 40s or 50s). This transformation replicating a significant 'life meaning change' in those ages. Many people changes their meaning of life in their age of 40s~50s and fundamentally changes their life style in order to explore a new life meaning. As such, one can experience a 'transformation' of tea through putting a flower (a transformational moment) on the tea pot. 

If you put aside your 'disoriented life dilemma', read it, feel, and decide one immediately just after ending the final cup of tea without thinking. You may feel 'emergent solution' without a reason. That is the answer (called it Kakjingwan, 각진관수련, see 

Throughout the feeling of nine stages of life with enjoying nine cups of tea, an individual can reflect and anticipate 'meaning of life'. And this opportunity give a person to tune a life goal, which is a 'deep learning'. 

No word is necessary!  

Feel something good? 

That's the deep learning. 


1. Tea Ceremony:

2. Korean Tea Ceremony:

3. Definition of Kouksundo:

4. Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning:

5. Reflection:

국선도 행다법 한글 요약: 

국선도 수련체계는 몸, 마음, 그리고 심신 통합의 정각도, 통기법, 선도법에 각각 세단계씩 총 아홉단계로 되어있습니다.  

이러한 총 아홉단계에 맞추어 행다(行茶)를 합니다. 

먼저 차를 넉넉히 다관에 넣고 먼저 끓인 물을 숙우로 나누어 담고 한소끔 식힌 후 (70-80도) 약 1분간 찻잎을 씻어냅니다. 그리고 아홉차례에 걸처 차를 우려냅니다. 

각 잔을 마실 때는 향, 색, 미의 변화를 깊게 느끼면서, 아래와같이 나이에 따라 스스로가 변해가는 것에 대해 깊은 숨을 쉬면서 성찰하도록 합니다. 

첫째잔: 1-9세 : 매우 강한 향, 색, 미는 어릴 적 생동하는 기운을 뜻합니다. 

둘째잔: 10-19세: 조금 강한 향, 색, 미는 10대의 발랄하지만 설익은 기운을 뜻합니다. 

셋째잔: 20-29세: 제대로 우러난 향, 색, 미는 20대의 만발한 기운을 뜻합니다. 

넷째잔: 30-39세: 부드럽고 깊어진 향, 색, 미는 30대의 성숙한 기운을 뜻합니다. 

다섯째잔: 40-49세: 향, 색, 미는 옅어졌지만 완숙함에서 오는 기운이 드러납니다. 

여섯째잔: 50-59세: 향과 색은 많이 없어졌지만, 깊은 참맛이 느껴집니다. 

일곱째잔: 60-69세: 향, 색, 미는 미미하지만 완전히 조화되어 참기운이 느껴집니다. 

여덟째잔: 70-79세: 향, 색, 미는 거의 없으나 조화된 큰 기운이 느껴집니다. 

아홉째잔: 80-89세: 향, 색, 미는 이제 의미가 없고 오직 하늘과 땅과 사람이 온전히 하나된 기운만이 느껴집니다.  

사람의 일생 중, 40대나 50대에 큰 삶의 전환을 겪는 경우가 많습니다. 이와같이 인생의 큰 전환을 느끼기위해 다섯째나 여섯째 잔을 우려낼 때, 매화/국화/장미 등의 말린 꽃을 넣기도 합니다. 

이와같이 아홉단계의 행다(行茶)를 하면서 깊은 돌단자리 숨쉬기와 더불어 오직 차를 즐기는데만 오롯이 집중하는 것이 국선도의 행다법입니다. 이를통해 인생의 의미와 목적 그리고 어떻게 살아갈 것인가를 깊이 성찰하고 깊은 수준의 깨달음과 배움을 얻고자 하는 것입니다. 

2014년 5월 10일 


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Yesterday (Mar. 28, 2014), I visited Johnson & Johnson's headquarter at New Jersey. 

Throughout having a discussion with the Director of Global Learning , I was very impressed on J&J's strong emphasis on their Credo (J&J's Value). Because the Credo ranked the importance of their business value from 1) Customer > 2) Employee > 3) Community, to 4) Stockholders. By using this rank order, J&J makes decisions and develops people who are aligned with this value. 

Contrary to many American companies ranked the stockholder and customer the top rank, J&J ranks the employee and community above the stockholder. This maybe a secret of J&J's sustainable growth for more than 100 years. (^^)

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Meditation on A. Lincoln's Leadership. 

We can still learn something from a leadership Giant - Abraham Lincoln. 

Learning leadership from A. Lincoln (by Wall Street Journal, Feb. 24, 2014). 

1. Cite precedent.
2. Make your case. 
3. Humor helps. 
4. Principles first.
5. Be inclusive.

Photo: Looking to the Past: An 1860 portrait by George Peter Alexander Healy. The Granger Collection

Source: What Would Lincoln Do?: Modern-day leaders could learn a lot from our 16th president

In addition, I want to add one more. 
6. Believe in your people. 

From several visits at Lincoln Museum at Bloomington, IL, I could feel and smell Lincoln's strong belief in the natural born virtue of human race. The feeling from Lincoln's leftovers reinforced my belief in people.

J. Choi, 

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A Meditation: Big data requires Clear mind to realize a Big Idea. However, people frequently underestimate the importance of Big Mind and search for Big Idea from Big data. 

This can be understood by this example: Sun (Big Data) lighten up everything. 
A lens (Human mind), however, shows things what it is engaged in. To see more big big picture, we must clean up the lens (mind) to take a good picture. 

Stop, and breathe for a while to clean up mind. 
Comparing with information from the Sun, our big data is a small particle.

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McKinsey reported four major reasons of 'why leadership development programs fail'. 

1. Overlooking context

2. Decoupling reflection from real work

3. Underestimating mind-sets

4. Failing to measure results. 

And McKinsey suggests this solution: 1) Matching specific leadership skills and traits to the context at hand; 2) embedding leadership development in real work; 3) fearlessly investigating the mind-sets that underpin behavior; and 4) monitoring the impact so as to make improvements over time.

Photo source:

Overall, I agree with the McKinsey's points and solutions to increase effectiveness of Leadership development programs. 

But, I want to argue about one simple thing with this question. "Are current leaders (e.g. top-management) ready to invest future leaders?" 

In many research and and my personal experiences, incumbent leaders (top-management) 'superficially' give consent to developing future leaders meanwhile they 'have the fear to be replaced by future leaders' behind a curtain.  

Thus, managing the fear of current leaders' fear is the prerequisite condition for developing future leaders. 

P.S.) Special thanks to Bayasgalan Bayarmagnai for his sharing the article.

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Where Does Learning and Performance at the Workplace Occur?

My simple answer for the question of "Where does learning for job occur" is 70% occur on the "Job experience"; 20% on "Assessment"; 10% on Training, regardless of the medium of learning (online/offline). In this perspective, I argue that HRD professional is not the person who deals with only Training.


According to Lombardo, Michael and Eichinger (1996) at Center for Creative Leadership, there is a 70-20-10 rule for people development (see This indicates 90% of workplace learning occurs on the "Job" in unstructured manners. The S-OJT is an effort that structuring the unstructured learning on the job (Swanson & Holton, 2009). In supporting the idea of "Manager as a facilitator of learning" (Ellinger, 1999), the HRD professional must deal with Developing people on the job collaborating with frontline managers/leaders as well as the training.

Let's assume you need to train an experienced software engineer at Google. The engineer is in charge of developing an innovative product that does not exist yet. The engineer's burning desire is "Learning something to develop a brand new product in a more effective way". As a HRD professional, how can you address his/her desire for the job?

Unfortunately, HRD professionals commonly don't have sophisticated knowledge/skills/ability that are required for a specific job like the google engineer. However, HRD professionals can address the demand of development in a different way. HRD can help the engineer to have a meta-skills such as "Learning how to learn"; "Learning how to get people to work"; "Learning how to manage oneself". "Learning how to build a good relationship with peers".

In summary, majority of learning occurs at a specific "Job" rather than in the classroom at the workplace. The role of HRD professionals is to help individuals to get meta-KSAos that help them to develop job specific KSAos.

Lombardo, Michael M. and Robert W. Eichinger (1996) The Career Architect Development Planner. Lominger Limited, Inc. p. iv. ISBN 0965571211.

Swanson and Holton (2009): Foundations of human resource development. Wiley.

Ellinger (1999): Managers as facilitators of learning in learning organizations, HRDQ

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What does a leader must protect?: Learning leadership from Muskoxen defensive circle. (리더는 무엇을 지켜야 하는가? 들소로 부터 배우는 리더십)

The muskox is an Arctic mammal of the family Bovidae. Muskoxen primarily live in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland, with small introduced populations in Sweden, Siberia, Norway, and Alaska. 

Muskoxen have a distinctive defensive behavior: when the herd is threatened, the bulls and cows will face outward to form a stationary ring or semicircle around the calves. The bulls are usually the front line for defense against predators with the cows and juveniles gathering close to them. Bulls determine the defensive formation during rutting, while the cows decide the rest of the year. [from wikipedia]

Image source:

Here is a meditation on leadership. 

A leader is believed to protect 'us', viewing outward rather than inward. 

If there is a person who views and tries to rule over 'us', the individual is not a leader for us. 

However, we can observe many assigned leaders and managers view and intimidate us rather than protect us. 

Image source:

From the story of Muskox, we must aware that a leader is a person who takes responsibilities and risks to protect a group of persons, viewing outward. 

We, then, must identify and develop "our leaders" not "their agents". 

Because we (maybe cows and juveniles) must be protected from outside threats. 

Jeonghwan Choi, 

Tonghap (integral) Leadership Center

Dec. 14, 2013

In the snow storm of New York area. 


들소로 부터 배우는 리더십. 

머스크라는 북극 들소가 있습니다. 이 들소 무리는 포식자들이나 외부의 공격이 있는 경우 독특한 방어진으로 유명한데, 암컷과 새끼들을 숫소들이 삥 둘러싸고 침입자를 바라보면서 무리를 지키는 것입니다. 

여기서 리더십을 위한 배움을 얻을 수 있을 것 같습니다. 

바로 "리더는 바깥을 바라보면서 우리를 지킨다" 는 것입니다. 

하지만, 많은 경우 리더나 매니저들이 "우리" 를 바라보면서 지배하고, 통치하고, 길들이려 하는 것이 사실입니다. 이런 사람들은 "남의 앞잡이" 일 뿐, "우리 리더"는 아닐겁니다. 

들소의 사례로 부터 '리더는 우리를 지키기 위해 바깥을 바라보면서 책임과 위험을 떠안는 사람' 임을 명확히 알아야 하겠습니다. 그리고, 이러한 "우리 리더"를 알아보고 길러내기 위해 노력해야 하는 것의 중요성을 가슴깊이 새기고 행동해야 하겠습니다.

이것이 들소로 부터 배워야할 리더십 입니다.  

본초비담이란 웹툰은 단군시대에 연나라 침략을 받았을 때 단군의 병사들이 어떻게 외적의 침입을 막았는지에 대한 이야기를 담아내고 있는 만화입니다. 

[본초비담 목록보기: ]

아래 장면들은 단군조선의 대장군이 패수를 막다가 단군나라 백성들을 지키기 위해 대장군 스스로 몸을 방패삼아 백성을 지키고자 하는 장면입니다. 

[본초비담 2부 78화: ]

외적의 침입이 있을 때 마다 백성은 내팽개치고 자신의 안위만을 살피며 멀리 도망쳤던 고려와 조선 이후의 특히 현대의 위정자들의 처신과 비교해볼 대목입니다.

우리는 언제나 다시 남의 나라 "앞잡이"들이 아닌 진정한 "우리 리더"를 가져볼 수 있을까요? 

조국이 하수상한 시절, 멀리서도 안녕하지 못한 관계로 푸념을 늘어놓습니다. 



2013년 12월 14일 

뉴욕/뉴저지에 불어닥친 눈폭풍 속에서, 

Image source: 본초비담 2부 78화:

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. ~ Alvin Toffler 

According to a English dictionary (google dictionary), unlearn is defined as "discard (something learned, esp. a bad habit or false or outdated information) from one's memory." Or unlearn is defined as "to forget and stop doing (something, such as a habit) in a deliberate way because it is bad or incorrect (Merriam-Webster)". 

My question about learning and unlearning is "When we have to learn and unlearn?" 

And my simple answer is "Whenever we learn, we have to unlearn." Because learning and unlearning is a coin (human cognition, affection, and behavior)'s double sides. 

More thoughts from others. 

10 Life Lessons You Should Unlearn

Importance of unlearning

Organizational Learning and Unlearning: 

"The study investigates how issues related to organizational unlearning affect each of the four stages of the transfer process, namely initiation, implementation, ramp-up, and integration. Its findings indicate that organizational unlearning is an important source of stickiness in inter-organizational knowledge transfer."

Posted by Jeonghwan Choi

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