Cost of Doing Nothing About Growing Problem >> Cost of Proposal


Dr. Robert Reich proposed the concept of 'Cost of Doing Nothing'. 


He reasoned the "Cost of Doing Nothing" is much larger than the "Cost of Proposal". 

I interpreted this as "The preventive cost (a.k.a. preventive investment)" is much smaller than "Problem cost". 


Let's do something good to avoid unnecessarily high "cost of doing nothing" .


The mammoth costs of doing nothing or too little

It's time to change the way we think about public policy




Dec. 07, 2021, Dr. Jeonghwan (Jerry) Choi




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Three NO!


No Citizenship

No Planning

No Confrontation



Three Too Much! 


Too much Self-interest

Too much Show-off (pretending, face)

Domination rather than Persuasion. 





2021. Dec. 02: Flash summary


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완전히 성장한 어른만 채용 하는 7가지 기준


외부 기준: 



상호이익 우선




내부 기준: 


명확한 미래상

확고한 가치관





  • Seven Criteria to Hire Fully Formed Employees
    • Takes responsibility for their life and blames nobody else
    • Think Win-Win
    • Disciplined Listening


    • Have clear vision, mission, and purpose
    • Have a clear values and priorities
    • Not only tolerate differences but also respect varied opinions, perspective, and experiences
    • Have multi-dimensionality


Fully formed adults. 


That’s the criteria for getting hired at Netflix. Or at least it was in the early years when Patty McCord was the chief talent officer. In my interview with her for FranklinCovey’s On Leadership series, she talked about the genesis of the now-famous Netflix Culture Deck. A key standard for hiring was fairly simple—were you a fully formed adult? Patty also suggested that Reed Hastings, the CEO, challenged the idea by stating, “It’s a journey; nobody is truly formed.” But at least they should be well on their way.

What does a fully formed adult look like? Since my wife will read this, I’ll admit upfront I certainly don’t qualify—but in the immortal words of the late U.S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart when describing obscenity, “I know it when I see it.”

A fully formed adult? I know it when I see it.

Immediately a list of traits comes to mind:

  • Someone who takes responsibility for their life and blames nobody else. They recognize that their life, successes, and failures are byproducts of their decisions, not their circumstances. They calibrate their emotions and don’t overreact to other people’s crisis and insecurities.
  • They have a vision for what their life looks like and have discovered, or are uncovering, their mission and purpose. They build the capacity to look long term and think strategically about their decisions and actions.
  • These people are clear on their values and priorities and align their time, attention, and energy toward them. Their ability to resist the lure of urgency addiction is undeniable.
  • They enter all relationships, projects, meetings, and every interpersonal interaction thinking about how everyone can succeed. They truly want what’s best for everyone, while recognizing that’s not always possible and can, when needed, say no or agree to part ways, diplomatically with relationships intact.
  • While recognizing the value of strong verbal communication skills, they also understand the role empathy plays in all relationships and strive to achieve that through more disciplined listening skills. They selflessly invest in listening to others’ situations and points of view without interrupting, judging, or jumping to conclusions.
  • They do not just tolerate differences, they actually value and respect varied opinions, perspectives, and fields of experiences. Their level of personal maturity drives a balance of curiosity and respect for other people, including and especially those most unlike themselves.
  • They’re multi-dimensional. They live balanced lives by varying their interests and continually building their skills in every area of their life while encouraging others to do the same.

Those seven points are what quickly comes to my mind when I think about a fully formed adult.

About the Author

Scott Miller is a 23-year associate of FranklinCovey and serves as the executive vice president of thought leadership. Scott hosts multiple podcasts including FranklinCovey’s On Leadership and Great Life, Great Career. Additionally, Scott is the author of the multi-week Amazon #1 New Release: Management Mess to Leadership Success: 30 Challenges to Become the Leader You Would Follow. Scott authors a weekly leadership column for and is a frequent contributor for Thrive Global. Previously Scott worked for the Disney Development Company, having grown up in Central Florida, and currently lives in Salt Lake City, Utah, with his wife and three sons.


Fully Formed Adults

Fully formed adults. That’s the criteria for getting hired at Netflix, or at least it was in the early years. Scott Miller shares 7 things that all fully formed adults have in common.





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A study indicates that the US college-educated employee's salary increases as the number of foreign-born H1B holders increases in a US city. 

Contrasting to the general belief of "Immigrants steals US jobs", the study results tell the highly education foreign born STEM talents contribute creating high paying jobs in the US

Michio Kaku, a physicists, argues that a powerful secret weapon of the US is H1B. 
H1B attracts 'STEM Talents' from all over the world, and it creates and sustains the innovation capability of the US society. 

However, I want to point out one missing step that transform a foreign born H1B holders to innovation makers in the US. 

"Respect of the Diversity" is the root competency of the US society that attract worldwide STEM talents 
If the US society lose the source of attraction, the US society will encounter a significant discrepancy of 'innovation momentum', which would result in economic and social depression. 

Diversity is a root source of attraction of a society. Let's respect, keep and elaborate it.  

Jeonghwan Choi

Skilled Foreign Workers a Boon to Pay, Study Finds

Research Shows Immigration Benefits for U.S.-Born, College-Educated Employees

"Want a pay raise? Ask your employer to hire more immigrant scientists.

That's the general conclusion of a study that examined wage data and immigration in 219 metropolitan areas from 1990 to 2010. Researchers found that cities seeing the biggest influx of foreign-born workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics—the so-called STEM professions—saw wages climb fastest for the native-born, college-educated population." 

A Secret Weapon of the US: H1B! 

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We may not be able to be the most competitive person. 
But we definitely can be the most "Attractive" person. 
Let's be bright, gentle, confident, and disciplined !
가장 경쟁력있는 사람이 되긴 거의 불가능할지 모른다. 
하지만, 가장 매력적인 사람이 되는 건 누구나 가능하다. 
밝고, 친절하며, 자신감있고, 잘 정돈된 사람이 되어보자.

Jeonghwan Choi, 


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A good rifle for a wrong target: a problem of HRD field of study. 

[맞아죽을 각오로 쓰는 인재개발분야 (HRD) 문제점.] 

Having a good and reliable rifle gives a shooter a great chance to reach a target. However if a shooter targets a wrong target, a good rifle is useless, even worse it is frequently harmful

A wrong targeting problem is observed in HRD field of study. 

Prior to describing my claims, I define HRD is “a process of developing work‐based expertise and unleashing human capabilities for the benefits of an individual, organization, community, nation, or, ultimately, the whole of humanity whereby multi‐level stakeholders collectively influence people and organization to achieve common goals (efficiently) through training & development, organization development, career development, performance improvement, organizational learning, and leadership development.“

According to the definition, HRD field of study has a great potential to lead people to a right direction as like having a good and reliable rifle. However, the purpose of HRD is not frequently attained in the real workplace not because of the contents of HRD, but because of a wrong targeting. 

So, what is the right target for HRD? 

I am insisting that "Frontline managers and organizational leaders such as executives who want to develop their people" are the right target population for HRD. 

Here are my claims.  

First, Frontline managers and Executives have a fatal flaw in developing people. According to a recent empirical study, the most common area of weakness for ineffective senior leaders is their ability to develop others. This fact clearly suggest HRD must address the need of developing people skills for Frontline manager and Executives than any other populations.

Second, the People development skill, the most burning requirement for Frontline managers and Executives, is a conceptual skill rather than technical or social skills, which integrates multiple skill sets such as Training, Organizational Change/Development, Career Development, and Leadership Development. As shown in the following figure, conceptual skills are highly required along with a person's getting a higher ranking within an organization. Thus, HRD skill development must be targeted on the high rank personnels. 

Third, Frontline manager and Executives have influencing powers to realize the purpose of HRD. Many HRD scholars have insisted that HRD must be a strategic partner in decision making process. However, the strategic role of HRD have hardly observed in the field. This is because of lack of influencing powers of HRD personnels what Frontline managers and Executives have. 


So, what? 

Here are my suggestions for HRD professionals. 

First, HRD should Target to the Frontline managers and Executives for developing "people development skills" rather than entry level employees to have specific knowledge. 

Second, HRD should let the Frontline managers and Executives do the HRD function rather than intervene directly. According to the 70-20-10 rule for people development, 90% of people development is occurring on the "Job" while only 10% people development is occurring in the classroom. So, let the Frontline managers and executives take the major responsibility of people development in their jobs. The HRD role should be limited in supporting Frontline managers and Executives to perform people development in their daily managerial tasks. 

Third, HRD should Stay in the supportive function, and it should Be independent from daily and routine works. HRD is a long term action, which requires the antecedent planning and preemptive execution. Immediate and short-term works frequently hinders the long-term goal achievements through people development. So, HRD professionals should make an extra effort to be independent from a short-term goal orientation of Frontline managers and Executives. HRDers must give "Insights and Directions" rather than immediate "Knowledge and Skills". 

Finally, HRD should make special efforts to Transform and Develop Frontline managers and Executives as HRDers. Who are HRD professionals? Individuals who hold a HRD master/PhD degree? Sorry but Nope!. A HRD professional is a person who actively engage in developing people. Thus, anyone who is engaging in developing people is an HRD professional. Having specific HRD theories and knowledge is not sufficient. HRD professionals must engage in real people development functions. In this perspective, Frontline managers, Executives, or post-MBAs are the best candidates for being the best HRDers. Let's develop Frontline managers and Executives as the best HRDers. 


In this essay, I cordially pointed out a wrong targeting problem in HRD field of study. While current HRD function targets developing entry level employees, I am insisting that the real target for HRD is the populations of Frontline managers and executives. I suggest that HRD professionals must stay in supporting function with a high level of independency from daily works within organizations in order to focus on long-term planning and developing people for achieving long-term goals. In addition, I suggest HRDers should make extra efforts to transform and develop Frontline managers, executives, and post-MBAs as professional HRDers. 

Feb. 09, 2014

Jeonghwan Choi, PhD, MBA, ME

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People must be assessed by what they have "taken", but not by what they have been "given". 

사람은 그가 무엇을 스스로 "얻어가졌는가" 로 평가되어야지, 그가 무엇을 이미 "받았는가"로 평가되어선 안된다. 

Dr. Choi's Tonaghap Leadership Center. 

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Achtung Bitte!! (Warning) in translating the article. 

Your Employees Want the Negative Feedback You Hate to Give from Harvard Business Review

I cordially do not agree the definition of negative feedback used in this article.

Generally, negative feedback examples are "being removed from a job or suffering some adverse consequence due to poor performance or receiving more or less direct indications of dissatisfaction from co-workers or the supervisor" (Herold, David M., and Martin M. Greller. "Research Notes. Feedback: The definition of a construct." Academy of management Journal 20.1 (1977): 142-147.)

The suggested corrective feedback, simply translated into negative feedback seems constructive, and simply 'positive feedback' rather than negative feedback.

However, the article gives an important insight. Employees wants more corrective (I prefer to constructive) feedback. 

Please give your people to have more constructive feedback like followings: 
1. Call suggestions for improvement, 
2. Explorations of new and better ways to do things, or 
3. Pointing out something that was done in a less that optimal way.

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Seniors are not expenses, but they are potentials. 

Sen. Liz Warren argues that a society need to support seniors because they already paid for a society through their whole lives. And I want to add my idea. Seniors are not expenses, but they are potentials that are still needed to be unleashed for more knowledge, culture, and 'spirit' of a society. In order to cultivate and utilize these valuable potentials of seniors have, a society definitely need to make a "social investment". 

Photo: Sen. Elizabeth Warren, 



 워렌, 미국 상원의원이 최근 미국의 노령자 복지혜택 축소에 대해 문제를 제기했습니다. 단지 산술적 계산으로 노인을 위한 복지를 축소하는 것은, 그 분들이 평생에 걸쳐 사회를 위해 기여한 "가치"를 무시한 처사라고 비판하여, 미국 사회의 중추인 중산층을 보호하기 위해서라도 노인을 위한 복지를 강화해야 한다고 주장하였습니다. 

이에 제 생각하나를 더해 봅니다. 

노인/노령자 는 "비용"이 아니라, "지식, 문화, 그리고 한 사회의 근간을 이루는 "정신"의 "수호자" 이자 이러한 사회적 가치를 가진 "원석" 으로서 더욱 활용되어야 한다고 생각합니다. 이를 위해서라도 노인/노령자들에게 "사회적 투자"를 하는 것이 당연하지 않을까요? 

J. Choi, 

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We need to ask "Who built the North Korean nukes?" 

We may not ask an important question about recent North Korean Nuclear threat. 

"Who built the Nukes?" 

Photo source:

While many people focus on the north Korean political leaders, Scientists and Engineers who have built nukes and tested them have been unseen. We don't have any information about North Korean scientists and engineers. 

In the perspective of human resource development, it is a big mystery that "how North Korean scientists and engineers were developed" under the very oppressive work environment. 

Is this just because of 'top-secret' in a dark nation? Or we just have ignored it? 

Tao Te Ching chapter 62 says "Achieve greatness in little things." 

Understanding of North Korean HRD for Scientists and Engineers is a tiny thing, but it can give us an important clue to resolve a big problem.

A South Korean newspaper reported several scientists and engineers who developed North Korean Nukes. 

A Short History of North Korean Nuke Development.

According to the report, Nuke development in NK was led by several scientists and engineers who came from south Korea late 1940s. Doh, SangRok and Lee, SeungKi are two of them. 

Since 1953 (end of Korean war), more than 300 scientists and engineers were sent to Soviet Union to learn theories and practices of Nuke. Seo, SangGook - one of 300 and Dean of Physics department of Kim Il-Sung university in Pyongyang had led the first nuke test in 2006. 

These 300 scientists and engineers - the second generation - have committed and led development NK Nukes. 

I assume that many NK nuclear scientists and engineers should be old enough to retire, and new generation has not been fully developed because of tough economic situations, international sanction and isolation during 1980s's ~ 1990's.  

However, NK will sustain nuke capability at least 20 years before end of the 2nd generation of scientists and engineers. 

We may have three options to address NK nuclear threat. 

First, South Korea resumes developing Nuke to deter North Korea. 

Second, Taking a surgical strike on Nuke facility before it really become a visible threat. 

Third, Admitting NK as a legitimated power, and softly lead her to transformation. 

Personally, I would like to transform NK scientists and engineers to commit economic development rather than military development to flourish their economy. 

NK scientists and engineers need to commit their talents to flourish their people's social and economic development rather than to commit protecting dictating regime. 

Feb. 12, 2013

Jeonghwan Choi, 

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Stahl et al. (2011) introduced "Talent Management Wheel" model to attract and develop the very best employees for global business. 

Researchers of the study argue that 'mimicking the best HR practices' does not make the best talent management, rather adhering six principles : (1) alignment with strategy, (2) internal consistency, (3) cultural embeddedness, (4) management involvement, (5) a balance of global and local needs and (6) employer branding through differentiation make the best talent management for leading organizations. 

(see :

The article proposed that there are two different approaches in practicing talent management system: The differentiated approach (GE's vitality curve practice) and the inclusive approach (Shell's universal talent concept). 

One very interesting and compelling principles for talent management wheel is "Principle 4: Management Involvement." 

The authors claimed that "best practices for talent management are only best when they're applied in a given context; what works for one company may not work in another." 

In order to integrate and develop the best talent for an organization is totally dependent on the manager's involvement in the process of talent management, authors said. 

The cases of Jack Welch and Lafley's severe engagement in developing talents within their organizations supports the importance of manager's involvement in talent management. 

A. G. Lafley, former CEO of Procter & Gamble, claims he used to spend one-third to one-half of his time developing talent. He was convinced that “[n]othing I do will have a more enduring impact on P&G’s long-term success than helping to develop other leaders.”

The most important top managers role, currently, is the managing and developing the best talents within their organizations. 

J. Choi. 

About the Study: 
This paper is based on a multiyear collaborative research project on global talent management practices and principles by an international team of researchers from INSEAD, Cornell, Cambridge and Tilburg universities. The research looked at 33 multinational corporations, headquartered in 11 countries, and examined 18 companies in depth. We selected the case companies based on their superior business performance and reputations as employers, as defined through Fortune listings and equivalent rankings (e.g., the “Best Companies for Leadership” by the Hay Group and Chief Executive magazine).

The case study interviews were semi-structured, covering questions about the business context, talent management practices and HR function. We interviewed HR professionals and managers and also a sample of executives and line managers in an effort to understand the ways companies source, attract, select, develop, promote and move high-potential employees through the organization. A second stage of research consisted of a Web-based survey of 20 companies. The survey contained items on six key talent management practice areas (staffing, training and development, appraisal, rewards, employee relations, and leadership and succession) and the HR delivery mechanisms (including the use and effectiveness of outsourcing, shared services, Web-based HR, off-shoring and on-shoring). Ultimately, we received a total of 263 complete surveys from the Americas, Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Africa.


By Günter K. Stahl, Ingmar Björkman, Elaine Farndale, Shad S. Morris, Jaap Paauwe, Philip Stiles, Jonathan Trevor and Patrick Wright

December 21, 2011

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According to Lombardo, Michael and Eichinger (1996) at Center for Creative Leadership, there is a 70-20-10 rule for people development. 

Many leading organizations such as GE and Oracle build human resource development policy bases on the 70-20-10 rule. 

Harvey (2010) claims that people tends to plan taking formal learning courses for developing human resources. But majority learning comes from real work experience and feedback, appraisal, and assessment from others (see following figure). 

In order to develop people in an organization, people need to consider the rule of 70-20-10. 



1. Lombardo, Michael M. and Robert W. Eichinger (1996) The Career Architect Development Planner. Lominger Limited, Inc. p. iv. ISBN 0965571211.

2. Harvey, P (2010) How people actually develop.
In order to develop and to promote learning and change in an organization, people need to write a personal career development plan with the rule of 70-20-10. 

The 70/20/10 Model in learning and development is

^ Lombardo, Michael M. and Robert W. Eichinger (1996) The Career Architect Development Planner. Lominger Limited, Inc. p. iv. ISBN 0965571211.

2. Letter from CCL (Nov. 2011) 

Source: The 70-20-10 Rule

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Peter Cafalleli, the George W. Taylor professor of management at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School and director or Wharton's Center for Human Resources, published a special article at Wall Street Journal on Oct. 24 2011 (see the below full website) 

In his article, he argues that "the conventional wisdom is that our education system is failing our economy. But our companies deserve a lot of the blame themselves." 

First, Prof. Cafallelli insists that "The perceptions about a lack of skilled workers are pervasive, but the provlem is an illusion" He clearly describe the reason of shortage of skilled labor is not a "real shortage" of skilled labor problem, but the shortage of affordable jobs for skilled job candidates. Employers greedy attitude and tendency to 'hire the best people with minimal wages' make the problem happen.

Second, training shortage for job candidates are significantly prevails in the U.S. society. Despite employers' complains about the education system, college graduates are pursuing more vocationally oriented course work than ever before. And companies don't seem to do training anymore. High increasing numbers of unpaid internship or minimal paid job for on-the-job experiences shows the fact that companies averse risk of training and do not invest on training people for their own purposes. Couter-example for the U.S. can be found in Europe. European countries views that the trainings, apprenticeship opportunities, and other vocational education programs are mandatory ones and infrastructures for economic prosperity. U.S. need to change views to training and development of workforces as fundamental infrastructure 

Third, three solutions to address the 'real' shortage of skilled workforce are suggested. 

1. Work with education providers
2. Bring back aspects of apprenticeship
3. Promote from within. 

The author tells that employers should proactively involve and dedicate in designing and tailoring curriculums for training job candidates in schools. Apprenticeship opportunities should be given to job candidates within employers' organizations. Finally, employers should organize work for newly hired employees by providing proper projects that help them learn new skills for organizations. 

Employers should invest Human Resource Development than Human Resource Management to form competitive workforce in order to coincide company self-interest and societal interest! 

These ideas from Dr. Peter Cafelli are coherent with my article about "The problem is the corporation's education rather than the college education." Please see my article as well.


Why Companies Aren't Getting the Employees They Need

The conventional wisdom is that our education system is failing our economy. But our companies deserve a lot of the blame themselves.

Everybody's heard the complaints about recruiting lately.

Even with unemployment hovering around 9%, companies are grousing that they can't find skilled workers, and filling a job can take months of hunting.

Employers are quick to lay blame. Schools aren't giving kids the right kind of training. The government isn't letting in enough high-skill immigrants. The list goes on and on.

But I believe that the real culprits are the employers themselves.

With an abundance of workers to choose from, employers are demanding more of job candidates than ever before. They want prospective workers to be able to fill a role right away, without any training or ramp-up time.
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What we, Human Resource Development professionals and adult educators, assume for establishing the best workplace for learning and development. 

The ten principles for ethic labor & good work.

(1) Self-direction (Good work is a labor of risk),
(2) The job is a place of learning (Work as a research laboratory),
(3) Work variety (Freedom from repetitive burden),
(4) Workmate cooperation (Overcoming the fractured social relations of the workplace),
(5) Individual work is a contribution to social welfare (Serving the public good),
(6) Work is an expression of self (Workers are more than a sum of their behaviors),
(7) Work is a democratic expression (Freedom from the tyranny of authoritarian power),
(8) Workers are participants in the operation of an enterprise (Until workers are participants, talk of workplace cooperation rings hollow),
(9) Play is a virtue that must be incorporated into work (Play is a path to freedom and fairness), and (10) Better pay for workers (There is growing disparity between managers and workers)

Kincheloe, J. How Do We Tell the Workers? The Socioeconomic Foundations of Work and Vocational Education. Boulder, Colorado.: Westview Press, 1999. (pp. 65–69).

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The 25 Most Influential Business Management Books

There's never a shortage of new books about how to be more effective in business. Most of them are forgettable, but here are 25 that changed the way we think about management — from the iconic "How to Win Friends and Influence People" to groundbreaking tomes like "Guerilla Marketing" and quick reads like the "The One Minute Manager".



Read more:,29569,2086680,00.html#ixzz1VUokVNRy,29569,2086680,00.html#ixzz1VCm5oYmw

Full List


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